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Punctuation Presentation JTCC

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Punctuation Presentation JTCC

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Punctuation Presentation JTCC

  1. 1. Punctuation FROM THE WRITING CENTER @ THE A.R.C.
  2. 2. Why Use Punctuation? Punctuation marks are used to give a sentence its proper meaning and can also do the following: Help with organization Distinguish speakers Indicate pauses or complete stops Express extreme emotion/feelings.
  3. 3. Quotation Marks There are a few basic rules when it comes to using quotation marks in your paper.  Rule 1: Use double quotation marks to set off a direct (word-for-word) quotation. • For example: Correct: "I hope you will be there," he said. Incorrect: He said that he "hoped I would be there." • (The quotation marks used in the second sentence are incorrect because “hoped I would be there” does not state the speaker's exact words.)  Rule 2: Quotation marks are used for components such as chapter titles in a book, individual episodes of a TV series, songs from a Broadway show or a music album, titles of articles or essays in print or online, and shorter works such as short stories and poems. • Richard Burton performed the song "Camelot" in the 1960 Broadway musical Camelot.  Rule 3:Periods and commas ALWAYS go inside of the quotation marks. • The sign said, "Walk." Then it said, "Don't Walk," then, "Walk," all within thirty seconds. He yelled, "Hurry up."
  4. 4. Quotation Marks Continued…  Rule 4: Use single quotation marks for quotations within a quotation.  Dan said: "In a town outside Brisbane, I saw 'Tourists go home' written on a wall. But then someone told me, 'Pay it no mind, lad.’”  Rule 5: Always capitalize the first word in a complete quotation, even if it is in the middle of the sentence.  Bill said, "That job we started last April is done."  Rule 6: Quotation marks are often used with technical terms, terms used in an unusual way, or other expressions that vary from standard usage.  It's an oil-extraction method known as "fracking."
  5. 5. Commas  Rule 1: Use a comma to separate the elements in a series (three or more things) including the last two things.  He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to third base.  Rule 2: Use a comma + a conjunction (and, but, for, nor, yet, so) to connect two independent clauses  He hit the ball hard, but fell when he started to run.  Rule 3: Use a comma before you introduce a quote.  Summing up this argument, Peter Coveney writes, “The purpose and strength of the romantic image of the child had been above all to establish a relationship between childhood and adult consciousness.”
  6. 6. Semi-Colons  A semi-colon can replace a period if the writer wishes to narrow the gap between two closely linked sentences.  Call me tomorrow; you can give me an answer then.  We have paid our dues; we expect all the privileges listed in the contract  Use a semicolon before words and terms like “namely,” “however,” “therefore,” “for example,” “for instance,” and “etc.,” when they introduce a complete sentence. It is also preferable to use a comma after these words and terms.  Bring any two items; however, sleeping bags and tents are in short supply.  Use a semicolon to separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas.  The conference has people who have come from Moscow, Idaho; Springfield, California; Alamo, Tennessee; and other places as well. (Note the final punctuation mark is a semicolon, rather than a comma, after Tennessee.)
  7. 7. Colons  Rule 1: Use a colon to introduce a series of items. Do not capitalize the first item after the colon (unless it's a proper noun).  Example: You may be required to bring many things: sleeping bags, pans, utensils, and warm clothing.  Rule 2: Use a colon rather than a comma to follow the salutation in a business letter, even when addressing someone by his or her first name. (Never use a semicolon after a salutation.) A comma is used after the salutation in more informal correspondence.  Formal: Dear Ms. Rodriguez:  Informal: Dear Dave,  Avoid using a colon before a list when it directly follows a verb or preposition.  Incorrect: I've seen the greats, including: Barrymore, Guinness, and Streep.  Correct: I've seen the greats, including Barrymore, Guinness, and Streep
  8. 8. Parentheses  Rule 1: Use parentheses to enclose information that clarifies, or is used as an aside.  Example: He finally answered (after taking five minutes to think) that he did not understand the question. Rule 2: If material in parentheses ends a sentence, the period goes after the parentheses.  Example: He gave me a nice bonus ($500).  Rule 3: Commas are more likely to follow parentheses than precede them.  Incorrect: When he got home, (it was already dark outside) he fixed dinner.  Correct: When he got home (it was already dark outside), he fixed dinner  Rule 4: Periods go inside parentheses only if an entire sentence is inside the parentheses.  Example: Please read the analysis. (You'll be amazed.) This is a rule with a lot of wiggle room. An entire sentence in parentheses is also acceptable without an enclosed period:  Example: Please read the analysis (you'll be amazed).
  9. 9. Brackets  Brackets are interruptions. When we see them, we know they've been added by someone else, and are used to explain or comment on the quotation.  "Four score and seven [today we'd say eighty-seven] years ago..."  "Bill shook hands with [his son] Al.“  Rule 1: When quoting something that has a spelling or grammar mistake, or presents material in a confusing way, insert the term “sic” (which is “thus” in Latin) in italics and enclose it in brackets.  Example: She wrote, "I would rather die then [sic] be seen wearing the same outfit as my sister.“ The [sic] indicates that “then” was used instead of “than”.
  10. 10. Brackets Continued…  Rule 2: In formal writing, brackets are often used to maintain the integrity of both a quotation and the sentences others use it in.  Example: "[T]he better angels of our nature" gave a powerful ending to Lincoln's first inaugural address. Lincoln's memorable phrase came midsentence, so the word the was not originally capitalized.
  11. 11. Apostrophes Use an apostrophe plus “-s” to show the possessive form of a singular noun, even if that singular noun already ends in -s.  “The bus’s yellow paint began to chip off.  Generally, you do not use an apostrophe to form a plural.  Incorrect: The Wilson's are here.  Correct: The Wilsons are here.  You also do not use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns  Incorrect: Who's glasses are these?  Correct: Whose glasses are these?
  12. 12. In Conclusion Punctuation marks can be used for various reasons and help the reader to understand:  Who is speaking  In what tone they may be speaking in  The pauses in their speech  Internal dialogue and side notes
  13. 13. Web Resources http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/semicolons.asp

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