14.35 Integrated Water Management Johnny Browaeys Ch2 M Hill

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14.35 Integrated Water Management Johnny Browaeys Ch2 M Hill

  1. 1. Integrated Water Management Johnny Browaeys
  2. 2. CH2M HILL Fortune 500 company, 27,500 employees, over 80 countries, 6.4 billion USD revenue Environmental Consulting, Engineering and Construction First projects in China in 1915 About 15 offices in China About 380 staff in China
  3. 3. MASDAR City Client: Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company Location: United Arab Emirates Project Scope The first zero-carbon and zero-waste sustainable city nestled in the heart of Abu Dhabi Comprehensive Abu Dhabi government program to address sustainable energy sources and environmental practices Project focus on developing and commercializing advanced and innovative technologies in renewable, alternative, and sustainable energies (photovoltaic, wind, solar thermal, solid waste, and ground-sourced heat pumps) Our Role Serve as program manager for the development of MASDAR City Identify and measure environmental impacts throughout MASDAR’s life cycle (energy, water, wastewater, and transportation) Rendering courtesy of the Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company 3
  4. 4. Water has become a Challenge to Society
  5. 5. Water Stress is prominent in industrial development areas Less than 1,700 m3/ person/ year is considered stressed
  6. 6. Industry Sustainability Concerns Sustainability concerns Risk to operations Insufficient water supply Decreasing water quality Increasing water treatment costs Downstream constraints Effluent discharge limitations Increasing wastewater treatment costs Water management affects businesses around the world, throughout the value chain
  7. 7. Strategic Signal #1 – Business Disruption Risks Increasing competition among water uses Priority to basic human needs Protection of water eco-resources Agriculture Expanding industrial demands Industry at risk to lose water supply or have supply constrained
  8. 8. Strategic Signal #2 – License to Operate at Risk Current allocations are not assured into the future Extreme weather events (drought, hurricanes) causing short-term (months long) re-prioritization of water rights Water rights re-assessed and re-allocated in developing countries Right to discharge effluents being challenged Businesses lacking contingency plans are vulnerable to disruption
  9. 9. Strategic Signal #3 – Water Management Costs Increasing Water Decreasing source availability source Costs to protect current sources, or change sources Water Deteriorating source water treatment quality (salinity, solids) Higher treatment costs Wastewater Tightening effluent standards treatment requiring higher technology Higher incremental costs
  10. 10. The Business Case
  11. 11. What are the economics? Benchmarking – Is water expensive now? Is the situation sustainable? Cost Evaluation Direct costs: • Raw water • Pre-treatment • Specialized treatment • Wastewater treatment Indirect costs: • Expansion constraints • Permitting and legal maintenance • Environmental Liability
  12. 12. Assessing the Economics - A Common Profile
  13. 13. Point 1a: Current operations. Point 2a: Cost reductions from optimization efforts Cascaded water reuse projects requiring only operational changes Typically result in minimal expense, but Higher concentration effluent (decrease in water quality from 1b to 2b)
  14. 14. Point 3a : Step increase in wastewater treatment costs Substantial increase in water quality / marginal cost increase Water quality increases from 2b to 3b, Costs increase marginally from 2a to 3a Capital projects: reduce water consumption and wastewater generation. • Facilities to allow segregation • Reprocessing and reuse of process water • Reuse of intermediate quality waste streams • Sidestream softener recycle of cooling tower and blower blowdown
  15. 15. Point 3 to Point 4: Large-step increase in treatment costs, as incremental wastewater quality improvement requires substantial increase in capital and operating costs. Installation of high technology equipment such as: Electrodialysis units Brine concentrators Evaporation-crystallization systems Ion-exchange units
  16. 16. Point 5: Water Use Minimization and Wastewater Reuse Targeting “Zero Discharge Operation”
  17. 17. Water Risk Management Requires an understanding of a company’s water needs in relation to local externalities: Water availability – current and projected Population/industrial growth Water and wastewater quality objectives With a focus on, Identifying strategies to preserve water balances that affect operations Seeking on location opportunities to conserve the utility of water
  18. 18. Assessing the Drivers Rel ative Importance to Decision to Im pl ement Water Reuse -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Sy nergis tic utility efficienc ies Example Forcefield Diagram of Water Reuse Motivators Cos t of raw water Cos t of wastewater disposal Value of recovered materials Time to mark et Financial incentives Regulator y collaboration Public image Motivator Environmental regulations Industry benc hmarking Water r es ource limitations Rec eiving water quality Diffic ult to meet discharge stds Water r ights iss ues Waste dispos al is sues Pr oduct quality conc erns Pr ice competition Capital c onstraints/ROI requir ements water reuse implement motivator to Decreasing water reuse implement motivator to Increasing
  19. 19. Determine Your Profile – And Then Implement
  20. 20. Global Water Tool Developed for the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) Free and easy-to-use tool for companies and organizations to map their water use and assess risks relative to their global operations and supply chains The tool can be downloaded at: www.wbcsd.org/web/watertool.htm
  21. 21. Implement Advanced Solutions
  22. 22. Step 1: Set Baseline Water Balance Identify specific water-intensive operations, or Those with high potential for recycling water To an upstream point in the same process or To another process in the plant.
  23. 23. Step 2: Benchmark Against Industry Water is used in the industry as: Raw material, Cleaning or reagent solvent, Heat transfer medium, Conveyance medium, Reaction product, and Fire extinguishing medium. Large body of knowledge and experience exists from which to draw ideas
  24. 24. 3: Evaluate Management Strategies Recycle and Recovery Approaches Process Changes Various Pollution Prevention Techniques Operations Strategies Source Reduction
  25. 25. Step 4: Finally strive to Reduce Source Eliminating waste, a more reusable water stream Smaller equipment Stream segregation Reduce or even eliminate end-of-pipe treatment Easier to expand production volume
  26. 26. Case Study: Manufacturing Company Implementing water reuse with results: Lowered purchased water consumption Reduced wastewater discharges Potential reduction in discharge limitations Recognized annual operating cost savings Demonstrated environmental stewardship
  27. 27. Facility Description Manufacturing operations divided into 6 areas: Machining and grinding Solvent degreasing Metal finishing (cleaning, electroplating, anodizing, conversion coating) Spray painting Assembly Utilities including Steam plant (16 boilers), Cooling towers (131), Wastewater treatment plant
  28. 28. Baseline Water Balance Chemical Addition 0.1 mgd Domestic 0.36 mgd Industrial Current Purchase 2 mgd 0.47 mgd Cobb County Current Discharge 1.47 mgd Wastewater Water Supply Treatment Boilers 0.31 mgd Plant (WWTP) Maintenance mgd = million gallons per day 0.01 mgd Based on Summer Flow Dem ands Cooling Towers 0.65 mgd
  29. 29. Alternatives Evaluation Results Established Recovery for Reuse Objectives Recover 240-720 gpm water of drinking water quality Recover up to 55 gpm water with low TDS and oil & grease, and Recover up to 90 gpm water with low alkalinity, hardness, silica, iron, copper, and 7<pH<8.5.
  30. 30. Implementation Results Additional costs: electricity, chemicals, membrane replacement, analyses, maintenance, operating labor, and concentrate disposal. Offset by savings in purchased water costs, (O&M) for existing ion exchange units, and O&M on the cooling towers Estimated annual net savings between $50,000 and $100,000. Out of 1,47 mgd that was originally discharged, up to 1.08 mgd now can be reused. Current infrastructure allows to distribute 0.6 mgd. Additional end-users will be added. Demonstrated environmental stewardship has enhanced credibility with water and environmental agency stakeholders Retained the Sustainability of Operations (eg: current debate on China CTL)
  31. 31. Global water and air volume (SPL Reference Number: E055/330) Water sphere of 1390 kilometers across, volume of 1.4 billion cubic kilometers. Air sphere of 1999 kilometers across, weighs 5140 trillion tons.
  32. 32. “Water sustains all.” Johnny.browaeys@ch2m.com
  33. 33. 事在人為

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