Team Cognition Conflict
2014 AHRD International Conference in the Americas
John R. Turner!
Three Types !
✤ Task Conﬂict !
Relationship Conﬂict !
non-task, non-work related!
Process Conﬂict !
coordination & procedure related
Lack of Consistency
Process conﬂict is often omitted.!
Deﬁnitions for task and process conﬂict are inconsistent.!
Task and relationship conﬂict have been associated as
being cognitive conﬂict.
Call to researchers
“There are gaps in the conﬂict literature” (Song, Dyer, &
Thieme, 2006, p. 342).!
Amason (1996) calls for
“…we need to develop a more dynamic theoretical
perspective about the relationship between conﬂict
types” (Behfar, Mannix, Peterson, Trochim, 2011, p. 165).
“distinguishing these dimensions
from one another” (p. 127).!
TMM & SMM
The organized, overlapping cognitive representation
of knowledge shared by team members.!
Typically measures similarity and accuracy of
Team Member Schema Agreement
Views compatible knowledge structures.!
Typically measures schema accuracy and schema
TMM, SMM, & Team Member Schema Agreement
each measure two different aspects of knowledge
Team Mental Models
✤ Involves the content or possession of certain
✤ Involves the relationship or structure of content
Cognition Conﬂict occurs when the knowledge
structures of elicitation and representation are
Interaction between team members tacit and explicit
knowledge needs to take place to resolve cognition
Without interaction, destructive chaos takes place
(Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995).
These cognitive exchanges, either produced from
transitioning between learning behaviors or through
the exchanges of tacit and explicit knowledge, identify
and deﬁne the cognition conﬂict construct.
THANK YOU – Questions?
John R. Turner
University Web Page:!
Amason, A. C. (1996). Distinguishing the effects of functional and
dysfunctional conﬂict on strategic decision making: Resolving a paradox for
top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 123-148. doi:
Behfar, K. J., Mannix, E. A., Peterson, R. S., & Trochim, W. M. (2011). Conﬂict
in small groups: The meaning and consequences of process conﬂict. Small
Group Research, 42, 127-176. doi:10.1177/1046496410389194!
Nonaka, Il, & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge creating company. New
York, NY: Oxford University Press.!
Song, M., Dyer, B., & Thieme, J. R. (2006). Conﬂict management and
innovation performance: an integrative contingency perspective. Journal of
the Academy of Marketing Science, 34, 341-356. doi: