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Thermodynamic Design of a Fire-Tube
Steam Boiler
Prepared for:
Professor Kamran Shavezipur
Prepared by:
(Team 16)
John Wal...
2
Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................
3
Introduction:
The body of the boiler is usually the pressure vessel and contains the fluid. The fluid is normally
the wa...
4
Design Analysis and Calculations:
Temperature Distribution
Tw=180 degC (Given value for water)
Heat Transfer within the ...
5
Area for A2 and A3 are solved for using Q2 and Q3 values and Q/A values:
Volume Ratio
Volume values were determined usin...
6
Design Outcome:
There were many assumed and given values used for the design of the steam boiler system.
Given Values:
-...
7
Excel Data (Also sent in a separate Excel File)
Assumed/Given
mass flow rate (kg/s) 1.39
pressure (Pa) 1000000
boiler le...
8
References
Godil. Junaid. Boiler. Web. 10 Dec 2014. <http://www.nedians.8m.com/boiler.htm>
Firetube or Watertube? What i...
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Thermodynamic Design of a Fire-Tube Steam Boiler

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Thermodynamic Design of a Fire-Tube Steam Boiler

  1. 1. Thermodynamic Design of a Fire-Tube Steam Boiler Prepared for: Professor Kamran Shavezipur Prepared by: (Team 16) John Walter Austen Kennedy Muhammad Shuhaimi December 11th , 2014
  2. 2. 2 Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................3 Design Analysis and Calculations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Design Outcome……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...6 References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… .8
  3. 3. 3 Introduction: The body of the boiler is usually the pressure vessel and contains the fluid. The fluid is normally the water which will circulate for heating purposes and sometimes is converted to steam for process use. The horizontal fire tube boiler has three passes. The first pass consists of furnace while both of the second and third passes consist of tubes. While the fire tube boiler operates, only the second and third passes are considered for the heat transfer process. The advantages of the fire tube boiler are the cost is inexpensive, easy to clean, compact in size, easy to replace tubes, and well suited for space heating and industrial process applications. The disadvantages of the fire tube boiler are not suitable for high pressure applications and it has limitation for high capacity steam generation. This is the list of the main components in the fire tube boiler: o Boiler shell is the outer component in a cylindrical shape that covers the pressure vessel. o Burner is located in the vertical walls of the furnace and it brings fuel and air into the furnace at the desired velocities, turbulence and concentration. o Furnace is the enclosed space where the combustion takes place. o Drain is the valve connection that removes all the water from the pressure parts. o Feed Pump supplies water to the boiler o Safety valve is a spring loaded valve that automatically opens when pressure attains the valve setting. It is used to prevent excessive pressure from building up in the boiler. o Steam separator removes the entrained water from steam o Firebox absorbs radiant heat from the fire. o Accumulator stores the heat of steam to be used during late period and at lower pressure. o Insulation is made from a material of low thermal conductivity and is sued to reduce heat losses. o Safety shut-off valve is electrically operated to automatically shut off fuel when de- energized. o Circulator is used to pass steam or water between upper boiler drum which is usually located where the heat absorption is low. o Strainer is a filter that is used to retain solid particles allowing a liquid to get pass. o Breeching transports the product for the production between parts of the generating unit.
  4. 4. 4 Design Analysis and Calculations: Temperature Distribution Tw=180 degC (Given value for water) Heat Transfer within the Steam Boiler To find both Q values, the equation for Qin is used. After the Qin is solved, different amounts that each Q2 and Q3 contribute to the Qin are tested in the excel file. The Q2 and Q3 values that are used are the ones that allow the areas A2 and A3 to be relatively close to each other. ̇ hg at 10 bar is used because the given pressure was 10 bar for within the tube. hf at 21 degC is used because this is around what the temperature of water would be outside of the tube before it enters. ̇ ( ) After testing different percentages in the excel document, the best ones to use were 72% for Q2 and 28% for Q3:
  5. 5. 5 Area for A2 and A3 are solved for using Q2 and Q3 values and Q/A values: Volume Ratio Volume values were determined using the design that was completed on the solidworks program as well as the values that are displayed in the design outcome. The volume of vapor was determined by seeing that roughly 10 percent of the total front area was empty at the top. This is where the vapor would be present above the water. Tube area and number of tubes The surface area of the tubes were calculated using the assumed tube diameter. The number of tubes for each pass were found by dividing A2 and A3 by the tube A_tube.
  6. 6. 6 Design Outcome: There were many assumed and given values used for the design of the steam boiler system. Given Values: - The tube external diameter is 50mm, and its thickness is 3 mm. -The thickness of furnace plate is 16mm -The thickness of main shell is 12 mm. -Tube diameter is 50mm Values determined by team: - Boiler length: 5m - Boiler Diameter: 2m - Furnace Diameter: 0.8m
  7. 7. 7 Excel Data (Also sent in a separate Excel File) Assumed/Given mass flow rate (kg/s) 1.39 pressure (Pa) 1000000 boiler length (m) 5 boiler diameter (m) 2 tubes diameter (m) 0.8 h-w 700 h-air 75 k-tube 51 t-tube (m) 0.003 T1 (celsius) 1100 T3 (celsius) 230 T-w (celcius) 180 Calculated/Determined T2 665 h2 2778.1 T2-air 882.5 h1 88.14 T3-air 447.5 Q-in 3739.044 Q2/A2 47.39983 Q3/A3 18.04905 Q2 2692.112 Q3 1046.932 A2 56.79581 A3 58.00486 Area of tube 0.789 Number of tubes: Pass 2 72 Number of tubes: Pass 3 74 Total Number of Tubes 146
  8. 8. 8 References Godil. Junaid. Boiler. Web. 10 Dec 2014. <http://www.nedians.8m.com/boiler.htm> Firetube or Watertube? What is the difference? P.C.Mc.Kenzie Company. Web. 10 Dec 2014. http://www.mckenziecorp.com/boiler_tip_8.htm http://www.energy.kth.se/compedu/webcompedu/ManualCopy/Steam_Boiler_Technology/Heat_ exchangers/thermal_design_of_heat_exchangers.pdf

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