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E learning panel at INTERACT 2007


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Talk from a panel at INTERACT 2007. This describes how diversity can enhance creatvity.

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E learning panel at INTERACT 2007

  1. 1. E-learning: An Opportunity to Meld Modern Technology and Ancient Wisdom? INTERACT 2007 PANEL 12 September, 2007 Rio De Janeiro, Brasil John C. Thomas IBM T. J. Watson Research Center [email_address]
  2. 2. “ Ancient Learning” Context/Content Cultures vary not only by geography but by time <ul><li>Example: Learning edible wild plants </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Seeing plants in their actual context; walking, bending, plucking, digging </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation: Staying alive and healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement delay: Seconds to hours; occasionally longer </li></ul><ul><li>Senses Used: Sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste </li></ul>
  3. 4. “ Modern Learning” Context/Content <ul><li>Example: Learning the names of the American Presidents </li></ul><ul><li>Context: Sitting (still) in a classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation: Teacher’s approval </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement delay: Hours or Days </li></ul><ul><li>Senses used: Sight, hearing </li></ul>
  4. 5. Can modern technology help? <ul><li>Allow for more contextualized learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance motivation? </li></ul><ul><li>Provide more immediate reinforcement? </li></ul><ul><li>Involve more senses? </li></ul>
  5. 6. Some Pedagogical Patterns <ul><li>Diverse learners best served by diverse methods </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson learned may not be lesson intended </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery of the base comes from using in a greater context (shot selection in golf; dice counting & money in monopoly) </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion leads to greater synthesis </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Walking People – Paula Underwood <ul><li>Transcribed oral history of part of the Iroquois tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding that the survival of the people depended on knowledge creation and sharing across generations </li></ul><ul><li>Found an abandoned child and the tribe failed to teach and socialize --- this was not an occasion to label and blame the child but to cause deep reflection and change </li></ul>
  7. 8. Patterns from Liberating Voices! A Pattern Language for Communication Revolution pattern s <ul><li>Teaching to Transgress: Encouraging the Next Generation to Question </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Values: Consciously Consider Values in Education </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access Scholarly Publishing: Circumventing the For-Profit Bottleneck </li></ul>
  8. 9. Pattern: named solution to a recurring problem <ul><li>First developed by Christopher Alexander and colleagues in physical architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Since applied to a wide variety of domains including OO design, programming process, management, HCI, socio-technical, and pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to provide a “middle ground” of appropriate level of generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Includes problem statement, context, analysis of problem, solution, discussion </li></ul>
  9. 10. Teaching to Transgress <ul><li>Obviously, good teachers try their best to teach what they believe to be correct. Yet, the world changes so that what was true is no longer true and what was once irrelevant becomes important, even vital. Further, even with respect to things that do not objectively change, new knowledge is continually created. It is natural for students to identify with good teachers and to value their knowledge highly. A possible side-effect of this basically good process, however, is that the student may become reluctant to “go against” the teaching of their mentor/hero/professor. This reluctance occurs, not just with respect to individual teachers, but also with respect to the society as a whole. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Teaching to Transgress <ul><li>Therefore: In order to help prevent stagnation of knowledge, one useful strategy is for the teacher, as an integral part of their teaching, to teach “transgression”; that is, to go against the “received wisdom” --- to test and rebel against it. The scope of such transgression should be wide and include all of a society's rules, prejudices, and attitudes. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Dynamic Learning Environment <ul><li>Based on Learning Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Allows recombination of materials from numerous sources </li></ul><ul><li>Learner chooses material according to time constraints, goals, types of material, subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>System uses ontology and metadata to organize into coherent lesson </li></ul>
  12. 13. Dynamic Learning Environment <ul><li>Developed via iterative design and testing </li></ul><ul><li>Two large scale field trials </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental investigation shows it allowed learners to create “better” designs than control group using search engine </li></ul><ul><li>Won Brandon Hall Gold Medal for technical innovation in e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Available on alphaworks </li></ul>
  13. 14. Dynamic Learning Environment <ul><li>Our cultural context: IBMers </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier studies showed IBM “culture” dominated geographical culture </li></ul><ul><li>Our users had background in IT </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, highly motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Highly time-constrained </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Just-In-Time Training </li></ul>
  14. 15. References <ul><li>Farrell, R., Thomas, J. Rubin, B., Gordin, D., Katriel, A., O’Donnell, R., Fuller, E., and Rolando, S. Personalized just-in-time dynamic assembly of learning objects. E-learning 2004. November, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Farrell, R., Liburd, S., and Thomas, J. Dynamic Assembly of Learning Objects. www2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Farrell, R., Thomas, J., Dooley, S., Rubin, W., Levy, S., O’Donnell, R., Fuller, E. Learner-driven assembly of Web-based courseware. E-learn 2003, Phoenix, Arizona, Nov. 7-11, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Farrell, R., Dooley, S., Thomas, J., Rubin, B. And Levy, S. Implementing and extending Learning Object Metadata for learning-based assembly of computer-based training. Learning Technology Newsletter, Vol.5, 1, January, 2003, 14-16. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, J. & Farrell, R. An experimental investigation of the effectiveness of individualized web-based learning based on the dynamic assembly of learning objects. IBM Research Report, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>John C. Thomas and Robert G. Farrell. HCI Techniques from Idea to Deployment: A Case Study for a Dynamic Learning Environment. CHI 2006 - ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Association for Computing Machinery, December 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwood, P. The Walking People. San Anselmo, CA: Tribe of Two Press. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Liberating Voices ! A Pattern Language for Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>Liberating Voices ! Public Sphere Project Logo. A Pattern Language for Communication Revolution. People use a vast universe of information and communication ... pattern s </li></ul>