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Developmental
Psychology
By
Mr. Johny Kutty Joseph
Assistant Professor
Shri Mata Vaishno Devi College of Nursing
Developmental Psychology
The study of YOU from womb to tomb.
We are going to study how we change physically,
socially, cog...
Nature Versus Nurture
While going
through this unit
always been in
the back of your
head….
Are you who you
are because of:...
Psychology of a Child during Infancy
& Early Childhood (0-5 years)
The special features of behavioral pattern at this
age ...
Psychology of a Child during Infancy
& Early Childhood (0-5 years)
• Period of make believe and fantasy: they live in
thei...
Psychology of a Child during Infancy
& Early Childhood (0-5 years)
• Mental development: developing curiosity and
question...
Psychology of a Child during later
childhood(6-12 years)
The special features of behavioral pattern at this
age are;
•Crav...
Psychology of a Child during later
childhood(6-12 years)
• Developing social tendency: playing in group,
mutual cooperatio...
Psychology of a Child during later
childhood(6-12 years)
• Intellectual development: power of reasoning,
thinking, observa...
Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years)
• Perplexity with regards to somatic variation: the
flow of blood during menstruat...
Secondary Sexual Characteristics
• Menarche for girls.
• First ejaculation
for boys.
Widening of the Hips
Deeper Voice Bre...
Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years)
• Intensification of self awareness: there is an
increased desire that their bodil...
Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years)
• Peer Group relationship: spend more time with
peer. Increased loyalty towards ow...
Psychology of Early Adult (20-40 years)
• All physical abilities essentially peak by our mid
twenties.
• Jobs and Career.
...
Psychology of Middle Adult (40-60 years)
• Slow decline in physical strength, energy, and
enthusiasm.
• Irritability, depr...
Psychology of Late Adult (60 onwards)
• Deterioration in physical health: DM, HTN, Heart
diseases, etc.
• Changes in perce...
Erik Erikson
• A neo-Freudian
• Worked with Anna
Freud
• Thought our personality
was influenced by our
experiences with ot...
Trust v. Mistrust
• Can a baby trust the
world to fulfill its
needs?
• The trust or
mistrust they
develop can carry on
wit...
Autonomy V. Shame & Doubt
• Toddlers begin to
control their bodies
(toilet training).
• Control Temper
Tantrums
• Big word...
Initiative V. Guilt
• Word turns from
“NO” to “WHY?”
• Want to understand
the world and ask
questions.
• Is there curiosit...
Industry v. Inferiority
• School begins
• We are for the first
time evaluated by a
formal system and our
peers.
• Do we fe...
Identity v. Role Confusion
• In our teenage years
we try out different
roles.
• Who am I?
• What group do I fit
in with?
•...
Intimacy v. Isolation
• Have to balance
work and
relationships.
• What are my
priorities?
• Marriage: At least a
5 to 1 ra...
Generativity v. Stagnation
• Is everything going
as planned?
• Am I happy with
what I created?
• Mid –life crisis!!!
Integrity v. Despair
• Look back on life.
• Was my life
meaningful or do I
have regret?
PSYCHOLOGY
OF
VULNERABLE
INDIVIDUALS
 Vulnerability: It is the susceptibility of being
physically or emotionally wounded.
 These are the individuals more vul...
Psychology of such vulnerable individuals is
explained here under following headings-
1.Sick/ailing persons.
2.Women.
3.Ch...
SICK
•Their dependence on others may make them to
feel humiliated and small in the eyes of the
members of their families a...
SICK
• Patients suffering from physical diseases will
have a lot of anxiety, worry, tensions, doubts
about their disease, ...
WOMEN
Education and employment of women have brought
several changes.
Legislations have altered rights of women in terms...
WOMEN
 Women’s total dependence on men has decreased. Men
are yet to accept these changes in role relationships.
Even wom...
WOMEN
The main health problems of women are identified as
High maternal mortality rate
High maternal morbidity rate
Low...
CHALLENGED
This is generally applied to individuals who are
facing problems regarding their adjustment,
development and we...
Children with motor disabilities are
orthopedically handicapped, having physical
defect or deformity that causes interfere...
Psychologically these physically challenged may show many
maladaptive reactions such as
self pity
 stubbornness
 shynes...
 Such children need to be counselled to accept
their disability to handle the negative
emotions.
 Getting them involved ...
MENTALLY CHALLENGED
Mentally challenged is the term used in place of
mentally retarded.
Mentally challenged children are t...
 It will be appropriate to consider the treatment or
remedial measures for the adjustment, rehabilitation
and education o...
SOCIALLY CHALLENGED
•These includes delinquents, criminals, drug
addicts, alcoholics etc.
•They fell inferior, isolation a...
ROLE OF NURSE
•Showing tolerance and patience.
•Learning skilled way of dealing with vulnerable.
•Providing needed guidanc...
PSYCHOLOGY OF GROUPS
Group is defined as Collection of two or more inter-
dependent individuals who usually fee, think and
act together.
Charac...
TYPES OF GROUPS
• We-group and Others-group.
• Primary group (intimate) and Secondary group
(professional groups).
• Organ...
GROUP DYNAMICS
• It is the interactive psychological relationship in
which the members of a group develop a
common percept...
FORMING
Group members look to the leader for direction.
Members are sizing each other up – checking out
personalities an...
STORMING
• This stage is characterized by tension,
competition, and conflict among group members.
• Questions arise about ...
NORMING
• Conflicts are resolved and there is a
stronger sense of belonging to the group.
• Creativity is high.
• People k...
PERFORMING
• Now the group is in high gear and highly
productive. The need for group approval is past.
• Group members can...
ADJOURNING/ RE-FORMING
• This stage occurs when the tasks are completed
• And there no longer need for the group to exist....
Principles of Formation of Group
• Physical proximity or closeness.
• Interaction among individuals.
• Similarity in attit...
Factors influencing group behaviour
• Sympathy: it helps in perceiving psychological
state of another person. It helps in ...
THANKS
FOR
PATIENCE
Unit 6 developmental psychology
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Unit 6 developmental psychology

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Unit 6 developmental psychology

  1. 1. Developmental Psychology By Mr. Johny Kutty Joseph Assistant Professor Shri Mata Vaishno Devi College of Nursing
  2. 2. Developmental Psychology The study of YOU from womb to tomb. We are going to study how we change physically, socially, cognitively and morally over our lifetimes.
  3. 3. Nature Versus Nurture While going through this unit always been in the back of your head…. Are you who you are because of: • The way you were born- Nature. • The way you were raised- Nurture.
  4. 4. Psychology of a Child during Infancy & Early Childhood (0-5 years) The special features of behavioral pattern at this age are; •Dependency on Others: depending on parents and family members for basic needs. Children expects to be loved and cared. They require the attention of parents. •Self assertion: Children tries to dominate elders though they are dependent. Children think that they are always right and all should obey him/her.
  5. 5. Psychology of a Child during Infancy & Early Childhood (0-5 years) • Period of make believe and fantasy: they live in their world of creation. Increased fantasy and limited potentials are seen. • Selfish and Unsocial: Not sharing the toys with others. Do not want love of the parents to be divided. Also thinks that he/she should be only cared at home. • Emotionally unstable: violent emotional experiences can be expected. All the emotional expression are intense, frequent, and unstable. Not able to hide any feelings at this age.
  6. 6. Psychology of a Child during Infancy & Early Childhood (0-5 years) • Mental development: developing curiosity and questioning attitude. Concrete thinking not developed. Time concept not developed. • Sexual Development: though the sexual organs are not developed the tendency starts developing. The infant pass through three stages such as self love, homosexual and heterosexual. Eg. Sucking the thumb, touching sexual organs, love for parents etc.
  7. 7. Psychology of a Child during later childhood(6-12 years) The special features of behavioral pattern at this age are; •Craving for Independence: feels more at home with the world and takes satisfaction by doing his work with his own efforts. Tries to be independent from parents and he considers parents as the people to just provide food and shelter. •Emotional Stability and control: the child learns to hide his feelings. learns to express the emotions an appropriate and socially acceptable manner.
  8. 8. Psychology of a Child during later childhood(6-12 years) • Developing social tendency: playing in group, mutual cooperation, team spirit, group loyalties etc. • Realistic attitude: accepting the realities of life. No more believe in the world of fantasy and fairy-tales. • Formation of sentiments and complexes: various sentiments like religious, moral, patriotic etc are developed in this age • Sexual development: more friendly with own sex group as in latency stage. Boys tend to show
  9. 9. Psychology of a Child during later childhood(6-12 years) • Intellectual development: power of reasoning, thinking, observation, concentration, perception imagination are developed. • Development of interest and aptitude: likes and dislikes are formed. Such likes and dislikes for books, television shows. Boys show adventurous activities while girls shoe softness and feministic features.
  10. 10. Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years) • Perplexity with regards to somatic variation: the flow of blood during menstruation creates worries among girls and give birth to many fears and anxieties. It makes them introvert and secretive. For both bys and girls appearance and bodily conditions which is not keeping with the norms of normalcy will cause anxiety. Girls want to look feminine and be attracted to boys. Boys want to be manly in order to gain prestige. We can also observe the secondary sexual characteristics at this stage.
  11. 11. Secondary Sexual Characteristics • Menarche for girls. • First ejaculation for boys. Widening of the Hips Deeper Voice Breast Development Body Hair
  12. 12. Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years) • Intensification of self awareness: there is an increased desire that their bodily changes should be noticed by elders. More attention is given towards dresses, make-up, manner of talking, walking, eating etc. want to become the centre of attraction for the opposite sex and violence also may be made for it. • Intensification of sex-consciousness: menstruation and ejaculation. Beginning of masturbation and homosexuality. • Independence Vs Dependence: self decision, maturity. Require more freedom, thrill and adventure. Widened social circle.
  13. 13. Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years) • Peer Group relationship: spend more time with peer. Increased loyalty towards own group. • Idealism Vs Realism: thought of reformation of world. Less religious, questioning the system.
  14. 14. Psychology of Early Adult (20-40 years) • All physical abilities essentially peak by our mid twenties. • Jobs and Career. • Relationship and Marriage. • Separated from family, less emotional dependence on the parents. • Size of the family and education of children. • Role and status in the community and family. • More exploration, identification and establishing self, dreams, vision etc.
  15. 15. Psychology of Middle Adult (40-60 years) • Slow decline in physical strength, energy, and enthusiasm. • Irritability, depression, insomnia, and weight gain. • Adjust with menopause. • Feel that clock is ticking faster and a worry whether I have done my work to satisfaction.
  16. 16. Psychology of Late Adult (60 onwards) • Deterioration in physical health: DM, HTN, Heart diseases, etc. • Changes in perception: lack of vision, hearing, smell etc. • Changes in cognitive dimension: memory loss, dementia etc. • Changes in social dimension: more solitary, loss of spouse, etc • Changes in emotionality and temperament: more irritable, short tempered, fearful, anxiety, feeling of isolation.
  17. 17. Erik Erikson • A neo-Freudian • Worked with Anna Freud • Thought our personality was influenced by our experiences with others. • Stages of Psychosocial Development. • Each stage centers on a social conflict.
  18. 18. Trust v. Mistrust • Can a baby trust the world to fulfill its needs? • The trust or mistrust they develop can carry on with the child for the rest of their lives.
  19. 19. Autonomy V. Shame & Doubt • Toddlers begin to control their bodies (toilet training). • Control Temper Tantrums • Big word is “NO” • Can they learn control or will they doubt themselves?
  20. 20. Initiative V. Guilt • Word turns from “NO” to “WHY?” • Want to understand the world and ask questions. • Is there curiosity encouraged or scolded?
  21. 21. Industry v. Inferiority • School begins • We are for the first time evaluated by a formal system and our peers. • Do we feel good or bad about our accomplishments? • Can lead to us feeling bad about ourselves for the rest of our lives… inferiority complex.
  22. 22. Identity v. Role Confusion • In our teenage years we try out different roles. • Who am I? • What group do I fit in with? • If I do not find myself I may develop an identity crisis.
  23. 23. Intimacy v. Isolation • Have to balance work and relationships. • What are my priorities? • Marriage: At least a 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative interactions is a clear indicator of a healthy relationship.
  24. 24. Generativity v. Stagnation • Is everything going as planned? • Am I happy with what I created? • Mid –life crisis!!!
  25. 25. Integrity v. Despair • Look back on life. • Was my life meaningful or do I have regret?
  26. 26. PSYCHOLOGY OF VULNERABLE INDIVIDUALS
  27. 27.  Vulnerability: It is the susceptibility of being physically or emotionally wounded.  These are the individuals more vulnerable or exposed to the possibility of being attacked, harmed or wounded either physically or psychologically.
  28. 28. Psychology of such vulnerable individuals is explained here under following headings- 1.Sick/ailing persons. 2.Women. 3.Challenged individuals.
  29. 29. SICK •Their dependence on others may make them to feel humiliated and small in the eyes of the members of their families and care giving relatives or friends. •They may turn into chronic victims of anxiety, worries, fear and phobias. •They may become suspicious about their care and treatment. •They have a tendency to complain about everything such as food, comfort.
  30. 30. SICK • Patients suffering from physical diseases will have a lot of anxiety, worry, tensions, doubts about their disease, quality of treatment, cost of treatment and improvement in conditions. • Similarly patients with psychological disorders whether the disease is of mild or of severe nature; need sympathy, warmth, concern of nurses. These things will help them a lot in forgetting their worries and to get early cure and relief. • They have loss of self image and self confidence. • Their interest and attitude also may be changed.
  31. 31. WOMEN Education and employment of women have brought several changes. Legislations have altered rights of women in terms of inheritance, opportunities and rights have radically altered roles of women. Still there is a gap between what is legally possible, and the reality, there are signs of change. But still in country like India where traditions are dominating the lifestyle of people, the gender differences and stereotypes are continuing. Women are considered as homemakers and nurturers.
  32. 32. WOMEN  Women’s total dependence on men has decreased. Men are yet to accept these changes in role relationships. Even women may find it difficult to adjust to new roles.  They Are Expected To be Passive, Submissive and Dependent.  All these things have created a different women psychology. She may not be expressing her feelings, emotions, needs and other things so openly like men.  There are intrinsic differences between males and females based on their genes or reproductive physiology, which confer differential risks of morbidity.
  33. 33. WOMEN The main health problems of women are identified as High maternal mortality rate High maternal morbidity rate Low life expectancy at birth Menstrual disorders Mental disorders High suicide rate Malnutrition etc. This situation is to a great extent the result of family structure and the relatively low socioeconomic status, discrimination and disregard of female health even during illness.
  34. 34. CHALLENGED This is generally applied to individuals who are facing problems regarding their adjustment, development and well being on account of their disabilities, abnormalities or malfunctioning. They could be broadly classified into 2 groups: (a)Motor disabilities (b) Sensory disabilities.
  35. 35. Children with motor disabilities are orthopedically handicapped, having physical defect or deformity that causes interference with the normal functioning of the bones, joints and muscles. Children with sensory disabilities will have handicaps such as blindness, mutism and deafness. This lead to poor development of intelligence due to lack of stimulation.
  36. 36. Psychologically these physically challenged may show many maladaptive reactions such as self pity  stubbornness  shyness  refusal to use prosthetic devices  inferiority feelings  demanding extra attention  using handicap as an excuse  feeling of helplessness  jealousy/sibling rivalry  negative emotions like anxiety and depression. Children sometimes blame themselves or their parents for their problems.
  37. 37.  Such children need to be counselled to accept their disability to handle the negative emotions.  Getting them involved in support group.  Developing positive attitude towards prosthetic device is essential.  Remedial teaching or training may be necessary to over come weaknesses.  Children will have to be taught effective conflict resolution skills and social skills.  Confidence building will help them overcome feelings of inferiority and shyness.
  38. 38. MENTALLY CHALLENGED Mentally challenged is the term used in place of mentally retarded. Mentally challenged children are those with subnormal level of intelligence. They will have low power of thinking, reasoning, learning and understanding. They will have limited interests and aptitudes but no creativity. Usually the children having below 70 IQ level are considered mentally challenged.
  39. 39.  It will be appropriate to consider the treatment or remedial measures for the adjustment, rehabilitation and education of the mentally retarded.  Psychological treatment in the form of individual and group therapy is found to be useful.  Children can be helped in solving problems of emotional and social adjustment and resolving their mental conflicts through psychological measures.  It is very important that, parents be given training to take proper care of such children.  Provisions may be made for special education and training.
  40. 40. SOCIALLY CHALLENGED •These includes delinquents, criminals, drug addicts, alcoholics etc. •They fell inferior, isolation and hesitation. •They are always in war with self and society. •We may expect anti-social and unethical behavior from them.
  41. 41. ROLE OF NURSE •Showing tolerance and patience. •Learning skilled way of dealing with vulnerable. •Providing needed guidance and counseling.
  42. 42. PSYCHOLOGY OF GROUPS
  43. 43. Group is defined as Collection of two or more inter- dependent individuals who usually fee, think and act together. Characteristics: • Existence of two or more than two members. •Interdependence in relationship. •Common Goal. •Group Loyalty. •Definite set of values or norms. •Demonstration of group behavior.
  44. 44. TYPES OF GROUPS • We-group and Others-group. • Primary group (intimate) and Secondary group (professional groups). • Organized and spontaneous. • Formal (rigid rules, values and norms) and Informal(liberty, freedom of action and informal relationship).
  45. 45. GROUP DYNAMICS • It is the interactive psychological relationship in which the members of a group develop a common perception based on feelings and emotions. These inter - simulative relationship may be described by the term group dynamics.
  46. 46. FORMING Group members look to the leader for direction. Members are sizing each other up – checking out personalities and talents of other members. Members focus their discussion on the task at hand, not worrying about relationships. Feelings going through members include insecurity, nervousness. They are asking themselves “do i belong?”, “Will i be accepted by the group?”
  47. 47. STORMING • This stage is characterized by tension, competition, and conflict among group members. • Questions arise about who is responsible for what and what the rules are. • Some members may remain silent while others attempt to dominate. • Some members question authority and competency of the group leader • The group leader has to raise the conflict issue and deal with it.
  48. 48. NORMING • Conflicts are resolved and there is a stronger sense of belonging to the group. • Creativity is high. • People know where they fit in and what is expected of them.
  49. 49. PERFORMING • Now the group is in high gear and highly productive. The need for group approval is past. • Group members can now focus on the task and care for other members of the group. • Group identity is complete, group morale is high, and group loyalty is intense.
  50. 50. ADJOURNING/ RE-FORMING • This stage occurs when the tasks are completed • And there no longer need for the group to exist. • This stage includes • Recognition for participation (awards) • And an opportunity for group members to say good bye. (Closure) • With the dissolving of the group, new leaders are needed to take on the new tasks, so a new group forms.
  51. 51. Principles of Formation of Group • Physical proximity or closeness. • Interaction among individuals. • Similarity in attitudes. • Similarity in interests. • Similarity in purpose. • Group attraction. • Serving specific purpose. • Similarity in occupation or means of livelihood. • Distress or stressful situations. • Security.
  52. 52. Factors influencing group behaviour • Sympathy: it helps in perceiving psychological state of another person. It helps in feeling together. It acts as persuading for many group activities. • Suggestion: suggestion helps in collective thinking. A group requires support as well as opposition from the same group. Suggestions helps in it. • Imitation: this is explained as following group members in common actions. The superior or leader makes others to follow him/her
  53. 53. THANKS FOR PATIENCE

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