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Customer Development Interviewing Tips

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Lean Startup Machine Lisbon - my slides on conducting successful Customer Development interviews

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Customer Development Interviewing Tips

  1. 1. LisbonCustomer Development Interview Tips & Tricks (Get what you need when you get out of the building) Ian Collingwood @johnnyforeigner ian@uxdna.co.uk
  2. 2. Eric & Steve say...“Get out of the building!” @johnnyforeigner
  3. 3. UX people are good at getting out of the building @johnnyforeigner
  4. 4. UX people are good at getting out of the buildingAdapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer @johnnyforeigner
  5. 5. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative QualitativeAdapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer @johnnyforeigner
  6. 6. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative QualitativeGenerativeEvaluativeAdapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer @johnnyforeigner
  7. 7. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys EthnographyGenerative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card SortingEvaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al)Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer @johnnyforeigner
  8. 8. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys EthnographyGenerative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card SortingEvaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al)Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer @johnnyforeigner
  9. 9. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys EthnographyGenerative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card SortingEvaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al)Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer @johnnyforeigner
  10. 10. UX people are good at getting out of the building Quantitative Qualitative Depth Interviews Contextual Inquiry Surveys EthnographyGenerative Interviews Diary Studies Participatory Design (Co-creation) Mental Models Web Analytics Multi-variant Testing Usability Testing Remote Card Sorting Moderated Card SortingEvaluative Clicktale / CrazyEgg (et al) Wizard of Oz Testing Treejack (et al) Desirability Toolkit Chalkmark / 5-Second Test (et al) R.I.T. Usertesting.com (et al)Adapted from material by Johanna Kollman Janice Fraser, Nate Bolt, Christian Rohrer @johnnyforeigner
  11. 11. Who are yourcustomers?
  12. 12. Describe the main customer segment(s)for your product @johnnyforeigner
  13. 13. @johnnyforeigner
  14. 14. Demographics @johnnyforeigner
  15. 15. DemographicsBehaviours @johnnyforeigner
  16. 16. What kinds of Behaviours would defineyour typical customer? @johnnyforeigner
  17. 17. DemographicsBehaviours @johnnyforeigner
  18. 18. DemographicsBehavioursNeeds & Goals @johnnyforeigner
  19. 19. What are the main Needs & Goals for yourtypical customer? @johnnyforeigner
  20. 20. Demographics + Behaviours + Needs &Goals = Persona @johnnyforeigner
  21. 21. Sketch & Demographics Behaviours Barbara Avila Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months Sao Paulo, Brazil, Has never travelled abroad alone 22 years old Does not speak perfect English Female Has not lived away from home High educational achievement so far Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK Speaks some English but not high level Frequently uses internet as primary source of information Parental income is middle-high Knows where & when they will be studying abroad Internet native Receives all or most of their living money from parents Stories Needs/Goals To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about practicalities of daily life in a foreign country To know that she has someone meeting her when she arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her tripAdapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser @johnnyforeigner
  22. 22. Sketch & Demographics Behaviours Barbara Avila Is coming to the UK to study for more than 3 months Sao Paulo, Brazil, Has never travelled abroad alone 22 years old Does not speak perfect English IS IS ES ES Female Has not lived away from home TH TH High educational achievement so far Does not already have a connection with anyone in the UK Speaks some English but not high level Frequently uses internet as primary source of information PO Parental income is middle-high PO Knows where & when they will be studying abroad Internet native HY HY Receives all or most of their living money from parents Stories Needs/Goals To find out what it’s going to be like living abroad To reassure her parents and loved ones that she will be safe IS To focus on settling in to student life, not worrying about ES practicalities of daily life in a foreign country TH To know that she has someone meeting her when she PO arrives and somewhere nice to stay when she gets there H Y To feel relaxed, safe and excited about her tripAdapted from material by Johanna Kollman & Janice Fraser @johnnyforeigner
  23. 23. Where will you find them?
  24. 24. @johnnyforeigner
  25. 25. Finding participantsPhysical locations: go where the behaviours happen- Types of store- Sports centre- Railway station- Events- Offices- Cafes @johnnyforeigner
  26. 26. @johnnyforeigner
  27. 27. Finding participants:Digital locations: - Forums - Facebook groups - Facebook product pages - LinkedIn groups - Twitter hashtags (beware of being marked asspam) - Game chat rooms/social gaming @johnnyforeigner
  28. 28. @johnnyforeigner
  29. 29. Finding participants:Always be recruiting:- At parties- In the street- At work- At the gym... etcMost of all, use “snowball recruiting.”i.e. The question you ALWAYS ask is: “do you knowanyone else we can speak to.” @johnnyforeigner
  30. 30. @johnnyforeigner
  31. 31. Screening participants- Must fit your customer profile- Be contactable (face-to-face or phone/ Skype)- Be willing to spend 1-2 hours talking to you- Have recent, direct experience of the problem your product will solve @johnnyforeigner
  32. 32. @johnnyforeigner
  33. 33. The approach:- Physical locations - Smile! - Choose your moment - Respect their time - Explain quickly what you want - Make it clear you are not selling anything - Offer to buy them a coffee @johnnyforeigner
  34. 34. @johnnyforeigner
  35. 35. The approach:- Digital locations - Be polite - Spend time getting the “vibe” - Provide a response channel (questionnaire/landing page) @johnnyforeigner
  36. 36. Planning your interviews
  37. 37. Deciding what you want to find out:A Topic Map @johnnyforeigner
  38. 38. Choosing a place to visit Working out Budgeting who will be coming with me Searching for flights Guide books Visas and paperwork Topic map: Going on holiday @johnnyforeigner
  39. 39. Interview technique
  40. 40. Interview technique:Asking the right questions in the right way @johnnyforeigner
  41. 41. Getting startedAfter the initial introduction, ask...“Have you ever had ______ problem?” - If not, close the interview @johnnyforeigner
  42. 42. Focus on specific instances, not generalisations- Good: “Tell me about the last time...”- Bad: “What do you usually...”Keep them talking- “Tell me more about...”- “What do you mean by...”- “Help me to understand better...”Summarise in their own words & checkunderstanding @johnnyforeigner
  43. 43. Try not to lead the participantAsk “open” questions- Good questions often start with - Who, What, When, Where, How- Not so good questions often start with - Did, Have, Is, Are, Were, Will- Look for stories (context, need, action) @johnnyforeigner
  44. 44. Don’t interrupt, but guide back onto topicDon’t offer solutions - Do ask “What would be your ideal solution?”Don’t pitch your product - Don’t even mention it!Don’t ask about hypothetical situations - “Do you think you would...?” - “Would you...?” @johnnyforeigner
  45. 45. Notes & Recordings
  46. 46. If possible, bring someone to take notes.- But write your own notes too.If you are alone, record audio if possible.- But still make plenty of notes!Bring a notepad & at least 2 spare pens.- Check that they work! @johnnyforeigner
  47. 47. If you do record audio or video:- Ask permission before you start- If possible ask them to sign a release form giving explicit permission.- Explain what recordings are for and how they will be used, stored & deleted.- Accept that you might not be able to record, especially when interviewing business customers.- It’s OK. Be ready to take notes just in case. @johnnyforeigner
  48. 48. If you do record audio or video:- Make sure you are familiar with the device/app you are using- Check you have plenty of disk space- Bring spare batteries, charger & extension lead- Make a test recording (and listen to it!) just before you go in to the interview to check it’s working and set the levels @johnnyforeigner
  49. 49. Making sense of it all
  50. 50. As soon as you walk out the door:- Write down the 3 most important things you heard in the interview- If using a note taker, do this before discussing the interview with themAs soon as possible:- Review your full interview notes- Be sure to do this on the same day @johnnyforeigner
  51. 51. Find a room with a large table or smoothwalls- Have lots of Post-it notes- Go through notes and recordings- Write one note per finding- Don’t filter or analyse at this point @johnnyforeigner
  52. 52. Once you have been through the wholeinterview, review your Post-it notesCluster & Categorise each note- What it means- Why it matters- Does this confirm or refute any hypothesis?- Frequency & repetition- At the end, try to build “Stories” that define that user and their needs and behaviours @johnnyforeigner
  53. 53. What if you’re completely wrong?- Have you picked the wrong people to talk to?- Are you targeting the wrong target segment?- Are you choosing the wrong problem to solve? @johnnyforeigner
  54. 54. Thank youian@uxdna.co.uk@johnnyforeigner

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