Managing user resistance when designing, and executing your global Lab Informatics strategy <ul><li>John Trigg </li></ul><...
Agenda <ul><li>Success criteria for informatics projects  </li></ul><ul><li>User involvement </li></ul><ul><li>The princip...
What makes a project successful? <ul><li>Immediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On budget </li...
Knowledge Management <ul><li>KM solutions do not come in a shrink wrap box </li></ul><ul><li>KM is not a process, it is an...
McGregor Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management assumes employees are inherently lazy and...
User Culture/Technology Adoption Rogers, Everett M. (1962). Diffusion of Innovations. The Free Press. New York Innovators ...
Project Success Factors Standish Group International (1999) User Involvement 20% Executive Support 15% Clear Business Obje...
Ten Ways to Guarantee Project Failure <ul><ul><li>1. Abbreviate the planning process.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Don ’...
Technology Acceptance Model Davis, F.D. “A Technology Acceptance Model for Empirically Testing New End-User  Information S...
Technology Adoption S-curve Time % User Adoption Contact Awareness Understanding Trial Use Adoption Internalisation Instit...
User involvement <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping to...
Implementation <ul><li>The project team must ensure that all ‘users’  and their interests are represented.  </li></ul><ul>...
Technology Adoption Life Cycle Ref : ‘Crossing The Chasm’, G.A.Moore, Capstone Publishing Technology Enthusiasts Looking f...
Closing the gap <ul><li>Adoption process </li></ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Understan...
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Managing User Resistance

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Workshop presentation from SmartLabs Exchange, Brussels, Mar 2010

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Managing User Resistance

  1. 1. Managing user resistance when designing, and executing your global Lab Informatics strategy <ul><li>John Trigg </li></ul><ul><li>phaseFour Informatics Limited </li></ul><ul><li>www.phasefour-informatics.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.theintegratedlab.com </li></ul>
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Success criteria for informatics projects </li></ul><ul><li>User involvement </li></ul><ul><li>The principles of technology adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Defining strategies to drive up user acceptance </li></ul>
  3. 3. What makes a project successful? <ul><li>Immediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivered in full </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longer term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved knowledge management </li></ul></ul>Increasing user engagement
  4. 4. Knowledge Management <ul><li>KM solutions do not come in a shrink wrap box </li></ul><ul><li>KM is not a process, it is an outcome </li></ul><ul><li>KM is about people and culture; technology and processes can facilitate good KM, but that’s all </li></ul><ul><li>It can take years to cultivate a good KM ecosystem, and minutes to destroy </li></ul>Technology Enablers Knowledge Processes Cultural Enablers Create Share Exploit Data Information Networks Competence Behaviours & Values Coaching & Leadership Ownership & Empowerment
  5. 5. McGregor Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. </li></ul></ul>Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  6. 6. User Culture/Technology Adoption Rogers, Everett M. (1962). Diffusion of Innovations. The Free Press. New York Innovators 2 - 3 % Technology Enthusiasts : want to be first to try new technology; want one of everything. Early Adopters 10% Visionaries : able to align technology with strategic opportunities; willing to take risks; horizontally oriented. Early Majority 36% Pragmatists : cautious with risk and money; loyal; vertically oriented. Late Majority 36% Conservatives : opposed to discontinuous innovation; believe in tradition rather than progress. Laggards 15% Sceptics : negative attitude towards technology; identify discrepancies between what’s promised and what’s delivered.
  7. 7. Project Success Factors Standish Group International (1999) User Involvement 20% Executive Support 15% Clear Business Objectives 15% Experienced Project Manager 15% Small Milestones 10% Firm Basic Requirements 5% Competent Staff 5% Proper Planning 5% Ownership 5% Other 5%
  8. 8. Ten Ways to Guarantee Project Failure <ul><ul><li>1. Abbreviate the planning process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Don ’ t ask “ what if? ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Minimise user involvement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Select team members by the “ hey, you ” method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Work people long and hard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Don ’ t inform management of problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Allow changes at any point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Discourage questions from team members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Don ’ t give users progress reports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. Don ’ t compare project progress with project estimates. </li></ul></ul>Naomi Karten, www.StickyMinds.com
  9. 9. Technology Acceptance Model Davis, F.D. “A Technology Acceptance Model for Empirically Testing New End-User Information Systems: Theory and Results”, in MIT Sloan School of Management . Cambridge, MA; MIT School of Management. 1986. Perceived Usefulness Behavioural Intention External Variables Actual Use Perceived Ease of Use Attitude Toward The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort. Individual user’s positive or negative feelings about performing the target behaviour A measure of the strength of one’s intention to perform a specific behaviour.
  10. 10. Technology Adoption S-curve Time % User Adoption Contact Awareness Understanding Trial Use Adoption Internalisation Institutionalisation Robert G. Fichman, Chris F. Kemerer, “The Illusory Diffusion of Innovation : An Examination Of Assimilation Gaps”, Working Paper Series No.746, Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh, November 1995.
  11. 11. User involvement <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping to define requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be kept aware of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be involved in testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training/support programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take advantage of productivity/process improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute to and improve the corporate knowledge base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do better science </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Implementation <ul><li>The project team must ensure that all ‘users’ and their interests are represented. </li></ul><ul><li>Project leadership is equally important as project management. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate, communicate, communicate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market’ the project; don’t ‘sell’ it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT project or Lab project? </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple, but be flexible and expect surprises. </li></ul><ul><li>Be wary of the risk of guerrilla warfare. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Technology Adoption Life Cycle Ref : ‘Crossing The Chasm’, G.A.Moore, Capstone Publishing Technology Enthusiasts Looking for some neat technology Innovators Early Adopters Early Majority Laggards Late Majority The Chasm Visionaries Looking for a breakthrough Pragmatists Looking for an improvement Conservatives Believe in tradition Sceptics Not looking!
  14. 14. Closing the gap <ul><li>Adoption process </li></ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Trial Use </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Internalisation </li></ul>What can we do to influence attitude in order to drive the ‘right’ behaviours? <ul><li>Establish and articulate a well-defined purpose and a compelling reason to adopt. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on usefulness, ease-of-use and low risk of failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a ‘marketing’, training and support structure (Early Adopters). </li></ul><ul><li>Target and involve the pragmatists (Early Majority). </li></ul><ul><li>Separate project leadership from project management. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage a Management champion. </li></ul><ul><li>People are more likely to comply with a request when: </li></ul><ul><li>A reason is provided </li></ul><ul><li>There is give and take </li></ul><ul><li>They see others complying </li></ul><ul><li>The request comes from someone they respect or like </li></ul><ul><li>The request comes from a legitimate source of authority </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, “Influence: Science and Practice”, HarperCollins, 1993.

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