Do end-users fit the informatics requirements?


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Presented at the 5th Forum on Lab Informatics, San Francisco, Oct 27/28 2009

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Do end-users fit the informatics requirements?

  1. 1. Do End Users fit the Informatics Requirements? John Trigg phaseFour Informatics Limited
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Success criteria for informatics projects </li></ul><ul><li>User involvement </li></ul><ul><li>The principles of technology adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Defining strategies to drive up user acceptance </li></ul>
  3. 3. What makes a project successful? <ul><li>Immediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully functional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longer term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved knowledge management </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Success by Project Size – small is beautiful! Standish Group International (1999)
  5. 5. IT Project Cancellation / Abandonment % <ul><li>Standish 1994 31% </li></ul><ul><li>Standish 1996 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Standish 1998 28% </li></ul><ul><li>Jones 1998 systems 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Jones 1998 military 19% </li></ul><ul><li>Jones 1998 other >24% </li></ul><ul><li>Standish 2000 23% </li></ul><ul><li>Standish 2002 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Weekly 2003 9% </li></ul><ul><li>UJ 2003 22% </li></ul><ul><li>Standish 2004 18% </li></ul><ul><li>Standish 2006 19% </li></ul><ul><li>Standish 2009 24% </li></ul>
  6. 6. Project Success Factors Standish Group International (1999) User Involvement 20% Executive Support 15% Clear Business Objectives 15% Experienced Project Manager 15% Small Milestones 10% Firm Basic Requirements 5% Competent Staff 5% Proper Planning 5% Ownership 5% Other 5%
  7. 7. Ten Ways to Guarantee Project Failure <ul><ul><li>1. Abbreviate the planning process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Don ’ t ask “ what if? ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Minimize customer involvement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Select team members by the “ hey, you ” method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Work people long and hard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Don ’ t inform management of problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Allow changes at any point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Discourage questions from team members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Don ’ t give customers progress reports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. Don ’ t compare project progress with project estimates. </li></ul></ul>Naomi Karten,
  8. 8. User involvement <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to define requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be kept aware of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be involved in testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training/support programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take advantage of productivity/process improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do better science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute to and improve the corporate knowledge base </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Knowledge Management <ul><li>KM solutions do not come in a shrink wrap box </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot implement KM, it is an outcome </li></ul><ul><li>KM is about people and culture; technology can facilitate good KM, but that’s all </li></ul><ul><li>It can take years to cultivate a good KM ecosystem, and minutes to destroy </li></ul>
  10. 10. Business Culture Change the process Innovate for value creation Transform the business Continuously improve Maintain stability Consistency and control Improving from experience Challenge and change Inquisitiveness and learning Paradox and uncertainty
  11. 11. You Hate the IT department, and They Hate You Right Back! <ul><li>The mutual enmity between the average IT department and the average end user is the key feature (..) in the business setting. </li></ul><ul><li>The situation now is all but intolerable: No matter who you are, unless you are the CTO, the IT department does not work for you, so your interests and their interests are not aligned. </li></ul><ul><li>The IT department is rewarded for their ability to keep bad things from happening, and that means there is a pressure to create and then preserve stability. Meanwhile, you are rewarded for your ability to make good things happen, meaning that a certain amount of risk-taking is a necessary condition of your job. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-taking undermines stability. Stability deflects risk-taking. You think your IT department are jerks for not helping you do what you want to do; they consider you an idiot for installing software without their permission. Also, because of the way your interests are (mis)aligned, you are both right. </li></ul>Ref : Clay Shirky
  12. 12. The Landscape of Management Mathematical Complexity Social Complexity Systems Thinking Un-order Order Rules Heuristics Epistemology Ontology Source : Multi-Ontology Sense Making, David Snowden, Management Today Yearbook 2005 Process Engineering
  13. 13. User Culture Rogers, Everett M. (1962). Diffusion of Innovations . The Free Press. New York Innovators 2 - 3 % Technology Enthusiasts : want to be first to try new technology; want one of everything. Early Adopters 10% Visionaries : able to align technology with strategic opportunities; willing to take risks; horizontally oriented. Early Majority 36% Pragmatists : cautious with risk and money; loyal; vertically oriented. Late Majority 36% Conservatives : opposed to discontinuous innovation; believe in tradition rather than progress. Laggards 15% Sceptics : negative attitude towards technology; identify discrepancies between what’s promised and what’s delivered.
  14. 14. User requirements <ul><li>Users are notoriously bad at explaining what they need </li></ul><ul><li>The issue is confounded by choice and complexity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implementation <ul><li>The project team must ensure that all ‘users’ and their interests are represented. </li></ul><ul><li>Project leadership is equally important as project management. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate, communicate, communicate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market’ the project; don’t ‘sell’ it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT project or Lab project? </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple, but be flexible and expect surprises. </li></ul><ul><li>Be wary of the risk of guerrilla warfare. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Technology Adoption Life Cycle Ref : ‘Crossing The Chasm’, G.A.Moore, Capstone Publishing Technology Enthusiasts Looking for some neat technology Innovators Early Adopters Early Majority Laggards Late Majority The Chasm Visionaries Looking for a breakthrough Pragmatists Looking for an improvement Conservatives Believe in tradition Sceptics Not looking!
  17. 17. Technology Acceptance Model Davis, F.D. “A Technology Acceptance Model for Empirically Testing New End-User Information Systems: Theory and Results”, in MIT Sloan School of Management . Cambridge, MA; MIT School of Management. 1986. Perceived Usefulness Behavioural Intention External Variables Actual Use Perceived Ease of Use Attitude Toward The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort. Individual user’s positive or negative feelings about performing the target behaviour A measure of the strength of one’s intention to perform a specific behaviour.
  18. 18. Technology Adoption S-curve and the Assimilation Gap Time % User Adoption Contact Awareness Understanding Trial Use Adoption Internalisation Institutionalisation Planned Assimilation Gap Robert G. Fichman, Chris F. Kemerer, “The Illusory Diffusion of Innovation : An Examination Of Assimilation Gaps”, Working Paper Series No.746, Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh, November 1995. Deployment
  19. 19. Closing the gap <ul><li>Adoption process </li></ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Trial Use </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Internalisation </li></ul>What can we do to influence attitude in order to drive the ‘right’ behaviours? <ul><li>‘ Market ’ the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish and articulate a well-defined purpose and a compelling reason to adopt. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on real task activities, ease-of-use and low risk of failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Target and involve the pragmatists (Early Majority). </li></ul><ul><li>Think about project leadership as well as project management. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage a Management champion. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a vertical support structure (local peer support). </li></ul><ul><li>People are more likely to comply with a request when: </li></ul><ul><li>A reason is provided </li></ul><ul><li>There is give and take </li></ul><ul><li>They see others complying </li></ul><ul><li>The request comes from someone they respect or like </li></ul><ul><li>The request comes from a legitimate source of authority </li></ul>Robert B. Cialdini, “Influence: Science and Practice”, HarperCollins, 1993.
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>Short term success is based on financial considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Long term success will depend on user acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>This means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping careful control of user requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping users involved throughout implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing and supporting the full spectrum of users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information technology is a big part of the problem and a small part of the solution </li></ul>