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Unit 4 frustartion, conflicts and stress


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frustration, conflicts, stress

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Unit 4 frustartion, conflicts and stress

  1. 1. FRUSTRATION, CONFLICT AND STRESS By Mr. Johny Kutty Joseph
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Needs., Drives or motives play an important role in the motivation of human behavior.  Repeated failure in attaining the goal further aggravates the situation leading to frustration that may end in the person’s maladjustment, abnormality and mental illness.  It is the typical fight going on between one's need and motives.
  3. 3. MEANING AND DEFINITION  Man is ambitious in nature.  We have many aspirations and desires to be fulfilled, and we plan and strive hard for its realization.  We may sometime end with repeated failures.  According to GOOD “Frustration means emotional tension resulting from the blocking of a desire or need.  According to Coleman “Frustration results when our motives are thwarted either by some obstacle that blocks or impedes our progress towards a desired goal or by the absence of an appropriate goal.
  5. 5. A. EXTERNAL FACTORS.  Physical Factors: Natural Calamities such as floods, tsunami, earthquakes, fire accidents etc. Obstacle such as traffic jams, crowded lines at the supermarket, droughts that destroy a farmer crops, noise that prevents concentration, floods that delay us in our travel. These can disturb human life.  Social and societal factors: The rules and regulations of the Parents, society, locality, culture and belief may control the desire and motive of people. Restrictions imposed by other people laws, customs, norms of society. Eg. Inter-caste or religious marriages, certain
  6. 6. A. EXTERNAL FACTORS.  Economic Factors: Financial factors. Eg. Unemployment, lack of food and water, other severe economic deprivation.  Individual’s own limitation: Lack of specific abilities, physical handicaps.
  7. 7. B. INTERNAL FACTORS.  Physical abnormality or defects: Too big or too small stature, very heavy or thin body, ugly face, dark complexion, bodily defects like squint eye, blindness, deaf, dumb etc. cause frustration.  Conflicting desires or aims: frustration by obstructing mutual aims and goals. Eg. A person may be interested in marrying a girl whom he loves but he wishes to go abroad by marrying another girl.  Individual’s morality and high ideals: An individual’s moral standards code of ethics and high ideals may become a source of frustration. He is always caught between Superego and Id. Eg. A person may be afraid to make girl friends,
  8. 8. B. INTERNAL FACTORS.  Level of aspiration too high: one may aspire very high in spite of one’s in capabilities or human limitations. Eg. A person dream to become the captain of a cricket team but does not even know the basics of the game.  Lack of persistence and sincerity in efforts: frustration may be caused due to weakness in putting continuous persistent efforts with courage enthusiasm and will power at one’s command. Eg. Reading a book without interest and complaining that book is not understandable. He also complains of inability of grasping power.
  9. 9. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION: SIMPLE  Increasing trials and improving efforts: During frustration some people go into introspection and try to overcome obstacles either by increased efforts or improvement of behaviour.  Adopting Compromising means: repeated failure force people to change the direction efforts. If no medicine nursing would do.  Withdrawal : the individual learns to move away from the situation that causes him frustration. Behaviours such as asking for a transfer or quitting a job. Refuse to marry in case of sexual incompetency.  Fixation : An employee blames others and
  10. 10. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION: SIMPLE  Regression : Behaving in an immature and childish manner and may self-pity (to feel sorry for oneself).  Physical Disorder : Physical ailments such as fever, upset stomach, vomiting, etc.  Apathy : Becoming irresponsive and disinterested in the job and his co-workers.  Submissiveness: Here the individual surrenders himself and accepts his defeat. A child become submissive in a thing after repeated failure.
  11. 11. REACTION TO FRUSTRATION: VIOLENT  External aggression; This aggression may be directed towards either the person or persons who caused the frustration or toward the substitutes. An employee may quarrel with his boss for not getting promotion or rebuke his wife and children. Showing the enmity in one or other manner.  Internal Aggression: an aggression turned towards self. Instead of releasing the tensions on others it is self directed. Blaming self. Eventually the person becomes neurotic or tries to find escape through suicide.
  12. 12. CONFLICT  This term is commonly used. There may be conflicts between two cultures, religions, or organizations.  Conflict means a painful emotional state which results from a tensions between opposed and contradictory wishes. (Douglas)  Internal conflicts are indecisiveness in making choices between opposing or contradictory desires.  One of the confusing things about frustration and conflict is that each may be the consequence of the other. Ex. Boy meets girl, asks for a date and is turned down: result—frustration. Should be ask again
  13. 13. FOUR TYPES OF CONFLICT 1. Approach – approach 2. Avoidance – avoidance 3. Approach – avoidance 4. Double/multiple approach
  14. 14. APPROACH - APPROACH  This type of conflict occurs when the individual has two desirable but mutually exclusive goals.  A conflict between two desired gratifications as when a youth has to choose between two attractive and practicable careers, may lead to some vacillation but rarely to great distress.  Eg. Read an interesting novel: go for games  Eg. Selection of one girl for marriage from two beautiful girls.  Eg. Loyal to wife: Loyal to mother +G ←P→ +G
  15. 15. AVOIDANCE - AVOIDANCE  This type of conflict occurs when there are two undesirable situations but cannot avoid one without encountering the other.  Conflict whereby one must choose between two more or less equally undesirable or unattractive goals.  Eg. a situation where you have to decide between doing unwanted homework (avoidance) or doing unwanted house chores (avoidance).  Not interested to study: not interested to disappoint he parents by failing in examination.- →P← -
  16. 16. APPROACH - AVOIDANCE  The conflict occurs when a person is both attracted and repelled by the same object , person or situation. This is difficult to resolve. The person is attracted to a goal that has both positive and negative values.  It occurs when there is one goal or event that has both positive and negative effects or characteristics that make the goal appealing and unappealing simultaneously.  Eg. To marry or not to marry, to purchase something or not. It is severe and give rise to anxieties and complexes. ±GP
  17. 17. DOUBLE/MULTIPLE APPROACH  In real life, the individual frequently is faced with having to choose between two (or more) goals, each of which has both attracting and repelling aspects.  Since the tendency is to either approach or avoid each of the goals, this pattern is called double approach-avoidance.  Eg. Choosing a house in the country means fresh air, room to live, peace and quiet. It also means many hours of commuting to work in heavy traffic and long distances from city amenities and cultural events.Job Offer Job OfferP
  18. 18. SOURCES OF CONFLICT  We understand conflict as creation of dissatisfaction felt by an individual due to non- fulfillment of two contradictory motive. We may categorize these as the following;  Different motives of life stages. (four categories)  Home environment.  School environment.  Occupational environment.  Social and cultural environment.
  19. 19. DIFFERENT MOTIVES OF LIFE STAGES In our society today, there are motives which are most pervasive and difficult to resolve. These motives generally occur between the following areas: 1. Independence vs. dependence 2. Intimacy vs. isolation 3. Cooperation vs. competition 4. Impulses expression vs. moral standards
  20. 20. Independen ce vs. dependence  In time of stress we may want to resort to the dependence characteristics of childhood, to have someone take care of us and solve our problems. But we are taught that the ability to stand on our own and assume responsibilities is a mark of maturity.  The desire to be close to another and to share our innermost thoughts and emotions may conflict with the fear of being hurt or rejected if we expose too much of Intimacy vs. isolation
  21. 21. Cooperation vs. competition Competitions begins in early childhood, among siblings continues through school, and culminates in business and professional rivalry. At the same time, we are urged to cooperate with the help of others. Such contradictory expectations have the potential for producing conflict. All societies have to regulate impulses to some degree. Sex and aggression are two areas in which our impulses most frequently conflict with moral Impulses expression vs. moral standards
  22. 22. HOME ENVIRONMENT  Unpleasant school or college, dominant role of teachers, faulty methods of teaching, denial of opportunities for self expression, contradictory demands of teachers and classmates are the basics of conflicts for youngsters. SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT  The faulty upbringing at home and unhealthy /unpleasant relationship among the members of the family are the potential sources of conflicts for children.  Overprotection, dominance, and negligence by parents make the children shy and social phobic.
  23. 23. OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT  The taboos, inhibitions, and the negative attitude towards sex are causes of many sex conflicts in the minds of our youth as well as adults .  Frustration suffered due to the lack of opportunities is also responsible for many conflicts.  The rules and regulations of the society also SOCIAL & CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT  Improper working environment, dissatisfaction with the working conditions and career fulfillment, unsatisfactory relationship with colleagues or authorities, lack of salary and security etc.
  24. 24. CONFLICT RESOLUTION  Accept each desire as it arrives without judgment or resistance.  Remove the barriers for making your own choices out of the conflicting desires. It may heightened emotional blockade and for this we cab adopt mediation, play therapy etc.  In a cool mind think the goals of your life, the purpose of the desire and choose the better one in tune with inner voice and socially acceptable as well as morally sound.  Follow the opted desire with full zeal and enthusiasm and do it with pleasure and live in it.  Postponing the desires should be always temporary.  Believe in the concept of balanced compromise.
  25. 25. “STRESS”
  26. 26.  Stress can come from any situation or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, nervous, worried and tense .  It can be defined as an internal condition causing tissue damage far beyond daily wear and tear of living.  We define stress as an internal state which can be caused by physical demands on the body (disease conditions, exercise, etc) or by environment and social situations which are evaluated as potentially harmful, uncontrollable or exceeding our resource for coping. WHAT IS STRESS?
  27. 27.  A stressor may be defined as any stimulus that occurs in sufficient amount to cause stress. Stressors are classified as the following;  External/Environmental stressors: it mainly includes uncongenial conditions at home, neighborhood, community, and work places. It also include mutual rivalries, fighting, improper behavior, unnecessary criticism frustrated living etc. it also includes natural and manmade catastrophies such as earthquakes, floods, loss of loved ones, robbery, cheating communal violence etc. WHAT ARE STRESSORS?
  28. 28.  Internal/ Psycho-physiological stressors: a. Type of personality: type A: They always remain in hurry, competitive, ambitious, workaholics and time conscious. b. It also depends on people with weak psyche and damaged self confidence. They are always anxious, fearful and negative in thinking. c. People with low stress tolerance capacity. The easily get stressed due to minor changes in day-to-day life. d. Physiological factors like poor health, sleeping disorder, alcoholism, drug addiction etc. WHAT ARE STRESSORS?
  29. 29. STRESS CYCLE Generation of stress Source of stress (internal or external) Distress (discomfort, unhappiness, nonproductivity) Physiological and Psychological damage to body Stress overloading and persistence
  30. 30. EFFECTS OR OUTCOMES OF STRESS Immediate effects Long term effects Behavioural changes •Nervousness, panic reactions. •Alcoholism & smoking •Restlessness & sleep disorders. •Forgetfulness & Obesity •Drug addiction Physiologic al changes •Increase muscular tension. •Change in HR & BP •Problems in digestion and elimination •HTN, heart disease, ulcer etc. Emotional changes •Anger, fear, jealousy, hatred. •Anxiety, restlessness. •Lack of interest in love making and social intimacy. •Depression, Phobias, Personality changes and other mental illness. Cognitive Decreased concentration Memory problems, OCD,
  31. 31. ADAPTATION TO STRESS  The individual after receiving alarming signals about the impact of stress tries to resist the negative effects of the stress by the following mechanisms;  Biological adaptation: changes in the nervous system and endocrine system: increased muscle tone, pumping stored sugar into blood, change in breathing, perspiration etc.  Psychological Adaptation: There are two: Task oriented adaptations and ego defense oriented adaptation:  Task Oriented adaptation: we handle stress bringing change in self and altering environment. We may use attacking behavior, withdrawal behavior or compromising behavior.
  32. 32. The coping may be defined as changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage external and internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person. People may use General coping measures: direct action response : manipulate stress situation Information seeking: understand problem more clearly Inhibition: doing nothing. No response. Turning to others; for emotional support. Formal coping measures Information providing technique: health education to patients. Biofeedback techniques: relief from pain and stress Relaxation techniques: meditation, yoga etc Cognitive restructuring: structuring pessimistic and