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Unit 3 intelligence


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Unit 3 intelligence

  2. 2. What is Intelligence ?  Meaning and definition of Intelligence.  Some established facts of intelligence.  Misconception about intelligence.
  3. 3. Meaning and definition of Intelligence.  Intelligence is a general capacity of an individual consciously to adjust his thinking to new requirements. It is a general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life. (Stern)  Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.
  4. 4. What is Intelligence ?  This general ability consist of a number of specific abilities :  Adaptability to a new environment or to change in the current environment  Capacity for knowledge and the ability to acquire it  Capacity for reason & abstract thought  Ability to comprehend relationships  Ability to evaluate & judge  Capacity for original and productive thought
  5. 5. Some established facts of intelligence.  The relation of intelligence with nature and nurture: Intelligence is the product of heredity and environment. Both are equally important.  Distribution of intelligence: individual difference is present. A majority are average, few are bright and few are dull.  Growth of Intelligence: as per the age. It reaches its maximum at 16 to 20 years. There after horizontal growth continues.  Intelligence and sex differences: No relation.
  6. 6. Some established facts of intelligence.  Intelligence and racial or cultural difference: It is not a birth right of a particular race or group. The bright and the dull can be in any race, caste, culture. The difference may be due to influence of environment.
  7. 7. Misconception of intelligence.  Intelligence is not knowledge though acquisition of knowledge depends to great extent and vice versa.  Intelligence is not memory: Even without memory Intelligence is possible.  Intelligence can be seen in both normal and abnormal behavior/ in delinquency etc.
  8. 8. Theories of intelligence.  It helps to understand the structure of intelligence.  The theories are grouped into mainly two types. 1. Factor theories. 2. Cognitive theories.
  9. 9. Factor theories.  Unitary Theory or Monarchic Theory.  Anarchic Theory or Multifactor Theory.  Spearman’s two factor theory or Eclectic Theory.  Thurston’s Group Factor Theory.
  10. 10. Unitary Theory or Monarchic Theory.  Intelligence consists of one factor.  It believes on universal fund of intellectual competency which can be used in all aspects.  Intelligence can be utilized in any area of the life.  It has some draw backs such as some situation it does not suit well.  A child may have good intelligence of Math but may be poor in Civics.  The Unitary theory stand rejected.
  11. 11. Anarchic Theory or Multifactor Theory.  Propagated by Thorndike.  This theory considers intelligence a combination of numerous separate elements or factors.  According to him, the mind is a host of highly particularised and independent faculties.  The theory maintains that from a man’s ability to do one kind of work we can infer absolutely nothing as to his ability to do another kind of works.  If a boy is good in literature, we can judge absolutely nothing about his ability to study Chemistry.  There is certain positive relationship between these factors still.
  12. 12. Spearman’s two factor theory or Eclectic Theory. • This as a very popular theory. • According to Spearman intelligence is the ability to think constructively. • Spearman (1927) proposes that intelligence consists of two abilities, viz. ‘G’- general ability and ‘S’- special ability. • General factor or ability works in conjunction with special ability. • In all intellectual activities of the human being along with general ability, there will also be a special ability which is related to such action.
  13. 13. Spearman’s two factor theory or Eclectic Theory.  Eg An individual’s performance in Hindi is primarily due to his general intelligence and partly to some kind of specific ability in language. (g+s1).  The ability in Math will be due to (g+s2)
  14. 14. Thurston’s Group Factor Theory. • Louis Thurston came out with the group factor theory (1937) saying that Intelligence is a cluster of abilities • These mental operations then constitute a group • He pointed out that there were Seven Primary Mental Abilities and later on added two more.
  15. 15. Thurston’s Group Factor Theory. • Verbal comprehension Factor: words and ideas • Verbal fluency Factor: rapid producing words, sentences • Numerical Factor: arithmetic ability • Perceptual speed Factor: rapid recognition of words and letters. • Inductive reasoning Factor: reasoning from the specific to the general • Spatial visualization Factor: It is involved in visualizing shapes, rotations of objects, and how pieces of a puzzle fit together • Memory Factor: ability to recall • Deductive Reasoning : Ability to use the generalized results correctly • Problem solving ability factor : Ability to solve problem independently.
  16. 16. Cognition theories. • These theories are otherwise called process-oriented theories. They focus on intellectual processes; the patterns of thinking and reasoning in people, used to solve problems. • These theories consider intelligence as a process which helps to deal with problems and to find out the answers. They are called cognitive theories because of their focus on fundamental cognitive processes. The important theories are: 1. Cattell and Horn’s Theory: 2. Information Processing Theory of Intelligence: 3. Jensen’s Theory of Mental Functioning:
  17. 17. Cattell and Horn’s Theory: • Cattell (1971) and Horn (1978) have proposed this theory in which they have distinguished two types of intelligence. Fluid intelligence: a. This is an innate, biologically or genetically determined capacity and not influenced by education or training. b. This capacity helps the person in learning and problem solving. c. This is the ability which is useful in understanding and adjusting to strange situations. d. This ability develops fully in people by the end of an individual’s adolescence.
  18. 18. Cattell and Horn’s Theory: Crystallized intelligence: a. It is a learned or acquired capacity. b. It is influenced by environmental factors like education, training, culture, knowledge and learned skills. c. This ability can be observed in the behaviour of a person while dealing within culture, traditions in society, his knowledge in worldly affairs, through the skills in handling machinery, tools, etc. d. Generally it continues throughout life. Though both types of intelligence are independent, they are interrelated.
  19. 19. Information Processing Theory of Intelligence: • This theory was proposed by American Psychologist Robert Sternberg (1984). • He distinguished between information processing components and meta-components. Components are the steps to solve a problem and the meta-components are the basics of knowledge that one has to know to solve the problem. • The information processing is like a process of solving a problem by an individual in which he proceeds to solve a problem which he comes across, gathers the necessary information and makes use of this information for completing that task.
  20. 20. Information Processing Theory of Intelligence: The steps are; • Identifying the relevant information (encoding) • Drawing the necessary inferences (inferring) • Establishing relationship between past and present experiences (mapping) • Applying the inferred relationship (application) • Justifying the correct solution (justification) • Provide the correct solution (response).
  21. 21. Jensen’s Theory of Mental Functioning: • Arther Jensen (1969) proposed this theory. • According to him, the functioning of one’s mind depends upon the type and degree of intelligence one possesses. • Jensen splits intelligence into two types of abilities- associative abilities and cognitive abilities. • Associative ability is the capacity to learn, identify, discriminate, remember and reproduce the learnt information and experiences. • Cognitive or conceptual ability is concerned with higher order thinking, reasoning, analysing and problem solving. • According to Jenson associative abilities are related to biological maturation and the cognitive are dependent on education and culture, leading to more individual differences.
  22. 22. Measurment of intelligence.  The intelligence test can be classified as follows; Intelligence test Individual test Group test Verbal Verbal & & Nonverbal(performance) Nonverbal
  23. 23. Individual Verbal test • The test involve the use of language and administered to an individual at a time. • An example for this is Stanford-Binet Scale. • French Psychologist Alfred Binet (Father of intelligence) has constructed this scale. • This test contains 30 items arranged in order with increasing difficulty. • At age 3 Point out nose, eyes and mouth. • At age 7 what is missing in the unfinished picture. • The test is for people from 2 to 20 years. • The Indian version is called Samanya Budhi Pariksha. • The scores are used to calculate IQ.
  24. 24. Individual Verbal test • Let us have a trail of this common test. Stanford Binet scale.docx
  25. 25. Individual Performance test • In this test the contents and responses are in the form of performance. • Language is not used at all. • The performance in these activities are tested. • Some of them are; Block Building/Cube Construction: asked to make a structure or design by means of blocks or cubes.
  26. 26. Individual Performance test To fit the blocks in the hole: Tracing a maze: Picture arrangement:
  27. 27. Individual Performance test • These test try to emphasize the significance of performance. • It is evaluated by number of attempts and the duration taken to complete the test.
  28. 28. Individual Performance test • Another commonly used individual performance test is Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence test. • It has two version such as WISC (Wechsler Intelligence scale for children) and WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). • This is sometimes referred as both verbal and performance scale simultaneously. • The scale consists of 11 subsets. 6 are verbal and 5 are performance. The scores are added to calculate the IQ.
  29. 29. Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence test • Verbal Scale: Test for General Information Test for general comprehension. Test for arithmetic reasoning. Test for distinction between similarities. Test for digits span. Test fro vocabulary. • Performance Scale: Digit symbol test, Picture completion test. Block design nest., Picture arrangement test. Object assembly test.
  30. 30. Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence test • Wechsler scale..docx
  31. 31. Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence test • Some questions are 1. Consider all numbers from 1-60, in sequence. If you add any two consecutive numbers, will the result be: Odd, Even, It depends 2. When the letters are rearranged in ANGRIATEN, you get the name of a: State, Country, Continent, Planet, Ocean 3. If Barry weighs 150 pounds, Ted weighs 125 pounds and Matt weighs 175 pounds, any two of them together weigh 300 pounds. True or False 4. The number, “three thousand, eight hundred, sixty- eight,” when written backward, is read, “eight thousand, six hundred, eighty-three.” True or False
  32. 32. Group Verbal Tests • The tests which necessitate the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals. • Some of the common tests are;  Army alpha test (developed during World War I)  C.I.E verbal group test of intelligence (Hindi) developed by Professor Uday Shankar  The group test of general mental ability (Samuhik mansik yogyata pariksha) constructed by S. Jalota (Hindi).  Samuhik Budhi Pariksha developed by Sh. Shirmali Vidhya Bhavan, Udaipur.
  33. 33. Group Non Verbal Tests  These tests do not use language and applied to a group.  Some of the common tests are Army Beta test, CIE Non verbal group test etc. • Advantages of group tests: can be administered to very large numbers simultaneously simplified examiner role. scoring typically more objective. large, representative samples often used leading to better established norms
  34. 34. Group Non Verbal Tests Disadvantages of group tests:  Examiner has less opportunity to obtain cooperation and maintain interest  Not readily detected if examinee tired, anxious, unwell.  Evidence that emotionally disturbed children do better on individual than group tests  Examinee’s responses are more restricted  Normally an individual is tested on all items in a group test and may become boredom over easy items and frustrated or anxious over difficult items.  Individual tests typically provide for the examiner to choose items based on the test takers prior responses - moving onto quite difficult items or back to easier items. So individual tests offer more flexibility.
  35. 35. Verbal Vs Non verbal test. Advantages of performance test: Useful for those without language.(Illiterate, foreign language, problems with sense organs, etc.) Good to understand skill in mechanical jobs etc. Disadvantages of performance test: Cannot predict scholastic ability. Very costly. Less reliable as chance of success are more. Good for mental ability but not good enough for abstractions and concepts.
  36. 36. Mental Age and Intelligence Quotient. • Mental age is a concept related to intelligence. • It looks at how a specific child, at a specific age—usually today, now—performs intellectually, compared to average intellectual performance for that physical age, measured in years. • The physical age of the child is compared to the intellectual performance of the child, based on performance in tests and live assessments by a psychologist. • Scores achieved by the child in question are compared to scores in the middle of a bell curve for children of the same age .
  37. 37. Mental Age and Intelligence Quotient. • An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. • This term was initiated by the German Psychologist William Stern. • IQ is a score obtained by dividing a person’s mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person’s chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months. • The resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score.
  38. 38. Mental Age and Intelligence Quotient. • There are two means of ding it. 1. According to Stanford Binet Scale: I.Q = Mental Age(MA)/Chronological Age (CA)x 100 1. According to Wechsler scale: I.Q = Attained or Actual Score/Expected mean score for age x 100
  39. 39. Classification of IQ.
  40. 40. Uses of intelligence tests. • For the purpose of selection: Admission to a course, decide scholarships, to give specific assignments, selection for co curricular activities. • For the purpose of classification: classification of students to improve teaching learning experiences. • For the purpose of promotion: promotion in educational, occupational and social situations. • Fro knowing one’s potentiality: This helps the teacher in following ways; giving guidance, helps in learn process, improve the level of aspiration etc. • For diagnostic purpose. • Helps in research work.
  41. 41. Limitations of intelligence tests. • Intelligence tests and students: inferiority/superiority, leads to problems and misbehaviour. • Intelligence test and teachers: Prejudice on students, lack of support for some students etc. • It also creates segregation and conflicts: none of the intelligence tests are non-biased. It is unjust to deny the right of others in admission/promotion etc. • Only cognitive aspects are touched by these facts. Factors like interests, attitude, motives are not considered in intelligence tests.
  42. 42. Thank you!