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Robotics Safety

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Industrial Robots are changing and this presentation leads the user to the tools to control the hazards of collaborative and non-collaborative robotics.

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Robotics Safety

  1. 1. Robotics Safety JOHN SYER
  2. 2. Historical Rapid growth in industrial robots and robot systems in the 1980’s. Recent strong growth in orders (North American robotics market sets records from 2014 to 2016) Automotive OEMs dominated purchase and use of industrial use in the past Cost of robotics are declining and more industries are implementing into operation Robotics now growing in food and beverage, plastics, medical devices, and manufacturing
  3. 3. What is a robot? ANSI defines as: Automatically controlled, reprogrammable multipurpose manipulator, programmable in three or more axes, which can be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial application.
  4. 4. Types of Robots Rectangle coordinate robot Cylindrical coordinate robot Spherical coordinate robot Articulated arm robot Gantry robot SCARA robot
  5. 5. Robot system ANSI Defines as system comprising: Industrial robot End-effector(s); Any machinery, equipment, devices, external auxiliary axes or sensors supporting the robot performing it’s task. All of the “things” or “stuff” that makes the robot application work.
  6. 6. Concept of Space or Work Envelope Maximum Space – space which can be swept by the moving parts of the robot as defined by the manufacturer plus the space which can be swept by the end-effector and the work piece Restricted Space – portion of the maximum space restricted by limiting devices that establish limits which will not be exceeded. Operating Space – portion of the restricted space where the program operates. Safeguarded space – space defined by the perimeter safeguarding.
  7. 7. Hazards of Robots High-energy (fast or powerful) movements Strike Crush Trap Power sources (electrical, hydraulic) Parts released
  8. 8. Past studies and incidents Studies in Sweden and Japan suggest the following – From OSHA The majority of Robot accidents do not occur under normal operation. Accidents have occurred during programming (teach), program touch-up or refinement, maintenance , repair, testing, setup and adjustment Typical accidents – From OSHA guidelines of incidents occurring in US, Japan, and Sweden A operator entered a robot’s work space during operations and was pinned between the back end of the robot and a safety pole. A coworker accidentally turned on power to robot while maintenance worker was servicing a robot. A robot’s arm functioned erratically during a teaching phase and struck the operator. A welding robot went functionally awry and its arm pushed a worker against another machine.
  9. 9. Controls In the past and even now, the maximum space was either restricted and/or guarded. Barrier Examples include: ◦ Barrier guards i.e. cages or fences ◦ Barrier guard with interlocks ◦ Barrier guard with light curtains Interlocks Pressure sensing pads Emergency Stop Only allows for limited or no human interaction with the robot during normal operation.
  10. 10. Controls
  11. 11. Collaborative Robots Robot system / application purposely designed for direct cooperation with humans within a defined workspace.
  12. 12. Collaborative benefits Lower costs - no extra $ for barriers and other safety systems. Relatively easy to teach or program Very mobile systems Less integration time Easy to setup or start new process
  13. 13. What is a robot? ANSI defines as: Automatically controlled, reprogrammable multipurpose manipulator, programmable in three or more axes, which can be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial application.
  14. 14. Controls - Collaborative Robots 3. Power and force limiting – the robot is designed to limit power and force. Incidental contact with robot is ok. 4. Hand guiding – human operator can teach, move and stop the robot by the use of his/her hands. Misunderstanding – my new collaborative robot is safe, I don’t need any additional assessment or guarding. – WRONG! Risk Assessment is necessary
  15. 15. Safety Standards No specific standards for robotics OSHA refers to: General industry – 29 CFR 1910 ◦ Subpart J – general environmental controls ◦ 1910.147 – LOTO ◦ Subpart O – Machinery and machine guarding Depending on the material being process, other standards will apply OSHA – Guidelines for Robotics Safety STD 01-12-002 1987 OSHA Technical Manual TED 01-00-015
  16. 16. Consensus Standards ANSI/RIA TR R15.106-2012 – for Industrial Robots and Robot System – Safety Requirements ANSI/RIA/ISO 10218 – 2011 – Robots and robotic devices – Safety requirements for industrial robots ◦ Part 1 – Robot Safety ◦ Part 2 – Integration Safety ISO 12100 – Safety of Machinery – Risk assessment and risk reduction ISO Technical Specification 15066:2016 – Collaborative Robots ◦ Provide safety requirements for collaborative robots RIA TR R15 306-2016 : Task-Based Risk Assessment Consensus standards are voluntary; however can be referenced by OSHA.
  17. 17. ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012– for Industrial Robots and Robot System – Safety Requirements U.S. industrial robot safety standard Adoption of ISO 12018 Robots and Robotic Devices - Parts 1 and 2 ◦ It’s guidance is the same as the international standards ◦ Note - ANSI/RIA R15.06-1999 was used as the basis for ISO 10218 Includes Collaborative robot operation Risk assessment is now required
  18. 18. RIA TR R15.306-2016 for industrial Robots and Robot Systems – Safety Requirements Task-based Risk Assessment Methodology Update from 2014 version Methodology originally presented in R15.06-1999 Updates ◦ Table 2 – Risk level decision ◦ Table 3 – Hierarchy of risk reduction measures ◦ Table 5 – Minimum functional safety performance Risk assessment needed for all robotics application, whether collaborative or non-collaborative
  19. 19. Quantification of Initial Risk Reviewing task and hazard of the robot in the collaborative workspace Table 1 provides the risk scoring factors ◦ Severity of injury – i.e. Minor – First aid; no recovery required before returning to job ◦ Exposure – i.e. Low – Typically less than or once per day or shift; Occasional short durations ◦ Avoidance – i.e. Likely – sufficient clearance to move out of the way and safety-rated reduced speed control is not used. Goal is to provide initial risk
  20. 20. Risk reduction Provides guidance on what risk reduction measures can be used for the appropriate risk levels. i.e. Very high, high, medium risks require one or combination of: ◦ Elimination ◦ Substitution ◦ Limit Interaction ◦ Safeguarding and Safety-Related Parts of the Control System (SRP/CS)
  21. 21. Risk Reduction – SRP/CS Light curtains Guards - Barrier fencing Interlocks / sensors Integration of protective devices For Collaborative – safety in design ◦ Safety-rated monitored stop ◦ Hand-guiding ◦ Speed and separation monitoring ◦ Power and force limiting
  22. 22. Risk Reduction - Warning/ Admin / PPE Admin Signs Warning lights – audible and visible LOTO procedure Training PPE
  23. 23. Automated Guided Vehicles Vehicles (range of vehicles) that are autonomously operate and can push/pull/move objects.
  24. 24. Types of Robots Rectangle coordinate robot Cylindrical coordinate robot Spherical coordinate robot Articulated arm robot Gantry robot SCARA robot
  25. 25. ANSI/ITSDF B56.5-2012 Defines the safety requirements ◦ Elements of design ◦ Operation ◦ Maintenance There are requirements for the system supplier and manufacturers and the end user. Some of the requirements do not account for the recent trends in technology ◦ Standard requires a minimum path clearance and establishing hazard zones if minimum clearance is not provided ◦ AGV with 3 Imaging can plot a unique path to maintain clearance. Consensus standards are barely keeping up with the improvements and upgrades to robot capabilities
  26. 26. References Robotic Industries Association (RIA) – Robotics.org http://www.robotics.org/content-detail.cfm/Industrial-Robotics-Editorials/Industrial-Robots-and- Manufacturing-Jobs-A-Catalyst-for-Loss-or-Growth/content_id/6179 ◦ Archived webinars ◦ http://www.robotics.org/events.cfm?type=3 OSHA - Industrial Robots and Robot System Safety ◦ Guidelines for Robotics Safety https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iv/otm_iv_4.html ◦ OSHA Technical Manual TED 01-00-015 https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703 Universal Robots - https://www.universal-robots.com/blog/demystifying-cobot-safety-the-four-types-of-collaborative- operation/
  27. 27. References – Cont. Rockwell automation - https://www.rockwellautomation.com/resources/downloads/rockwellautomation/pdf/events/r aotm/sessions/tech/T97NewANSIRIAR1506RobotandRobotSystemSafety.pdf ISA Publication https://www.isa.org/intech/20160803/ Industrial Truck Standards Development Foundation http://www.itsdf.org/pB56.asp

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