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Planning For Success Quality Management


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Understanding the who, what, why, and when of quality is essential in implementing an effective Quality Program. It requires a combination of distinct disciplines: Quality Assurance, Quality Control, and Quality Improvement. They are three unique disciplines which, when used together, can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of any organization leading to reduced cost and increased customer satisfaction.

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Planning For Success Quality Management

  1. 1. Software Quality Management<br />Jolene Eichorn<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Pursuit of Quality
  3. 3. Quality Assurance
  4. 4. Quality Control
  5. 5. Quality Improvement
  6. 6. Implementing a Quality Management Program
  7. 7. Business Value</li></li></ul><li>The Pursuit of Quality<br /><ul><li>Quality is something that is taken for granted when you have it and cursed when you don't
  8. 8. Quality is often not seen as a value add 
  9. 9. Quality is often neglected to meet schedule constraints
  10. 10. Quality builds giants and nearly destroys them (Toyota)
  11. 11. Quality does not happen by chance
  12. 12. Quality must be premeditated and carefully planned to be effective  </li></ul> <br />What if we were to pursue quality? What would it look like? How would it be defined? How much would it cost ... or would it save?<br />
  13. 13. Concern for Quality <br />What if Quality provided<br /><ul><li>Competitive advantage?
  14. 14. Increased customer satisfaction?
  15. 15. Controlled costs?</li></ul> What if poor Quality<br /><ul><li>Was one of the most common reasons for schedule overruns?
  16. 16. Was implicated in close to half of all canceled projects?</li></ul> <br />
  17. 17. The Cost of Quality<br /><ul><li>In 1996, there were 200 million calls for technical support. At an average of about $23 per call, the industry spent about $4.6 billion on these calls. 
  18. 18. Over the past 7 years, the ratio of support to total employees in hardware and software companies has grown from 1 in 12 to 1 in 6. 
  19. 19. The average $3 million project costs companies using poor requirements practices an average of $5.87 million per project -- a $2.24 million premium. IAG Consulting's new Business Analysis Benchmark , 110 projects at 100 companies surveyed</li></ul> <br />
  20. 20. Balancing Efficiency & Effectiveness<br />Cycle Time<br />Reliability<br />Measured<br />Customer Driven – Value Defined<br />
  21. 21. Goal<br />Increase the efficiency of <br />Solution Delivery Life Cycle activities, the effectiveness of the participants, <br />and the quality of the deliverables.<br />
  22. 22. Definition of Quality <br /><ul><li>Quality is the ability of your product or service to conform to your customer's:
  23. 23. wants
  24. 24. needs
  25. 25. expectations
  26. 26. requirements
  27. 27. Quality must be measurable when it occurs
  28. 28. Quality should be predictable when it occurs
  29. 29. Quality in design means realization of purpose or fitness for use. </li></li></ul><li>SDLC Software Quality Management<br />Software Quality Assurance<br />Quality<br />Business Value<br />Software Quality Control<br />Align with RUP<br />Ensure Software Quality (SQA)<br />Software Quality Improvement<br />
  30. 30. Quality Assurance<br />“... a process for providing adequate assurance that the software products and processes in the product life cycle conform to their specific requirements and adhere to their established plans.” IEEE Standard 12207<br /> <br />“A planned and systematic means for assuring management that the defined standards, practices, procedures, and methods of the process are applied.” CMMI, SEI<br />“The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.” ASQ<br />The focus is on the process used to create the deliverable<br />
  31. 31. Quality Assurance<br />
  32. 32. Quality Control<br />“The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality.” ISO 8402-1994<br />“The observation techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.” ASQ<br /> <br />  <br />  <br />The focus is on the deliverable itself. <br />
  33. 33. Quality Control<br />Mechanisms:<br />Testing process, test tools<br />
  34. 34. Quality improvement<br />Changing a process to improve the reliability of an outcome. Methods for quality improvement include:<br /><ul><li>Kaizen
  35. 35. Six Sigma
  36. 36. IEEE
  37. 37. TQM 
  38. 38. TRIZ 
  39. 39. CMMI
  40. 40. ITIL</li></li></ul><li>Quality IMPROVEMENT<br />Mechanisms:<br />COBIT, CMMi, 6, Lean<br />VAL IT, ITIL, TRIZ<br />
  41. 41. Quality improvement<br />
  42. 42. Balancing Speed & Quality<br />Cycle Time<br />Reliability<br />Lean<br />Create Value<br />Eliminate Waste<br />Strategic Focus<br />6<br />Improve Quality<br />Reduce Variation<br />Improve Predictability<br />Measured<br />Customer Driven – Value Defined<br />
  43. 43. Balancing Speed & Quality<br />Implementing Lean programs to reduce time and cost may be ineffective without predictable processes built through Quality Management, thereby preventing Lean goals from being met. <br />In addition, quality process automation can have an enormous impact on efficiency and quality. <br />
  44. 44. Quality ImprovementLean Principle 5 - Perfection<br />Pursue Continuous Improvement / Strive for Excellence of SE Processes<br /> Do not ignore the basics of Quality:<br /><ul><li>Build in robust quality at each step of the process, and resolve and do not pass along problems.
  45. 45. Strive for perfection in each process step without introducing waste
  46. 46. Do not rely on final inspection; error proof wherever possible
  47. 47. If final inspection is required by contract, perfect upstream processes pursuing 100% inspection pass rate
  48. 48. Move final inspectors upstream to take the role of quality mentors
  49. 49. Apply basic PDCA method (plan, do, check, act) to problem solving
  50. 50. Adopt and promote a culture of stopping and permanently fixing a problem as soon as it becomes apparent.</li></ul>LEfSE were developed by the Lean Systems Engineering Working Group of INCOSE (International Council for Systems Engineering). Version 1.0 was released at the INCOSE IW, San Francisco, March 1, 2009.<br />
  51. 51. QA versus QC<br />
  52. 52. QA versus QC<br />
  53. 53. A Quality management program<br /><ul><li>Ensures that:
  54. 54. An appropriate methodology is in place
  55. 55. Projects use standards and procedures
  56. 56. Independent reviews and audits are performed
  57. 57. Documentation is produced during development
  58. 58. Change controls are in place
  59. 59. An inspection process is leveraged
  60. 60. Feedback is provided to team
  61. 61. Noncompliance issues are addressed</li></li></ul><li>Quality Assurance<br />The purpose of Quality Assurance is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products.<br /><ul><li>A QA group that is independent of the project provides objectivity
  62. 62. Everyone performing QA activities should be trained in QA
  63. 63. Those performing QA activities for a work product should be separate from those directly involved in developing or maintaining the work product
  64. 64. An independent reporting channel to the appropriate level of organizational management must be made available
  65. 65. QA should begin in the early phases of a project to establish plans, processes, standards, and procedures that will add value to the project and satisfy organizational policies</li></ul>CMMI, Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement, Mary Beth Chrissis, Mike Konrad, Sandy Shrum<br />
  66. 66. Quality Assurance Services<br />
  67. 67. Quality Assurance Roles<br />
  68. 68. Quality Control<br />The purpose of Quality Control is to validate and verify that software program/application/products:<br />meet the business and technical requirements that guided its design and development<br /> works as expected<br /> can be implemented with the same characteristics<br /><ul><li>A QC group that is independent of the those that developed, or maintain the work product, provide objectivity.
  69. 69. QC provides an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks at implementation of the software.
  70. 70. QA and QC may address the same work product, but from different perspectives.</li></li></ul><li>Quality Control Services<br />
  71. 71. Quality Control Roles<br />
  72. 72. Business Value<br />Quality is a differentiator<br />Organizations typically build the software and systems that make them unique, while they purchase applications for automating common business functions that do not demand differentiation from competitors. <br />The bottom line is:<br />Consistent delivery of high-quality software will set an organization apart from its competition.<br />The business value of software quality, Geoffrey Bessin,<br />
  73. 73. Business Value<br />Quality enables innovation<br />It is quality in development and maintenance of software that makes it possible for the business to react, adapt, and deploy quickly. If there is any breakdown, any inefficiency, any lack of quality, then the organization will fail to reach the market in a timely fashion and the organization will find itself at a competitive disadvantage.<br />The bottom line is:<br />High quality software facilitates innovation by increasing predictability, lowering risk and reducing rework, resulting in happier customers and more revenue.<br />The business value of software quality, Geoffrey Bessin,<br />
  74. 74. And Best of All - Quality is Free!<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />*Philip Crosby was so convinced of this  that he titled one of his books Quality is Free, since the major costs of quality are the costs associated with poor quality.  <br /> <br />When the amountsaved by avoiding defects rises faster than the amountinvestedto avoid defects, quality is free*<br />
  75. 75. Business Value<br />Quality is free<br />What is the cost of high quality? Is high quality free? <br />Improved quality enables teams to deliver more projects on time, at lower cost, with more features. By preventing defects in the system throughout the entire development process, a team eliminates the time and cost required to find and fix those defects later on.<br />The business value of software quality, Geoffrey Bessin,<br />
  76. 76. Business Value<br />Reworking a software requirements problem once the software is in operation typically costs 50 to 200 times what it would cost to rework the problem in the requirements stage.<br /> <br />Because potentially a: <br />  <br />Currently, over half of all errors are not found until “downstream” or during post sale software use. This occurs even though 80% of development costs are spent on defect removal.<br /> Boehm and Papaccio 1988<br />
  77. 77. Savings can be huge<br /> Each hour spent on Inspections avoided an average of 33 hours of maintenance, and inspections were up to 20 times more efficient than testing. - Russell 1991, study done on large programs<br /> Every major defect found at Inspection will save 9 hours of downstream correction effort. – Reeve, 1991<br /> Software Quality Inspections have been found to produce net schedule savings of 10 to 30%. - Gilb and Graham 1993<br />Most of the 78 organizations that participated in the National Quality Experiment have seen a ROI of 2:1 to 8:1 on investment in Inspections. – O’Neill, 2001<br />
  78. 78. Conclusion<br />Understanding the who, what, why, and when of quality is essential in implementing an effective Quality Program. It requires a combination of distinct disciplines:<br />They are three unique disciplines which, when used together, can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of any organization leading to reduced cost and increased customer satisfaction.<br />
  79. 79. About the author<br />Solution Delivery<br /><ul><li>Over 20 years of experience in delivering solutions that optimize tool automation investments, improve productivity, quality, transparency and alignment between business and IT. </li></ul>Program Turnaround<br /><ul><li>Specializes in requirements quality assessments and disentanglement of challenged programs. </li></ul>Capability Maturity <br /><ul><li>Brings practical knowledge of requirements management best practices and promotes requirements maturity across large organizations. </li></ul>Quality <br /><ul><li>Works with organizations and project teams to improve capabilities by implementing Lean Six Sigma process improvements, effective requirements practices, dashboard reports, and formalizing requirements change management. </li></ul>Contact Information:<br />Jolene Eichorn, Software Quality Practitioner<br />
  80. 80. 改善CHANGE FOR THE BETTER<br />