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Three levels of design


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A summary of the book "Emotional Design" from Norman, chapter 2: design in practise: Three levels of design

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Three levels of design

  1. 1. THREE LEVELS OF DESIGN<br />visceral | behavioral | reflective<br />
  2. 2. MEANING levels of design<br />VISCERAL = the automatic prewired layer<br />BEHAVIOURAL= process that controls everyday behaviour<br />REFLECTIVE = the contemplative part of the brain<br />
  3. 3. THREE LEVELS of design<br />Play part in shaping one’s experience<br />Important<br />Require a different approach by the designer<br />
  4. 4. VISCERALDESIGN<br />visceral | behavioral | reflective<br />
  5. 5. QUOTE visceral design<br />“ Package designers and brand managers are looking beyond graphic elements or even the design as a whole to forge an emotional link between consumers and brands ”<br />The entire success of a product <br />PACKAGE, not content<br />
  6. 6. BOTTLE OF WATER<br />
  7. 7. VISCERAL DESIGN what?<br />Is what nature does<br />Powerful emotional signals from the environment are automatically interpreted at this level<br />Culturally <br />Perception of “pretty”<br /> Visceral design is all about emotional impact<br />
  8. 8. DOMINATING FACTORS<br />LOOK<br />FEEL <br />SOUND<br />
  9. 9. DOMINATING FACTORS<br />Physical features<br />LOOK<br />FEEL<br />SOUND<br />This principles are wired in, consistent across people and cultures<br />
  10. 10. VISCERAL DESIGN where?<br />Advertising<br />Folk<br />Crafts<br />Children items<br />
  11. 11. VISCERAL DESIGN: how?<br />About initial reactions<br />Studied <br />Putting people in front of a design <br />Waiting for reactions<br />What is the reaction the visceral designer strives for?<br />I want it<br />What does it do?<br />How much does it cost?<br />
  12. 12. BEHAVIORAL DESIGN<br />visceral | behavioral | reflective<br />
  13. 13. BEHAVIORAL DESIGN what?<br />“Use and performance”<br />Four components<br />Function<br />Understandability<br />Usability<br />Physical feel<br />
  15. 15. FUNCTION<br />Comes first<br />Product  To fulfil needs<br />Tricky<br />
  16. 16. TRICKY<br />Question: what does a product do, what function does it perform?<br />Answer: it has to fulfil needs<br />Difficult: why ?<br />People’s needs are not as obvious as might be thought<br />Importance for designers<br />Designers have to watch their customers <br /> to understand how they will use a product<br />
  17. 17. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT<br />Enhancement<br />= making an existing product or service better<br />Easiest: comes primarily by watching how people use what exists today<br />Innovation<br />= completely new way of doing something that was not possible before<br />Difficult to access: cannot be evaluated by asking potential customers for their views<br />
  18. 18. CAR CUPHOLDERS<br />
  19. 19. BEHAVIORAL DESIGN<br />UNDER-<br />STANDING<br />
  20. 20. UNDERSTANDING<br />The secret <br />= to establish a proper conceptual model<br />Three mental images<br />Designer’s model<br />User’s model <br />System image <br />= conveyed by the product and written material (advertising and manuals)<br />The system image of the final design conveys the proper user model<br />
  21. 21. FEEDBACK <br />“Component of understanding”<br />To givecontinual feedback<br />Computer<br />Amazing: manyproductsgive inadequate feedback<br />To beeffective? <br />Enhance the conceptual model<br />Indicatingprecisely<br />Whatis happening and whatyetremains to bedone<br />
  23. 23. USABILITY<br />Complex topic<br />“a product that does what is required and is understandable, may still not be usable”<br />E.g. guitars, violins, piano<br />Usage = the critical test of a product:<br />How well does the product perform?<br />How comfortable does it feel to use?<br />Challenge = UNIVERSAL DESIGN<br />
  25. 25. PHYSICAL FEEL matters<br />Designers worry a lot about the physical feel of their product<br />Make huge difference in our appreciations<br />They are critical to our behavioural assessment of a product<br />Physical feel matters: why?<br /> We are biological creatures: interaction between our sensory systems and the environment<br />
  26. 26. + BEHAVIORAL DESIGN +<br />Human-centered<br />Understanding and satisfying the needs<br />Observation<br />Visceral and behavioural reactions are subconscious<br />Make us unaware of our true reactions and their causes<br />
  27. 27. REFLECTIVE DESIGN<br />visceral | behavioral | reflective<br />
  28. 28. REFLECTIVE DESIGN what?<br />Message, culture, meaning of a product<br />The image we present to others<br />The essence of reflective design: it’s all in the mind of the beholder<br />
  29. 29. QUESTION functionvsfashion<br />
  30. 30. ATTRACTIVENESS BEAUTY<br />Attractiveness<br />Visceral level<br />The response is entirely to the surface look of an object<br />Beauty<br />Reflective level<br />It is influenced by knowledge, learning and culture<br />Advertising<br />can work at either the visceral or the reflective level<br />
  31. 31. REFLECTIVE LEVEL product<br />Shows person’s overall impression<br />Customer relationships play a major role<br />A good relationship  reverse a negative experience<br />Is about long-term customer experience<br />Service<br />Providing a personal touch<br />Warm interaction<br />
  32. 32. THE DEVIOUS SIDE OF DESIGN<br />visceral | behavioral | reflective<br />
  33. 33. HUMAN-CENTERED DESIGN<br />Test product withpotentialusers<br />Meaningfor the salesperson = reverse<br />= anopportunity to present themselves as rescuers<br />The solutionthroughconfusion is a pure playonemotions<br />For fashion: emotions are key<br />
  34. 34. SALESSTRATEGY supermarkets<br />Put the most frequently desired items at the rear of the store<br />Why?<br />Forcing buyers to pass by isles of tempting impulse purchases<br />Regularly rearrange the store<br />To visit the whole store<br />Difficult to buy the most desired items<br />
  36. 36. REFLECTIVE THOUGHT<br />Websites and products  no guarantee for success<br />Conflict between the preferences of<br />the popular audience <br />the intellectual and artistic community<br />The best designs come from following a cohesive theme throughout, with a clear vision and focus<br />
  37. 37. CONCLUSION<br />A human-centered approach works well for behavioural design, but it is not necessarily appropriate for either the visceral or the reflective side<br />Conclusion:<br />If you want a successful product, test and revise<br />If you want a product that can change the world: let it be driven by someone with a clear vision<br />
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