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The lexical approach


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The lexical approach

  1. 1. The Lexical Approach <ul><li>This approach was developed by Michael Lewis (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to the belief that the building blocks of language learning and communication are not grammar, functions or notions or some other unit but lexis. </li></ul><ul><li>In  linguistics , a lexis (from the Greek:  λέξις  &quot;word&quot;) is the total word-stock or lexicon having items of lexical, rather than grammatical, meaning. </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Lexical Approach <ul><li>For this approach, vocabulary has the central role in linguistic description. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach establishes that the centrality of lexicon to language structure and the importance of lexical units or “chunks” that are learned and used as single items. </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical units Words </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-fixed Expressions </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Lexical Approach <ul><li>The role of collocations is also important in lexcally based theories of languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations refer to the regular use of words together. Do my hair/the cooking/my work </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Lexical Approach <ul><li>Richards and Rogers have established the importance of corpus database on the analysis of language, especially large-scale computer database. </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus: A body of utterances, as words or sentences , assumed to be representative of and used for lexical, grammatical, or other linguistic analysis. (pl. Corpora) </li></ul><ul><li>Concordancer: a computer software that analyses corpora </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Lexical Approach <ul><li>The assumption of native speakers having a great package of phrases in their lexical inventory has made the second language learning uncertain. </li></ul><ul><li>Regarding this, Krashen suggests that massive amounts of “language input”, especially through reading. According to this author it is the only effective approach to such learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Others propose making the language class a laboratory in which the students can explore with different kind of words combinations and research about their use in context. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Lexical Approach <ul><li>Others propose teaching lexical units that have no equivalent in the student’s mother tongue. </li></ul>Assumptions about learning theory <ul><li>Encountering new learning items in several occasions is a necessary but sufficient condition for learning to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Noticing lexical chunks or collocations is a necessary but not sufficient condition for”input” to become “intake” </li></ul><ul><li>Noticing similarities, differences, restrictions and examples contribute taking input into intake, although formal descriptions of rules does not help. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assumptions about learning theory The Lexical Approach <ul><li>Acquisition is based not on the application of formal rules but on an accumilation of examples from which learners make provisional generalizations. Language production is the product of previously met examples, not formal rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Noticing lexical chunks or collocations is a necessary but not sufficient condition for”input” to become “intake”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Lexical Approach Teaching and classroom activities. <ul><li>Classroom procedures generally involve acticities in which the learner pays attention to lexical collocations and seek to enhance their retention and use of collocations. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should develop class activities that enable learners to discover collocations themselves, both in the classroom and in the language they encounter outside the classroom. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Lexical Approach Teaching and classroom activities. <ul><li>Classroom procedures must include: </li></ul><ul><li>* Teaching individial collocations </li></ul><ul><li>* Making students aware of colocations </li></ul><ul><li>* Extending what students already know by </li></ul><ul><li>adding knowledge of collocation restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>to know vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>* Storing collocations through encouragin </li></ul><ul><li>students to keep a lexical notebook. </li></ul>