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2015 COPLAC Program

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2015 COPLAC Program

  1. 1. 1 Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges Host campus: Ramapo College of New Jersey Participating campuses: Eastern Connecticut State University Keene State College Mansfield University Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Ramapo College of New Jersey State University of New York at Geneseo University of Maine at Farmington 23-24 October 2015
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  4. 4. 4 Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges Fall 2015 Regional Undergraduate Research, Scholarly and Creative Activity Conference Ramapo College of New Jersey Friday, 23 October If time affords, the Ramapo College Rodman Art Gallery, B-wing room B-130 (1st floor) will be open for viewing. 3-5 P.M. Registration, Berrie Center Lobby, 1st floor Sound and stage check for performers, Berrie Center, Sharp Theater, Entrance (1st floor) 5-6 P.M. Art Exhibition, Potter Library Gallery, Main Entrance (off A-Wing 1st floor) 6-7:30 P.M. Dinner & Opening Remarks, Student Center, Alumni Lounges, rooms SC-156-8 Peter P. Mercer, President, Ramapo College of New Jersey Bill Spellman, Director, COPLAC 7:45-7:55 P.M. Group Photo, Berrie Center Lobby (1st floor) 8-10 P.M. Performances, Berrie Center, Sharp Theater, Entrance (1st floor) Saturday, 24 October The student art exhibit will be available for viewing all day in the Potter Library Gallery. 8-9 A.M. Breakfast, Student Center, Alumni Lounges, Room SC-156-8 Breakfast for Campus Coordinators, Birch Mansion, Room M-204 9-10:15 A.M. Concurrent Paper Session 1, A-Wing Humanities, Room A-100 Social Sciences, Room A-101 Creative Writing, Room A-102 10:15-10:30 A.M. Break 10:30-11:45A.M. Concurrent Paper Session 2, A-Wing Humanities, Room A-100 STEM Fields, Room A-101 Social Sciences, Room A-102 11:45-12:30 P.M. Lunch, Student Center, Alumni Lounges, Room SC 156-8 12:30-1:45 P.M. Poster Session, Student Center, Friends Hall, room SC-219 2:00-3:00 P.M. Concurrent Paper Session 3, A-Wing Social Sciences, Room A-100 Social Sciences, Room A-101 Social Sciences and Architecture, Room A-102 3:00 P.M. Concluding Remarks/ Snack pick-up, Student Center, Alumni Lounges, room SC-156-8
  5. 5. Art Exhibition, page 5 ART EXHIBITION Untitled (skateboard) and Adoration of the Earth Jonathan Prokopowitz Faculty mentor: Jacquelyn Skrzynski Ramapo College of New Jersey Acrylic on Panel Visual Arts major Jonathan Prokopowitz grew up in Ringwood, New Jersey. His work shows his interest in Asian pop culture and the California "zine scene." He often upcycles found materials like old skateboards to add to the mix of high and low art forms. How I See Me Natasha Winslow Faculty mentor: Lynn Richardson Keene State College Sculpture Natasha Winslow is an Art major from Keene, New Hampshire. She plans to pursue an MFA with a focus in Sculpture. Tightrope Walker. Magician's Hat. Amanda Coakley Faculty mentor: Rosemarie Bernardi Keene State College Sculpture Amanda Coakley is an Art Major from Ossipee, New Hampshire. She plans to pursue an MFA with a focus in Drawing. Potter Library Gallery Mood Organ: Setting 458 J. Curland Faculty mentor: Imna Arroyo Eastern Connecticut State University Intaglio etching with encaustic medium J. Curland is from New London, Connecticut. He is a Printmaking major and plans to travel to Japan after graduation. Into the Mystic Gretta Ingranam Faculty mentor: Imna Arroyo Eastern Connecticut State University Woodcut reduction print Gretta Ingranam is from Coventry, Connecticut and studies Printmaking and Art History. Post-graduation plans include traveling and exploring her printmaking concepts.
  6. 6. Performances, page 6 PERFORMANCES Sharp Theater Pathways The CantaNOVA vocal ensemble Faculty mentors: Lisa Lutter & Itay Goren Ramapo College of New Jersey Choral performance Through the vision of contemporary composers, this program explores poetry extending from King Solomon, 9th century Japanese Buddhism and Gaelic legend to musical settings of Yeats, e.e.cummings, and Kahlil Gibran. The voices of CantaNOVA paint vivid musical landscapes in works by Michael McGlynn (Ireland), Ola Gjeilo (Norway), Eleanor Daley (Canada), African- American traditional music arranged by Alice Parker, and Daniel Elder (U.S), all living composers. SOPRANO I: Hadar Baron, Lisa French, Julia Montella SOPRANO II: Michelle Encarnacion, Erica Morel, Rebecca Morel, Alyssa Rabinowitz ALTO I: Heather Howell, Jessica Perez, Hannah Reasoner, Sarah Zyto ALTO II: Barbara Carra, Ali Castellucci, Jessica Minzner, Claudia Quitt TENOR I: Johnathan Fishkin, Jimmy Santos, Jeremy Watson TENOR II: Braden Bock, Jesse Bastin, Michael Pacheco Bass I: Billy Butka, Hristo Ganchev, Zachary Olsson BASS II: Jake Bookbinder, Sam Chapman, Cole Stukane Pop Goes the Horn Club Mansfield University Horn Club Faculty mentor: Rebecca Dodson-Webster Mansfield University Horn Ensemble This performance will feature the versatility of the French Horn and Horn Ensemble. The idea of arranging popular and film music for this ensemble has been an ongoing faculty/student collaborative project and has resulted in a number of campus and regional public performances. The group was inspired by the ground-breaking ensemble Genghis Barbie, which the club brought to campus twice over the past few years. Mansfield University was one of the first college- or university-featured performances for this group, and in spite of the fact that they have since performed extensively globally, MU remains a favorite venue. One of the pieces we will perform on this show is from their first album – an arrangement of “Take On Me” made famous by the band A-Ha. Ben Wagner, Dylan Krall, Megan Warriner, Rachael Rice, Caroline Bollinger, Elayna Eldridge, and Rebecca Dodson-Webster
  7. 7. Oral Presentations, Session 1, page 7 ORAL PRESENTATION SESSION 1 9:00 to 10:15 am HUMANITIES Room A-100 Robert Campin’s The Mérode Altarpiece: A Break from Conventional Liturgical Imagery and Iconography Found in the Art of the Annunciation Allyson Pereyra Faculty mentor: Lynette Bosch State University of New York at Geneseo This research was conducted for a Renaissance art history course at the State University of New York at Geneseo. It explores the religious iconography of Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The research specifically concentrates on the artistic depictions of the Christ child - before his actual birth - in the Biblical holy scene known as the "Annunciation," in which the angel Gabriel announces to the Virgin Mary that she will give birth to Christ. This research primarily focuses on a widely popular northern European artist, specifically Flemish artist Robert Campin, who breaks from the conventions of Biblical imagery of his time when he depicts the Christ child as present when the Virgin was just learning that she will give birth to him. The research also places into perspective the work of Campin's contemporaries as well as the artists preceding him. Allyson Pereyra was born and raised in New York City and is a double major in Communication and art History. Her post-graduation plans include working at a major museum or art gallery abroad for at least a year while teaching English to support herself. Composing in a Minimalist Style Max Kliegle Faculty mentor: Heather Gilligan Keene State College “Minimalism” is a style of music characterized by repetition of musical ideas in a slowly evolving harmonic background. The style has been employed by many contemporary composers within the last fifty years, most notably John Adams, Philip Glass, and Steve Reich. Music written in this style might be considered by non-musical audiences to sound hypnotic or mesmerizing, but in fact much compositional planning and varied compositional materials are required to successfully build a minimalist composition. This presentation will address the compositional techniques that are essential in the creation of minimalist music. I will discuss my own attempt to write in this style, including the challenges I have faced in trying to draw from the influences of seasoned minimalist composers while still maintaining my own unique compositional voice. Previously, my work consisted of mostly short movements which developed material over the course of two or three minutes. The process of writing in a minimalist style demands a shift toward large-scale development of material over longer periods of time. In describing the expansion of my compositional process, I will draw comparisons
  8. 8. Oral Presentations, Session 1, page 8 between my own minimalist composition for solo piano and works by John Adams. A demonstration of different minimalist aesthetics and various influences that contribute to this style of music will be enhanced by sound clips and visual examples drawn directly from the score. Max Kliegle is a pianist and guitarist from Exeter, New Hampshire earning duel Bachelor of Music degrees in Composition and Technology, with an anticipated graduation of December 2015. He plans to attend graduate school in composition and continue teaching, writing, and performing. Cultural and Religious Syncretism in Birds Without a Nest by Clorinda Matto de Turner Benjamin Hockenberry Faculty mentor: Fanny Arango-Keeth Mansfield University In this research project, I analyze the representation of cultural and religious syncretism in the first indigenista novel of the Americas: Aves sin nido by Peruvian Clorinda Matto de Turner (1852-1909). This novel presents the voice of the Quechuas in Cusco, Peru. Aves sin nido is a nonexclusive feminist dynamo told from the point of view of a woman in South America in the nineteenth century. Matto’s specific perspective provides insight into the intercultural relationships between the native Andean people and the mix of cultures that resulted from the Spanish invasion. Ben Hockenberry is a senior at Mansfield University where he studies Spanish and English. He recently traveled to Peru where he took advanced courses in Spanish language and Andean culture. Truth on March: Interpreting the Dreyfus Affair in French History Zachary Feury Faculty mentor: Anthony Daly Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts In 1894, a young Jewish officer on the French General Staff was falsely accused of treason. Alfred Dreyfus was convicted on the basis of dishonesty and forged documents. Exiled to Devil's Island in the most inhospitable reaches of French colonial possessions, Dreyfus would become a martyr, the victim of social injustice and religious persecution in an affair that would consume French society at all levels. The Dreyfus Affair embodied the issues that preoccupied France throughout the nineteenth century: the question of national identity, the separation of church and state, and the struggle between traditionalism and modernity. It would take twelve years before Dreyfus was finally exonerated. The Dreyfus Affair became much more than the trial of Dreyfus and his endurance in the face of injustice—it changed France. This paper will utilize primary and secondary sources to interpret the significance of the Affair in the politics and society of fin de siècle France. To what degree did the Dreyfus Affair engender the official separation of church and state in 1905? How much responsibility can be attributed to the Affair in regard to the political shift from right to left in the
  9. 9. Oral Presentations, Session 1, page 9 early twentieth century? And how did the denouement of the case against Alfred Dreyfus shape perceptions of France's national identity, both domestically and abroad? Zachary Feury is a senior majoring in History and Political Science. He intends to continue studies in either history or law. SOCIAL SCIENCES Room A-101 Transgender Identity and the Online TV Revolution: "Transparent" and Beyond Matthew Searfoss Faculty mentor: Ruma Sen Ramapo College of New Jersey This paper addresses transgender identity and the portrayal of the transgender community in the media, specifically on TV. Additionally it explores the world of online television streaming and the creative benefits it has to offer writers/producers in telling unique and typically unheard stories. By analyzing the television series "Transparent" and collecting audience data through focus group interviews, this paper highlights the effectiveness of its message and the need for more transgender stories to be told. Through a textual analysis of the show, it was discovered that each person responds to a transition differently and that no two transitions are exactly alike. The focus group discussion revealed that while the show may be a step in the right direction, there is still a great deal of work that must be done before the transgender community can find themselves accurately portrayed on TV, with more visibility in mainstream media. Online streaming is leading the way in positive transgender representations due to the personal access offered to subscribers. Finally, the paper highlights what can be done to move forward representations of the transgender community, in order to foster tolerance and intercultural communication between the transgender community and the rest of the country. Matthew Searfoss is a junior majoring in Communication Arts with a concentration in Global Communication and Media and minoring in International Business. Matthew is from Green Brook, New Jersey and after graduation plans on pursuing a career in entertainment public relations. And the Award Goes To...Just Who You Thought It Would: The Representations, Misrepresentations, and Lack of Representation of Racial and Ethnic Minorities at the Annual Grammy Award Shows Jenna O'Connor Faculty mentor: Ingrid Castro Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Throughout the years, celebrity performers—no matter the industry—have been presented with honorable awards for their hard work, determination, veneration, and more recently, the instituted realization of their racial or ethnic identity. The Annual Grammy Award Show is no different, televising the show for the public as celebrity musical artists are rewarded for their compositions, or in most cases, the compositions of someone else. In this paper, I will be diligently analyzing years of televised Grammy Awards Ceremonies through an interdisciplinary
  10. 10. Oral Presentations, Session 1, page 10 lens in order to prove a pattern of one of the many forms of systemic inequality that permeate that variation of entertainment. In order to change the way the Grammy Awards are conducted— in the decision making of the nominees, performers, attendees, as well as who actually accepts the golden gramophone at the annual ceremonies—wider discussion pertaining to whiteness, as well as discourse relating to race and ethnicity must be universally understood and talked about inside institutions as well as in the general public. Jenna O’Connor is a senior double-majoring in Sociology and English/Communications with a concentration in journalism, and minoring in Women's Studies. She grew up in a small town called Billerica, and being at MCLA has helped her to become the person she is today. After graduation, she hopes to pursue sociology in graduate school at the PhD level. An Analysis of Traditional Media Coverage of Sexual Assault on College Campuses Erin Drouin Faculty mentor: Nicole Krassas Eastern Connecticut State University Sexual assault on college campuses has been covered more in the news media over the past few years despite evidence suggesting that rates of sexual assault have remained unchanged for a generation or more. At the same time we have seen a shift in the way the news media decides which stories to cover and how to cover them. Evidence suggests that social media has helped to create these shifts. The subject of sexual assault on college campuses has manifested itself on social media which has potentially caused media attention and the subsequent political response. This project is a piece of a broader research project that will examine the process by which social media and traditional media coexist and react to one another to respond to the social issue of sexual assault on college campuses and whether sexual assault on college campuses has been gaining media attention due, at least in part, to its presence in social media, particularly Twitter. The paper will examine news media narratives from October 22, 2013 through October 25, 2014 covering sexual assaults on the University of Connecticut campus. Before analysis of the interaction between the news and social media can take place, one must first gain an understanding of the nature of the coverage, what the key narratives were and how they changed over the course of the coverage. Erin Drouin is a senior from Stafford Springs, Connecticut majoring in Political Science with minors in Women’s Studies, Communications, and Writing. She hopes to pursue an advanced degree in communications research after graduation. Men’s and Women’s Perceptions of a Politician’s Extramarital Affair Lindsey Whitney Faculty mentor: Karol Maybury University of Maine at Farmington Previous research has revealed that perceptions of a politician’s personality traits and personal life are as important as competence to do the job. The current study examines undergraduates from the University of Maine at Farmington to see if women perceive a politician’s affair as more important than men. The method provided participants (17 males, 37 females) with a scenario about a politician having an affair and asked them to answer eight questions on a Likert
  11. 11. Oral Presentations, Session 1, page 11 scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Independent samples t-test were conducted on the dependent variables and supported the hypothesis. Namely, women judged a political candidate more negatively based on the affair. Results also revealed that women participants asserted that the affair “matters more” than men. The implications of these findings in real-world political campaigns are discussed. Lindsey Whitney is a Psychology major from Lisbon Falls, Maine. CREATIVE WRITING Room A-102 Sweet Tea Poetry Katie Glaubitz Faculty mentor: Jeff McRae Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts This selection of poems includes two sonnets, two free verse poems, and a pantoum. The poems are not connected: each one is independent and possesses its own theme. Poems are titled “Save Me”, “Swept by Toxic Tides”, “Street Corner Conundrum”, “Unripe”, and “Awaken”. Katie Glaubitz grew up on the North Shore in Rowley, Massachusetts. She is in her senior year, majoring in Interdisciplinary Studies with concentrations in Arts and Culture. Learning How to Fly Kimberly Renee Arthurs Faculty mentor: Patricia O’Donnell University of Maine at Farmington This 1300-word creative nonfiction piece illuminates mystic and surreal elements of the dream realm in conjunction with realistic hardships of everyday life. This piece examines the narrator’s escape from reality by lucid dreaming, and focuses on both the serene and frightening interactions with entities of the dream realm. As the narrator’s consciousness weaves between fantasy and actuality, she recalls her struggle with grief after her father’s death. Her dreams grant her emotional relief from the dark void that grief casts, and as she grows as a dreamer through this period of darkness, she discovers a remedy for overcoming grief’s setbacks. In the waking world, the narrator observes a caterpillar on the porch which triggers childhood recollections of saving caterpillars from busy streets and the horrifying discovery one day as thousands of crushed caterpillar corpses surrounded her middle school during a traumatic infestation. Her rejection of death echoes throughout the pieces as the narrator is reminded of a period of emotional struggle and denial in the months following her father’s death. She considers a caterpillar’s metamorphosis, its isolation in the darkness of its cocoon, and its questionable consciousness, and parallels this with her own metamorphic journey through grief. This moment helps her understand the way in which she discovered her wings and learned how to fly over life’s obstacles, rather than getting caught in them. Kimberly Renee Arthurs is from Plymouth, Massachusetts and is currently a senior working towards her BFA in Creative Writing and English. She plans to kickstart a life full of new
  12. 12. Oral Presentations, Session 1, page 12 opportunities in Los Angeles, where she hopes to be a screenwriter and producer and eventually begin work on an MFA. Love, Sex, and Omelets Paige Kisner Faculty mentor: Lilace Guignard Mansfield University I plan to present two of my currently unpublished poems: “Breakfast in Bed” and “Black and Blue Flowers.” Both poems deal with love in different ways, and both include references to omelets (hence my presentation title). “Breakfast in Bed” is a comical poem that examines love as it relates to sexual intimacy, using an extended metaphor of making an omelet to represent a girl losing her virginity. “Black and Blue Flowers” has a very different feel. This poem looks at how people’s ideas of love change as they grow older, but their desire never fades. The poem’s deeper subject addresses abuse in a delicate way, rejecting the notion that love always means submission and service. Born and raised in Mansfield, Pennsylvania, Paige Kisner is an English major with a concentration in Professional Writing and a minor in History. Upon graduating in May of 2017, Paige hopes to work as a counter-terrorism analyst for the government. Mother Knows Best Lindsey Centrella Faculty mentor: Emily Robins Sharpe Keene State College In this completed piece of fiction, a woman struggles with the traditional female roles in post- World War II American Society. She waits for her husband’s return from fighting in World War II, still placed with the obligations of a housewife and of a mother. But is everything truly as it seems? With this piece, I intended to work with the challenges of conveying a complete plot within the short story form. I was also interested in creating tension between the narrator and her audience. Does the audience sympathize with her at first? Does it feel betrayed once it realizes that she may be seen as an unreliable narrator? For my protagonist, I wanted to characterize her as an atypical literary mother figure. The expected role as a mother in literature is parallel to that in society: loving, caring and a role model for her daughters. Rachel portrays the complete opposite, which ties into two themes that I wished to explore through this short piece: the possible connection between mental health and loss. Lindsey Centrella is from Uxbridge, Massachusetts and studies Elementary Education as well as English. She is a junior and intends to pursue graduate study in Elementary Education to become an elementary school teacher.
  13. 13. Oral Presentations, Session 1, page 13 Sad Little Lobster Gurgles Nathaniel Duggan Faculty mentor: Patricia O’Donnell University of Maine at Farmington These four poems are all pretty different, both in terms of style and content, but they all share an interest in the absurd. Each piece is dedicated to finding crudeness in beauty and beauty in crudeness. The first piece explains why God prefers fish over unicorns, the second explores a culture where back-to-school binders and ecstasy are purchased by the same demographic, the third compares dying to baking bread, and the fourth comments on a country where factories hang nets outside windows to discourage their workers from suicide and strippers are hired to perform at funerals. Born and raised in Scarborough, Maine, Nathaniel Duggan majors in Creative Writing. After completing his degree, he plans to attend a graduate creative writing program. Reckless Kate Begin Faculty mentor: Lisa Fraustino Eastern Connecticut State University This poem is about how relationships fall apart over time due to reckless behaviors and inconsiderate actions. It is about wishing for no senses so negative actions or words would not be felt or heard, that way less damage is done. I wrote this poem from the center of my heart. Kate Begin is a Communication major and Women/Gender Studies minor from East Hampton, Connecticut. After college she plans to invest herself in writing and editing while working with women, turning oppression into opportunity.
  14. 14. Oral Presentations Session 2, page 14 SESSION 2 10:30 to 11:45 am HUMANITIES Room A-100 ‘On Ne Peut Pas y Échapper’: Cinematic Space, Time, and Gender Transformation in “Jeanne Dielman”, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles and “Under the Skin” Gabby Boyle Faculty mentor: Irina Leimbacher Keene State College This paper is situated in the intersection between feminist film theory and queer theory. By analyzing two seemingly disparate films using a theoretical framework informed by both schools of thought, I explore the effect of cinematic space and time on gender representation. While the films in my analysis have been scrutinized for their feminist subtexts before, I compare them side-by-side and scene-by-scene in order to discover how each film functions as an ideological text working for/against the dominant gender discourse, and as a model for transgressive representational practices. On the surface, the films’ differences make a fruitful comparison seem almost impossible. "Jeanne Dielman" was released in 1976 and since has become somewhat of a legendary avant-garde feature. "Under the Skin" is a stylish contemporary science fiction movie directed by someone with a background primarily in commercial work and music video production. What they have in common, however, is two female protagonists in the process of becoming and unbecoming women. Both films are structured around the two main characters’ gendered routines as they happen in both determinate and indeterminate space/times. If gender “is an identity tenuously constituted in time” as Judith Butler maintains in her hallmark gender performativity theory, then gender is an identity equally as anchored in space. Therefore, challenging dominant gender discourse must occur through the deconstruction and subversion of feminine time and space. Where "Jeanne Dielman" succeeds in this, and potentially paves the way for achieving “gender transformation” through its subversive structure, "Under the Skin" fails. Gabby Boyle is a senior from Nashua, New Hampshire. After graduating with a dual degree in Women’s and Gender studies and Film studies, she hopes to explore the Pacific Northwest. Literature of the Great War: a Shifting of Time and Identity Nicole Hazlett Faculty mentor: Beverly J. Evans State University of New York at Geneseo This paper presents a case study of the symbolic use of time in Pierre Drieu la Rochelle’s La Comédie de Charleroi and R.C. Sheriff’s Journey’s End. In both works, the past and the present are interwoven almost seamlessly, representing the broken psyche of society. The Great War had paralyzed society, leaving a generation unable to evolve beyond the horrors of its past. The main characters in the two works demonstrate a distinct lack of self-development, reflecting society’s collective inability to forget the war.
  15. 15. Oral Presentations Session 2, page 15 Nicole Hazlett is a senior Mathematics and French major hailing from Naples, New York. She is currently researching and applying to post-graduation programs. The March on Washington and the Rise of Martin Luther King Cassandra LaChance Faculty mentor: Ingrid Castro Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts The Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) was characterized and shaped by various leaders, organizations, and movements. The Civil Rights Movement was mobilized to encompass social movements in the U.S. to end discrimination and segregation of African Americans ensuring the legal recognition and protection of their civil rights outlined in the Constitution. Although there are dozens of people who can be thought of as leaders of the Civil Rights Movement, perhaps one of the more legendary leaders of the movement was Martin Luther King, Jr. King is one of the most famous and well known leaders of the Civil Rights Movement, known for his affiliation with peaceful civil disobedience to bring about the end of discrimination and segregation against all black Americans. King’s legacy stemmed from the March on Washington, August 28, 1963, where he delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. Although there were ten other speakers that day, the words of Martin Luther King are remembered most clearly. Bayard Rustin, the organizer behind the March on Washington and other key events, helped create an atmosphere where Martin Luther King, Jr. became recognized as the leader of the Civil Rights Movement, shaping the movement to how it is known today. Cassandra LaChance is from Adams, Massachusetts, and is a double major in History and Sociology with a minor in Women's Studies. Her post-graduation plans are to join CityYear in Americorps for a year and then go on to graduate school to get a PhD in Sociology. Lesbian Liberation: An Extension of Women’s Liberation Jennifer Zgola Faculty mentor: Stacie Taranto Ramapo College of New Jersey This paper examines the lesbian liberation movement of the late 1960s, arguing that it was a result of the compulsory heterosexuality in American society at that time, as much as homophobia in feminist groups. The women's rights movement of the late 1960s to early 1970s sought to liberate women from the constraints of a male-dominated society, however, it catered mostly to heterosexual, middle-class white women. Lesbian-identified women were largely quiet until the more visible fight for gay rights began in 1969. When lesbian-identified women started to talk about lesbian issues within feminist circles, they were dismissed and faced homophobia within both liberal and radical feminist groups. This, in turn, resulted in a theory of lesbian feminism. Although the liberal and radical wings of feminism sought to liberate women from a male-dominated society, lesbian-identified women had to have their own movement to work on lesbian issues. The fact that heterosexuality, a man and woman pairing, was the norm in American society in the 1960s only compounded this discrimination. The paper describes how everything in society was seemingly focused on heterosexuality, even movements to expand oppressed groups' rights. Compulsory heterosexuality was a result of a patriarchal or male- dominated society. Heterosexuality was idealized in films and literature. Women in society
  16. 16. Oral Presentations Session 2, page 16 were defined by their relationships with men, thus pressing heterosexuality on them. In this system, women and men were not equal, and lesbian-identified women were nearly invisible - constraints that, as the paper illustrates, shaped the activism they undertook to create change. Jennifer Zgola is from Keansburg, New Jersey and a History major at Ramapo College. After graduation Jennifer plans to go to graduate school and study history. STEM FIELDS Room A-101 A General Class of Unbiased Estimators Using the Multilevel Monte Carlo Method and its Applications to Option Pricing Jonathan Couper Faculty mentor: Duy Nguyen Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Consider a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) of the form dX(t)=f(X(t))dt+g(X(t))dW(t), with X(0)=X0 where f(X(t)), and G(X(t)) are given functions, known as the drift and diffusion coefficient, respectively, and W(t) is the standard Brownian motion. This equation has many applications in biology, stochastic control theory, and especially in mathematical finance. Numerical methods must be used to find the approximate solution since the solution is virtually impossible to attain. Due to its simplicity, Monte Carlo method is often the first choice to find the numerical solution of the above equation. However, it is shown that the cost of the Monte Carlo method is where the required accuracy is. In 2008, Giles proposed a remarkable improvement to the approach of discretizing with a numerical method and applying to standard Monte Carlo method. His multilevel Monte Carlo method offers a speed up. Hence the computations can run 100 times more quickly when two digits of accuracy are required. Since then, multilevel Monte Carlo method has been adopted by a range of researchers and a wealth of practical significant results has arisen. In this talk, I will apply a Multilevel Monte Carlo method to options pricing. I consider a general class of unbiased estimators. The new class generalizes the randomized Monte Carlo Method proposed by McLeigh (2011), and Rhee and Glynn (2015). Numerical examples will be provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. Jonathan Couper grew up in West Orange, New Jersey and has always been interested in mathematics. He is a senior now and is looking forward to using his degree in Mathematical Finance and Computer Programming. The Sum of Permutations in Cryptographic Hash Functions Nicholas Lacasse Faculty mentor: Lori Koban University of Maine at Farmington
  17. 17. Oral Presentations Session 2, page 17 With the large scale proliferation of networked devices, the guarantee of secure authentication, data integrity and confidentiality have become paramount. Cryptographic hash functions have many applications in information security and are commonly used to verify data authenticity. Grøstl is an iterative cryptographic hash function and one of the five finalists in the recent NIST SHA-3 competition. Grøstl’s compression function is built from two distinct permutations, crucial for preserving its security. Its elegant design and simplicity inspires continued high interest in the security features of this hash function. A strong cryptographic hash function is collision-free, meaning it is difficult to find two inputs which map to the same output. This consideration is made on the scope of the entire hash function. However, the chance for collisions is greater if the internal cipher is itself producing collisions. The design of many cryptographic hash functions, including Grøstl, involves the summation of the outputs of two permutations. Our work aims to find necessary and sufficient conditions for when the sum of two permutations is itself a permutation thereby avoiding collisions from the internal cipher. Prior to our research, this question has not been significantly studied. The ultimate goal is to answer the question for permutations of matrices over Galois fields. Our research has laid the foundation by examining permutations over finite cyclic groups. Nicholas Lacasse is from Oxford, Maine and is double majoring in Secondary Education and Mathematics. After completing his undergraduate work, he plans to attend graduate school and pursue a PhD in Mathematics. Potential Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Induced Tree Mortality on Hemlock Ravine Lotic Ecosystems Brandyn Balch Faculty mentor: James Kernan State University of New York at Geneseo The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the potential impacts of Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) mortality from hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) on Letchworth State Park hemlock ravine lotic ecosystems. Three kick net samples were collected along three Genesee River tributaries and inventoried for benthic macroinvertebrate biodiversity. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, flow rate, pH, forest canopy cover, dominant/co-dominant tree species, and DBH (diameter at breast height) measurements were also taken. Sampling began in May, and was repeated in July and September. As the project is in the pilot phase, the current focus is on establishing baseline conditions to which future surveys will be compared. Brandyn Balch is a Geography major from Ballston Spa, NY. He is planning to attain an MPA from Syracuse University and a PhD in Geographic Information Science from University of Colorado at Boulder. The Potential Role of Feather Linings in Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) Nests Lauren Pardi Faculty mentor: Leslie Clifford Mansfield University Nest architecture can play a key role in the nesting success of birds. Some birds line their nests with feathers, and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the adaptive value of
  18. 18. Oral Presentations Session 2, page 18 feather linings. I tested the hypothesis that feather linings in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nests function as insulation for developing eggs and chicks. I removed the feather lining of tree swallow nests and compared nest cup temperatures to control nests which did not have feather linings removed, as well as to feather-supplement nests. Nest cup temperatures were recorded twice, once early in the egg incubation period and once early in the nestling period. If feathers function to provide insulation, then feather removal nests should experience lower nest cup temperatures than either control or feather supplemented nests. However, I found that average nest cup temperatures in nests with feathers removed did not differ significantly from either control nests or feather-supplemented nests. Feather removal did not appear to affect hatching success, fledging success, or chick mass prior to fledging. Previous studies have shown that nests without feathers cool more quickly than nests with feather linings, so incubating adults in my experiment may have been compensating for the absence of feathers by increasing the amount of time they spent incubating. Lauren Pardi, from White Haven, Pennsylvania, is a senior Environmental Biology major. After graduation she plans to obtain a master’s degree in Biology. SOCIAL SCIENCES Room A-102 #BlackLivesMatter: A Collaborative Text Misha Choudhry Faculty mentor: Todd Barnes Ramapo College of New Jersey In my paper, I study the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter as a text using structuralist semiotics, Marxist criticism, critical race theory, and genealogy. From a structuralist semiotic perspective, my foremost concern is the authorship of #BlackLivesMatter. Since the hashtag is a kind of collaborative text, it is difficult to reduce its ownership to one author. However, Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi did in fact create the hashtag. Using Michel Foucault's "What is an Author?" I explore their relation to #BlackLivesMatter, as well as how the hashtag functions as a classificatory feature. Marxist criticism also offers some valuable insight into what #BlackLivesMatter does as a text. Specifically, I used Louis Althusser's "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses" to look at how #BlackLivesMatter challenges the ideology of colorblindness by explicitly talking about race. In order to understand the cultural and historical context of #BlackLivesMatter, I analyzed the text using critical race theory. Michelle Alexander's “The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness” sheds light on the legal and historical processes that created the conditions in which police officers can get away with targeting black people. Understanding this systematic degradation is crucial if one wishes to understand the grief and frustration that produced #BlackLivesMatter. Lastly, genealogy is a helpful framework for understanding #BlackLivesMatter. In "Nietzsche, Genealogy, History," Michel Foucault writes about the degradation of marginalized bodies and
  19. 19. Oral Presentations Session 2, page 19 provides some insight into how #BlackLivesMatter creates a working history that people can contribute to on their own terms. Misha Choudhry is a senior from Montville, New Jersey. A Literature major with minors in Sociology and Spanish, she hopes to pursue her academic interests in graduate school. Returns to Investment in College Education: Factoring in Rising Student Debt Emilio Estrella Faculty mentor: Niti Pandey Eastern Connecticut State University Labor economists have long touted the advantages of higher education as a critical factor determining lifelong earning potential. For decades the cost of a bachelor’s degree was swiftly rewarded with increased earnings in comparison to those with high school or trades qualifications. However, rapidly rising education costs, driven by decreasing government spending in higher education, have led to a student debt crisis. With 40 million college graduates carrying a student loan debt, the returns to higher education seem to be rapidly diminishing. This effect is likely compounded by increasing numbers of workers returning to college during the economic recession. In fact, research has found that approximately 60% of all student debtors are over the age of 30 and student loan debt saw an 84% jump since the start of the last recession to $1.2 trillion. This study seeks to examine the potential impact of debt obligations on the lifetime earnings of those with college degrees. Publicly available debt and earnings data are explored in order to begin formulating an understanding of the relationship between student debt and earnings potential. Labor market alternatives to a college degree, such as vocational or trade education, are discussed. Emilio Estrella is a Labor Relations and Human Resource Management major. Raised in Puerto Rico, Emilio is interested in public policy as it relates to issues of labor and employment and hopes to pursue a law degree after graduation. The Importance of Community Banks Bob Parsons and Sage Yudelson Faculty mentor: Marie Duggan Keene State College How did community banks survive the Great Recession better than big corporate banks? How do the community banks work as members of the community to support local businesses? To explore these questions, Sage Yudelson interviewed Gary Gray (former CEO of Connecticut River Bank) who oversaw its 2014 sale to the Mutual Savings Bank, Mascoma. Additionally, Bob Parsons interviewed Greg Tewksbury at the Savings Bank of Walpole on his relationship with local businesses. Community banks offer vital services to localities throughout the United States, including loans, savings, and financial advising. These services are essential to small businesses throughout the country. Our research provides insight as to how local Community Banks supported the manufacturers, the communities, and the people of the Connecticut River Valley. In addition we
  20. 20. Oral Presentations Session 2, page 20 draw conclusions as to how manufacturing not only survived but thrived in the Connecticut River Valley. Excerpts from Yudelson’s and Parsons’s interviews will be shown to represent key findings, as well as quantitative data to support the conclusions being drawn. Bob Parsons, from Windham, New Hampshire, is pursuing a degree in Economics. Sage Yudelson is a junior from Burlington, Connecticut pursing degrees in Economics and Business Management. The U.S. Consumption by Using Regression Analysis Songyi Paik Faculty mentor: Mansokku Lee State University of New York at Geneseo This presentation analyzes which factors affect consumer consumption by using regression analysis, and how these components should be considered by the U.S. government to promote economic growth. Because consumer spending is one of the most important components of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), examining the factors of consumer spending indicates various ways to improve the economy. While studying the GDP components in macroeconomics, there was one interesting feature that the United States has the higher marginal propensity to consume than other countries. Considering consumer spending accounts for two-thirds of the U.S. economic activities, the high marginal propensity to consume in the U.S. contributes to the development of the U.S. domestic market and economic growth. If the government notices economic downturn, they can target factors which can increase consumption to activate domestic economy. There are independent variables to affect consumption expenditures: personal disposable income, interest rates, oil price and recession. In the Council of Economic Advisers report, “The Economy in 2014,” it says consumer spending increased because of the consumer high sentiment with increase in real wages, declining gasoline prices, and employment expectations. Based on these potential variables, this project examines which factors are useful to explain the changes in consumer spending. Moreover, it addresses how the U.S. government can manage them to achieve the continuous economic growth. Songyi Paik is an international student from Deajeon, South Korea and is studying Economics. After graduation, she wants to do an internship in an international organization such as the United Nations Development Programme or World Bank, followed by graduate school for a Ph.D in Economics.
  21. 21. Poster Session, page 21 POSTER SESSION Friends Hall, room SC-219 1. Inhibition of c-src Activity in Primary Bone Marrow Cells Mimics the Decreased Expression of the Osteoblast Phenotype Seen in Tumor Cells Ashley Dinkel Faculty mentor: Thomas Owen Ramapo College of New Jersey Deletion of the c-src gene results in decreased osteoclast and increased osteoblast activity. PP2 is a c-src inhibitor and PP3 is a structurally similar inactive compound. To further investigate the mechanisms through which c-src inhibition drives differentiation, we tested PP2 and PP3 on ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells. C-src inhibition by PP2 beginning at plating decreased alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity at days 4 and 8. In order to address whether this unexpected observation was due to the tumor-derived nature of ROS cells, primary rat bone marrow cells (BMC) were also tested. BMCs were treated with a single dose of PP2 or PP3 at plating or at the first or second media change or the compounds were added beginning at plating or at the first or second media change and continuing until harvest. BMCs were stained for AP activity and mineralized nodules on day 25 and showed that treatment with PP2 resulted in less differentiation. A single dose of PP2 at plating resulted in a 50-70% decrease in AP positive and mineralized nodule area, whereas a single dose of PP2 at days 3 or 7 had no effect as compared to PP3-treated cells. With continuous treatment, a similar decrease was seen when cells were dosed beginning at plating or day 3, however, if dosing was initiated at day 7, a smaller decrease of ~25% in AP activity was seen. These data suggest that c-src is involved in the commitment of BMCs to becoming osteoblasts as well as in their initial differentiation. Ashley Dinkel is from Howell, New Jersey. She is currently majoring in Biology and is planning to attend medical school after graduation. 2. Maternal Fright Conditioning in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulate) Amanda LeBarron Faculty mentor: Justin L Golub Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Chemical cues are used to detect predators and avoid danger. Prey can learn predators from paired alarm cues with predator cues, called dietary cues. It has been previously found that embryos exposed to dietary cues are able to learn and adapt to help avoid the predator after hatching. Guppies (Poecilia reticulate) are live-bearing fish, carrying embryos until they hatch, causing their fry to be independent at “birth.” This is different from egg-laying fish in that embryos are not exposed directly to environmental cues; instead they experience maternal cues that can include cortisol stress hormones. We expect that high levels of stress in the mother (due to predator exposure) will affect the behavioral response of fry to predator cues. Gravid females were exposed to conspecific alarm cues or a water control. Once fry were born, we observed their behavioral response to alarm cue or the control. We expect fry born to mothers exposed to alarm cues to show elevated fright to both alarm cue and water control. This elevated stress-level response is similar to those seen in patients suffering from PTSD, and could lead to opportunities to further study and understand this medical condition.
  22. 22. Poster Session, page 22 Amanda LeBarron is a senior majoring in Biology and minoring in Chemistry. She is a Berkshire County resident living in Cheshire, Massachusetts and is planning to pursue a career in Zoology. 3. Exploring the Genetic Mechanisms of Exfoliation Syndrome and Glaucoma Annie G. Gagnon Mentors: Jeffrey M. Harder and Simon W. John, The Jackson Laboratory: The John Laboratory Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and can cause irreversible blindness. Exfoliation syndrome (XFS), the most common cause of glaucoma, is characterized by accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, called exfoliation material, in the anterior segment of the eye. LOXL1 and CACNA1A are genes associated with XFS that were identified in genome-wide association studies. The pathological mechanisms involving these genes and the formation of exfoliation material are unknown. Here, the effect of loss-of-function of these genes was studied in mutant and control mice. Clinical exams were performed on these mice, at different ages, to observe morphology of the iris and lens and to detect vascular inflammation in the eye. No abnormalities in lens or iris morphology were found, however vascular inflammation was observed in the mutant LOXL1 and CACNA1A mice when compared with controls. In addition, by exome sequencing a large pedigree with many individuals affected by XFS and a dominant inheritance pattern, we searched for novel XFS genes. Annie Gagnon is a Biology major from Seekonk, Massachusetts. After graduation she plans to attend graduate school for Genetic Counseling. 4. Determination of Colony Structure in Formica pergandei Using Microsatellite Markers Meghan Barrett Faculty mentor: Jennifer Apple State University of New York at Geneseo Slavemaking ants are social parasites that conduct raids on their host species, stealing their brood and bringing them back to the slavemakers’ nests to become workers. The Roemer Arboretum houses two species of slavemaking ants, Formica pergandei and Formica subintegra, which parasitize the more abundant host, Formica glacialis. F. pergandei is less common than F. subintegra, and thus not as extensively researched. Colonies in the genus Formica can have one (monogynous) or multiple (polygynous) queens. This study aims to determine the colony structure of F. pergandei. In ant colonies with only one queen, workers will share a very high relatedness coefficient (0.75) due to haplodiploidy. However, if there are multiple queens within the colony, genetic variation increases and the relatedness coefficient within the colony will decrease significantly below 0.75. Workers of F. pergandei were collected from the four colonies in our field site. DNA was extracted and then amplified via PCR using primers developed for other Formica species. Each ant was genotyped at four microsatellite loci. Using these genotypes, intra-colony relatedness was estimated and used to determine whether each colony exhibits monogyny or polygyny. These results contribute to our understanding of the population biology of this little-known ant species.
  23. 23. Poster Session, page 23 Meghan Barrett is a senior earning her B.S. in Biology and Creative Writing and hails from Penfield, New York. Meghan plans to attend graduate school in the fall of 2016 and hopes to continue finding time to write amidst all the exciting research opportunities grad school affords. 5. Identification and Antimicrobial Analysis of Bacteria from the Sea Anemone Apitasia Pallida Andrea Fachini Faculty mentor: Ann Billetz Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Like human bodies, the bodies of cnidarians harbor populations of resident bacteria called symbionts. These bacteria maintain close relationships with their hosts, and may keep them healthy by protecting them from harmful bacteria. The purpose of this study was to identify symbiont bacteria from the sea anemone Apitasia pallida and test them for antimicrobial properties. Pure cultures of the bacteria were isolated and maintained on marine agar slants. DNA harvested from the bacteria was amplified using the 16S rDNA primers 16F and 1542R. Analysis of the DNA resulted in the identification of twenty-nine samples. Of these samples fourteen unique bacteria were identified with at least 91% certainty. Antimicrobial assays were performed testing the newly identified bacteria against several common pathogenic bacteria. To date, clear inhibition has been observed between H. meridian and pathogen S. marcescens. Andrea Fachini is a Biology major from North Adams, Massachusetts. After graduation she plans to attend a physician assistant program. 6. Synthesis of Hydrazones as Antibiotics Ryan Ludvigsen, Shaun Novoshelski, and Christopher Warren Faculty mentor: Jay Carreon Ramapo College of New Jersey Hydrazones are a family of compounds that display a wide spectrum of biological activities including antibiotic activity. We want to understand how the chemical structure influences the antibiotic ability of these compounds. A small library of hydrazones from various mixtures of aromatic benzaldehydes substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents at the para-position and hydrazines have been synthesized via combinatorial chemistry and screened for antibiotic activity against Escherichia coli in order to contribute to an extensive structure-activity relationship study. The synthesis and characterization will be discussed. Ryan Ludvigsen is from Wanaque, New Jersey. He is a Biochemistry major with plans to go to physical therapy school. Shaun Novoshelski, from Vernon, New Jersey, is in his junior year and is majoring in Biology. He plans on attending PA school after graduation. Christopher Warren is a senior majoring in Psychology and minoring in Substance Abuse. He plans to apply to medical school in the spring.
  24. 24. Poster Session, page 24 7. Aging and Comparing Characteristics of Second-growth Stands within the Huyck Preserve Katherine Berdan Faculty mentor: James Kernan State University of New York at Geneseo Second-growth forests are a major part of the landscape of the upper Hudson Valley and Helderbergs. In these regions, abandoned pasture and farmland have been reclaimed by nature over the past century, and are now dominated by second-growth forests, crisscrossed by old roads and stone walls. These second-growth forests are the precursor to old growth stands. Old growth stands (forests older than 250 years old) have been linked to biodiversity hotspots, increased woody debris, and greater basal area per hectare. I hypothesized that since these characteristics are linked to old growth forests, by looking at second growth stands of increasing ages, one would also see an increase in these characteristics. I conducted a survey within the Huyck Preserve to determine if this correlation was present. After completing my data collection and analysis, there were no significant correlations between stand age and biodiversity, downed woody debris, or basal area to be found with the data I had collected. The lack of relationship can be attributed primarily to the relatively young age of the majority of stands, but also the variability of other environmental factors, such as soil pH, light availability, and nutrient levels. The data did provide a useful insight into the composition of the Huyck Preserve forests and suggest the impacts of invasives, the diversity of co-dominant vs. dominant stands, and the intricacies of the gradual aging process that is ongoing within the Huyck Preserve forest stands. Katherine Berdan is a senior Geography major from Schoharie, New York. Following graduation this spring, she plans to pursue a career in Biogeography. 8. Uranium in Groundwater Resources of a Typical New England Setting Joel Hara Faculty mentor: Meredith Metcalf Eastern Connecticut State University Like many metals that are naturally occurring in New England, uranium is common but typically overlooked in drinking water. When uranium is absorbed into the bloodstream over time, one’s kidneys are likely to be affected. Although the source of uranium in drinking water wells is well understood, the variability in the distribution is less so. Therefore, in order to better understand the occurrence of uranium in drinking water, uranium and additional water quality parameters were examined for a random distribution of drinking water wells across Lebanon, Connecticut which is a town that exemplifies the typical hydrogeologic conditions of New England. Results indicated that thirty percent of the wells tested positive for uranium but less than two percent of the wells exceeded the drinking water standard of 30 micrograms per liter. Uranium was prominent in drinking water wells within all rock types. Additional groundwater quality parameters suggest that uranium was not present in acidic conditions (pH < 7) and an oxic environment was likely attributing to the leaching of uranium from the rock. As homeowners begin to test more frequently for this common metal, the human influence on the occurrence of uranium in drinking water will be evident by the ability to examine the temporal variability of this naturally occurring pollutant.
  25. 25. Poster Session, page 25 Joel Hara is from the small town of Hebron, Connecticut and is currently majoring in Environmental Earth Science. Upon graduating from Eastern, he plans to pursue a Master’s degree in the field of Environmental/Civil Engineering. 9. Assessing Alternatives: Chemical Content Analysis of Biodiesel vs. Diesel Fuel Emissions Ethan Hotchkiss Faculty mentors: Nora Traviss and James Kraly Keene State College With climate change an increasing concern, the push towards alternative energy sources from fossil fuels is very strong. Biodiesel fuel is one such alternative; however, it is important to consider that the combustion of biodiesel may contain toxic and harmful organic compounds that are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, airborne particulate matter produced from biodiesel and petroleum diesel engine exhaust was chemically characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Organic compounds were extracted from quartz filter field samples using sonication, and concentrations of 61 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acid methyl esters, hopanes, and steranes were determined using optimized separation methods. The variability in organic chemical composition of particulate matter as a function of size will also be investigated, as the impactor used for filter collection separates content into discrete size ranges. Extraction recovery efficiencies for standards spiked on filters were 106.3 +/- 4.4% for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 97.6 +/- 5.7% for fatty acid methyl esters, and 97.9 +/- 8.1% for hopanes and steranes. Results will be presented that compare changes in chemical concentrations for the two fuels at the two locations. As expected for biodiesel samples fatty acid methyl esters showed the greatest mass as compared to other compounds classes, and the most abundant fatty acid methyl ester detected for biodiesel samples was methyl laurate. The analysis of locally collected samples using analytical instrumentation will provide new data on the chemical composition of particulate matter produced from two different fuel types. Ethan Hotchkiss is a senior Chemistry major and Economics minor from Durham, New Hampshire. Ethan plans to attend medical school after graduating and has interests in oncology and emergency medicine. 10. Augmented and Mixed Reality Utilized In an Educational Platform Daniel Heinen Faculty mentors: Sarah Herrick and Justin Golub Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Visualization is a key part of understanding new information. Using new widely available technology (smart phones, augmented/Virtual reality, 3D scans) we are attempting to revolutionize the way students interact with and study new information to create a highly versatile educational platform. Combining augmented reality, smart-devices and virtual reality we have created a learning technology which allows students to interact with real world objects in augmented reality as well as artificial learning models that help students visualize information in a way that is not possible with conventional 2d learning material. The material and software used to create this platform are readily available and low cost which allow for easy practical uses and applications in a learning environment. This platform would make it possible to use both
  26. 26. Poster Session, page 26 artificial and real 3d objects in an augmented reality or Mixed Reality*environments creating a way for students to take complex objects (eg a cadaver) wherever they require both in and out of class. Daniel Heinen is an undergraduate Biology major, originally from Little Falls, New York. His dream is to become a PhD/MD and research and develop new innovative medical technologies. 11. An Action Research Qualitative Examination of Microsoft Excel, its Utilization in Businesses, and Potential Link to Early Career Success Nicolai Kousholt Soendergaard Faculty mentor: Alex Citurs Eastern Connecticut State University Microsoft Excel is a heavily utilized tool in the business world. In many collegiate academic settings, Excel is viewed as just another basic computer tool and skill set for students. However, in a modified action research study based upon eight months of interning in various departments at LEGO–Americas, direct observations, interviews and work performed suggests that Excel may help collegiate interns and recent graduates achieve early career success. This internship- based study, through a qualitative research lens, utilizes observation logs and notes, interviews, as well as surveys to examine the potential career benefits that could result if certain analytical/data skill sets in tools such as Excel are acquired. Preliminary results of the study suggest that a number of closely derived Excel functions were found to be commonly utilized across numerous different functional areas of LEGO and perceived by multiple key internal LEGO stakeholders as being critical to substantial portions of core daily and long term operations of the company. This study also sheds light on the extensive integration of Excel with many database tools and information systems such as the interfacing with enterprise resource planning systems like SAP. These findings are being compared with survey and observations from other Connecticut companies, with the realization that the functions and how they are utilized may vary between industries and across geographies. These findings suggest that having well-developed Excel skills can help new professionals achieve early career success and therefore may warrant additional attention in academic courses by both students and faculty. Born and raised near the town of Billund, Denmark, Nicolai Kousholt Soendergaard is currently a senior majoring in Business Administration and minoring in Business Information Systems. Upon graduation he will be looking to work full-time before going on to graduate school. 12. The Effects of Nightly Gratitude Exercises on Dream and Sleep Quality Brooke Miller, Regan Parshall, and Mari Rowley Faculty mentor: Gretchen Sechrist Mansfield University There is evidence that the positive state of gratitude can affect emotional tone and sleep quality. In this research, the effects of positive emotionality, induced via manipulation of gratitude, on dreaming and sleep quality were examined. Forty participants were drawn from General Psychology classes at Mansfield University (age: 18 to 25, M=19.23; 18 males and 22 females) and were randomly assigned into a group practicing nightly gratitude exercises (treatment) or a
  27. 27. Poster Session, page 27 control condition. Participants were provided with packets that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Discrete Emotions Scale, a Dream Diary Checklist, and instructions for the “Sleep Better” smart phone application. It was hypothesized that gratitude exercises would influence sleep and dream quality as well as waking emotional state. Independent t-tests and chi- square analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Testing revealed that treatment and control groups were statistically equivalent at pre- and post-testing on all demographic and control items, indicating a successful random assignment. The gratitude group differed from the control group on measures of sleep quality, dream rate, and for emotional states of jealousy, anxiety, surprise, distress/sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, shyness, and guilt. The gratitude group woke up experiencing greater excitement, exhilaration, interest, and enjoyment/joy than did the control group. The gratitude group tended to fall asleep faster than the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant. The results suggest that brief gratitude exercises before bed can improve sleep quality and set a positive emotional tone for the following day. Brooke Miller is from Jersey Shore, Pennsylvania, and is majoring in Psychology with a concentration in Mind/body Health and Counseling. Her post-graduate plans are to go to graduate school to study Clinical Psychology. Regan Parshall is from Athens, Pennsylvania, and is majoring in Psychology with a concentration in Lifespan Development. Her post-graduate plans involve child care services. Mari Rowley is from Mackeyville, Pennsylvania, and is majoring in Psychology with a concentration in Lifespan Development. She plans on attending graduate school to earn her Master’s degree in Developmental Psychology to become a child psychologist. 13. Gender Differences in Bystander Responses to Risk for Party Rape Perpetrated by a Friend, Acquaintance, or Stranger Marisa Motisi Faculty mentor: Jennifer Katz State University of New York at Geneseo Sexual assault is a common problem for college students. Increasingly, prevention efforts emphasize the role of bystanders in interrupting a situation that may escalate to sexual assault. However, many factors inhibit bystander action, including the identity of the potential perpetrator and the gender of the bystander. Overall, bystanders are more inactive with strangers than friends, and overall, male bystanders are more inactive than female. No research has investigated whether, as bystanders, men and women respond similarly to pre-assault situations involving potential perpetrators who are friends, acquaintances, or strangers. Undergraduates (N = 185) were randomly assigned to one of three party vignettes in which a sober man (identified as either a friend, acquaintance, or stranger to the bystander) led an intoxicated woman into a bedroom. The primary dependent variables were risk identification and bystander inaction. Results showed gender differences in risk identification overall and specifically within the stranger condition. Women were more likely to identify risk for assault, both overall and in response to strangers. Results also showed that men were more inactive than women overall, and men’s inaction did not differ across conditions. In contrast, women were significantly more inactive in situations involving an acquaintance compared to either a stranger or a friend.
  28. 28. Poster Session, page 28 Possibly, women were inhibited from confronting an acquaintance because they do not know them well but will likely interact with them again. Without relationship closeness, they may not feel comfortable being accusatory. Bystander education programs that incorporate an emphasis on relational barriers to intervening may help promote active bystander behavior, particularly for women. Marisa Motisi is from West Islip, New York. She is a Psychology Major with a Human Development and Cognitive Science Minor. 14. Community Involvement’s Influences on Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement Joelle Dumont Faculty mentor: Maria Bartini Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts The objective of this study was to measure academic achievement and self-esteem. We looked at students’ participation in service learning and community service as well as those who had not participated. Participants were asked questions about their overall self-esteem, academic achievement and involvement in community service or service learning. It was hypothesized that students who participate in service learning and community service will tend to have higher levels of self-esteem and academic achievement compared to those who do not. Results showed that students who participated in service learning and community service demonstrated significantly higher levels of self-esteem in regards to the type of participation provided in different areas: scholastic competence and global self-esteem in comparison to those who had not participated in community service. Results also showed that participants reported having higher extrinsic motivation overall. Implications of this study may show educators that having students engage in community service or service learning can heighten personal achievement and self-perceptions. Joelle Dumont is a Psychology major minoring in Social Work, from Fitchburg, Massachusetts. After graduation this spring her goal is to enter a graduate program to pursue a Masters in Social Work. 15. The Relationship of Gender Role Beliefs and Sociosexual Orientation with Rape Myth Acceptance Moriah Perrett Faculty mentor: Anita Cousins Eastern Connecticut State University It was hypothesized that men would exhibit higher rape myth acceptance, score higher on the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and more traditionally on the Gender Role Beliefs Scale. People who have low scores on the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory would have higher levels of Rape Myth Acceptance than people who have higher scores on the SSOI. People with more “traditional gender beliefs” would have lower scores on the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale than those who have higher scores indicative of “feminist” beliefs on the GRB scale. The Convenience sample of 47 people (N = 47) was recruited through Experimetrix and word of mouth. 30% men (n=12) and 70% females (n=33). Participants represent age range of 18-27 with
  29. 29. Poster Session, page 29 a mean age of 20. Sociosexual orientation scores for men (M=3.87, SD=1.49) was not significantly different from the sociosexual orientation scores for women (M=3.5, SD=1.49),t(45)=-.74, p=.46. Scores obtained on the Gender Role Beliefs scale by men (M=5.1, SD=.81) was not significantly different from the scores obtained by women (M=5.33, SD=.82), t(450)=.85, p=.4. Men’s scores on the Rape Myth Acceptance scale (M=3.92, SD=.46) was more so but not significantly lower than women’s scores (M=4.23, SD=.55), t(45)=1.79, p=.08. There was not a statistically significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and sociosexual orientation (r(45)=.15, p=.33). There was no significant relationship between gender role beliefs and sociosexual orientation (r(45)=.27, p=.07). A statistically significant relationship was found between rape myth acceptance and gender role beliefs(r (45)=.59, p=.00. As rape myth acceptance increases, traditional gender role beliefs increase. Moriah Perrett is from Andover, Connecticut and will be graduating with a degree in Psychology as well as a degree in Music with a concentration in vocal performance. She will hopefully be pursuing graduate studies. 16. Hear No Evil, See No Evil: The Effect of Auditory and Visual Stimuli on Perceptions of Violence and Feelings of Aggression Sydney Hoffman Faculty mentor: Gretchen Sechrist Mansfield University Countless studies have demonstrated that exposure to violence increases aggressive behavior. The present study expanded this research by examining the effects of auditory (hearing) and visual (seeing) stimuli on perceptions of violence and personal aggression. College students were exposed to an auditory, visual, or both auditory and visual clip of a violent film. Their perceptions of violence in the film were then measured using a 30-adjective Likert scale. Participants also completed a version of the Aggression Provocation Questionnaire comprising five scenarios in which they were asked to rate their level of anger, frustration, and irritation to assess participants’ feelings of aggression. Results showed that participants perceived a film clip to be more violent when they could only hear it, followed by when they could only see it, as compared to when they could both hear and see it. Participants in the visual and auditory conditions also reported feeling more aggressive than participants in the auditory-visual condition. The results of this research suggest that media representations of aggressive behavior and violent content can influence viewers’ perceptions and feelings of aggression even in the absence of explicit modeled behaviors. Violent content, even without visual images, is perceived and can increase an individual’s feelings of aggression. Sydney Hoffman is from Duncannon, Pennsylvania, and is majoring in Psychology concentrating in Counseling and Lifespan Development. After graduation she plans to attend graduate school for school counseling.
  30. 30. Poster Session, page 30 17. Comparing Food Knowledge and Diet Habit of College Students in US and China’s Metropolitan Areas Brenda Arthur and Stephanie Morfi Faculty mentors: Yan Xu, Martha Ecker Ramapo College of New Jersey The earlier young citizens are informed about what is contained in foods, where foods come from, and how foods affect human body, the sooner they would form a good diet habit, and the larger the impact they would make on their own healthcare, family, neighborhood and society. Most kids have gained freedom on choosing what to eat and how to eat since entering College. It is good timing to examine what they have learned about foods and reveal their typical habit of dieting and how that might have been affected by social and economic factors. Particularly, we are interested in comparing college students living in New York (US) versus Shanghai (China) Metropolitan Areas. A pilot study was done in spring 2015 comparing students at Ramapo College of New Jersey (RCNJ) and Shanghai Normal University (SHNU). The results showed that RCNJ and SHNU students had similar patterns on dining spending and milk consumption. However, we observed different patterns in egg, meat, alcohol and nutritional supplement consumption. A higher percentage of RCNJ students claimed that they were aware of organic food and GMO, and have taken a course in college that teaches "healthy eating" concepts. A higher percentage of SHNU students admitted that they had eaten in secret and their weight affected the way they felt about themselves. Further studies will be designed to focus on the discrepancy identified in this pilot study. Brenda Arthur is from Teaneck, New Jersey. She is studying Biology with the hopes of going to medical school and ultimately becoming a professor in a medical institution. Stephanie Morfi is from Ridgefield, New Jersey. She is a senior majoring in Biology and is working towards becoming a physician. 18. Evaluation of Restorative Circles in a High-Risk School Setting Derek Guerrette Faculty mentor: Lilyana Ortèga University of Maine at Farmington Restorative justice (RJ) was introduced into school systems as an alternative to ineffective zero- tolerance and similar punitive policies as another way of dealing with a wide range of disciplinary infractions. The subcategory of RJ, restorative circles (RC), allow the offender, those offended, and those who are affected to come together with the goal of righting wrongs, and allowing all parties to find a new normalcy, together. Recently, school-based restorative practices, including restorative circles, have been gaining in popularity within the US, but peer- reviewed research has been lacking. This project aims to better understand how youth in a high- violence school experience and perceive restorative programing. Specifically, this study aims to understand youth’s motivation behind participating in RC and experiences with RC. Data was collected at an inner-city high school located in the southeastern US. Participants included 125 high-school students. Participants were given a survey to assess their experiences with an RC program at their school. The current study focused on four open-ended questions from the larger
  31. 31. Poster Session, page 31 survey assessment pertaining to their experiences with and perceptions of RC. Responses were coded using content and thematic analysis. Results revealed the following themes in participant outcomes: frustration, satisfaction, building skills and discomfort. Themes will be further explored and illustrative quotes will be provided for each theme. This research is timely given that empirical school-based restorative justice research is severely lacking. This project aims to provide some foundational research on restorative circles to inform not only practitioners and policy makers but also restorative justice researchers. Derek Guerrette is from Oakland, Maine and is a Psychology major with a minor in Computer Science. He is fascinated by the profound effect parents can have on children and vice versa, and is trying to decide between going to school to become a LCSW or going directly into a doctoral program. 19. Value of Individual Votes in Proportional Systems Tess Candler and Phillip Hoeps Faculty mentor: William Salka Eastern Connecticut State University Since the publication of Downs’ theory on rational choice in elections (1957) it has been difficult for researchers to explain voter turnout, since the costs of voting greatly outweigh the likelihood of casting an influential vote. This study attempts to expand Downs’ model by considering new variables in order to explain voter turnout. These additional variables are derived from the theories of instrumental and expressive voting, where the expressive vote value represents the benefits gained from the act of voting, while the instrumental vote value is the probability of one’s vote resulting in one’s preferred candidate getting elected. The difference between the instrumental and expressive vote values is examined by comparing Germany and the Netherlands, which both have different proportional electoral systems. The former is a mixed- member proportional system while the latter is a list proportional system. These electoral differences, combined with differences in governmental organization, change the value of the individual vote in both countries. To compare the two countries, this study looked at factors such as the vote seat disproportionality, number of political parties, and their committee systems. Moreover, this study considers how these factors affect voting behavior for individuals in each system. The findings indicate that the instrumental vote value is about the same in the two countries, while a vote has more expressive value in Germany. These differences are essential to understanding the original model and, when combined with a study of majoritarian electoral systems, provide the foundation for the model’s universal applicability. Tess Candler is a Political Science major from Ledyard, Connecticut. After graduation she plans to pursue a graduate degree in public policy. Phillip Hoeps is a Political Science and Economics major from Bensheim, Germany. After graduation he intends to obtain a graduate degree and work for the diplomatic corps.
  32. 32. Poster Session, page 32 20. The Immorality of Wrongful Life Litigation Thomas Harden Faculty mentor: Lisa Cassidy Ramapo College of New Jersey “Wrongful life” litigation centers around the idea that a child with a severe genetic defect can sue (through the child’s parents) the doctor or medical establishment for failing to detect or report that the child would have such a disability while still in utero, claiming that the doctor is at fault for the allegedly miserable existence of the child plaintiff. Wrongful life litigation is typically undertaken by loving parents, who are trying to secure the money necessary to properly care for their child or to cope with the emotional trauma of having an unexpectedly disabled child. This ultimately means that the parents do not wish their child was dead, but are using such litigation to provide for their child. But resorting to wrongful life litigation as a result of unanticipated medical expenses treats the doctors as a means to an end. Since the doctors have done nothing to injure the fetus, it makes no sense that they should be punished for its genetic condition. Wrongful life litigation is immoral no matter how desperate the plaintiff’s situation for the reason that it demands unwarranted compensation from parties that are blameless. In light of this, wrongful life litigation cannot operate as a universal law, is not supported by the categorical imperative, and cannot be a moral action. Thomas Harden lives in Wayne, New Jersey and is pursuing a Biology major and Chemistry and Bioinformatics minors. He currently plans to apply to graduate school, and is hoping for a career in research. 21. Evaluating Instrumental and Expressive Vote Values in Majoritarian Democracies Kayla Giordano and Christopher Morris Faculty mentor: William Salka Eastern Connecticut State University For the past sixty years, political scientists and economists have been attempting to locate the determinants of voting behavior. Downs’ (1957) model was based on the assumption that rational political actors will vote for a particular candidate so as to maximize their economic utility. Salka (2015) revised Downs’ model by arguing that citizens might receive consumptive benefits from the act of voting and strive to express their political views through elections rather than voting strictly to get a certain candidate elected. In both models, a potential voter’s incentive to turn out is largely determined by her country’s system of government and its electoral rules. This study compares two majoritarian systems—the United States and United Kingdom—with the aim of determining the conditions under which the individual voter’s incentive to turn out is maximized. Vote value indicators at the electoral stage include: electoral districts’ effective thresholds, stringency of ballot access laws, the number of political parties on the ballot, and measures of vote-seat disproportionality. Vote value indicators at the governing stage include: division of power, designs of legislative committee systems, presence of party discipline, and legislative processes. Using data from the 2010 United States House of Representatives elections and the 2010 United Kingdom parliamentary elections, it is argued that voters in the United Kingdom would calculate higher instrumental vote values across the
  33. 33. Poster Session, page 33 electoral and governing stages than voters in the United States. In the United States, expressive vote values are estimated to be higher than in the United Kingdom. Kayla Giordano is a junior from Salem, Connecticut and a member of the Honors Program. She is a double major in Political Science and Economics and hopes to pursue a graduate degree in Public Policy. Christopher Morris is a sophomore Honors student. He lives in Waterford, Connecticut, is double majoring in History and English, and plans on going to graduate school to pursue a career in Education. 22. Ping Pong’s Influence on Chinese people and the World Wilson Tan and Phillip Woo Faculty Mentor: Jasmine Tang State University of New York at Geneseo Ever since the creation of ping pong, the mechanics of the game have been further developed to enhance both quality and sportsmanship of the game. During 1952, Japanese player Horoi Satoh introduced the foam rubber paddle. The paddle made the game faster. Spinning the ball also became a greater factor. Therefore, ping pong requires an incredible sense of coordination and skills due to the lightning fast pace at which it is played. The highest governing body of ping pong is the International Table Tennis Foundation (ITTF). The ITTF established rules that provided fairness to all players and the public who spectated the game. Ping pong can be thought of as a leisure sport or a competitive game. Although ping pong is thought to be just a sport, it has also brought people from all over the world together. On April 10th, 1971, Zhuang Zedong (3 time world champion) met up with American representative, Glenn Cowan to make a diplomacy for ping pong. This event was known as “the ping heard all around the world.” This allowed expansion for the sport. In China, ping pong is considered to be a school sport. This shows how important ping pong is to the Chinese culture. Wilson Tan is from Elmhurst, New York and is a Business and Physics major. He would like to attend graduate school. Phillip Woo is from Flushing, New York and is a Math major. He would like to attend graduate school after graduation to study computer information systems or computer programming.
  34. 34. Oral Presentations Session 3, page 34 SESSION 3 2:00 to 3:00 pm SOCIAL SCIENCES Room A-100 Reification, Consciousness, and Resistance: Twentieth Century Revisionary Marxism on Global Capitalism's Effect on the Mind and Body Janna Nunziato Faculty mentors: Todd Goehle and Tze-ki Hon State University of New York at Geneseo Exploring the symbiotic relationships existent between revisionary Marxist notions of reification, consciousness, and resistance, this paper discusses how contextual time and space affects the perception of an individual’s mental and physical place within the twentieth century global capitalist system. First, I investigate the ways in which the Soviet revolutionary Vladimir Lenin and Hungarian theorist Georg Lukács described the evolution of a world capitalist system and its subsequent penetration and reification into the consciousness of the individual. As Marxists after Lenin and Lukács tried to apply the theories of reification and consciousness to their respective times and spaces, these theorists drew inspiration from non-Marxist perspectives – Sigmund Freud particularly – for their unique observations of the human psyche. More specifically, I locate how Freudian-inspired, Marxist revisions of reification were particularly popular in two dichotomous spaces of the “Long 1960s:” “First World” and the “Third World.” Thus, I analyze how and to what extent the Western Marxist theorist Herbert Marcuse in the “First World” and the Non-Western theorists Aimé Césaire and Frantz Fanon in the “Third World” grafted Freudian psychoanalysis onto foundational Marxist ideas to understand an emerging, post- colonial global economy. By cross-examining the Western and Non-Western analyses into the First World and Third World psyche respectively, I reveal the limits of Marxist thought for the study of Non-Western experience within the global capitalist system and thus provide possible explanations for the divergent forms of mental and physical resistance produced by the two spaces. Janna Nunziato is a senior History/Adolescent Education major from East Northport, New York. Janna plans on teaching social studies at the secondary level and pursuing graduate studies in modern European cultural and intellectual history. Democratic Elections in the American States: A Case for Reform Sabreena Croteau Faculty mentor: William Salka Eastern Connecticut State University Within the democratic system of the United States, the existence of competitive elections gives voters the ability to hold representatives accountable and ensure that the will of the people is being represented. However, there has been criticism over the dominance of the two major political parties. In many states, this party control starts with a closed primary that leads to partisan general elections. Closed primaries force voters to choose a party first, which restricts their access to different candidates and ideas. It can also lead candidates to cater more to the party who supports them than to the constituents they represent. Therefore, some states have
  35. 35. Oral Presentations Session 3, page 35 enacted reforms to open their primary system allowing voters considerably more choice in nominating candidates. This study will examine the top-two primary system, first adopted in Washington, which seeks to diminish party control over the nominating process. It is an open primary where the two candidates receiving the most votes earn the right to appear on the general election ballot, regardless of party affiliation. The study examines electoral competition in the Washington state legislature at the district level. The Holbrook and VanDunk Index and OLS regression are used to compare electoral competition before and after the adoption of the top-two system. Findings indicate that the top-two system in Washington has increased electoral competition and gives a greater voice to citizens. The paper concludes with recommendations for reforms that other states can adopt to enhance the democratic nature of their elections. Sabreena Croteau is from North Kingstown, Rhode Island, a member of the university's Honors Program, and currently a double-major in Political Science and History with a minor in Sociology. She will be graduating in May and hopes to attend graduate school for a Master's in international relations. Heteronormative Social Media Culture Monica Coniglio Faculty mentor: David Oh Ramapo College of New Jersey With the rapid advancement of technology over the last two decades, youth across America have picked up on technological dependencies and addictions to cellular devices. This analysis focuses on the experience, alongside qualitative research, of a young woman dealing with the world of social media and dating apps. In addition, the analysis uses a feminist critique of social media in the author’s reflection of her daily social media usage. There are few existing sources that explore this subject matter, so this research would contribute to a field of knowledge that requires more exploration in the near future. Monica Coniglio is from Paramus, New Jersey, and is a Communication major with a concentration in Global Communication & Media. Monica plans to potentially take on a junior- sales position at a pharmaceutical trade publication based in Ridgewood, NJ where she is currently interning as Project Coordinator. SOCIAL SCIENCES Room A-101 Microagressions on Campus: Experiences and Effects Misha Choudhry and Kate Yost Faculty mentor: Kristin Kenneavy Ramapo College of New Jersey A predominance of research regarding discrimination and marginalization focuses on blatant or obvious forms of discrimination. There is a reason for this: obvious discrimination tends to be the most powerfully hurtful and the easiest to study for this reason. However, subtle forms of discrimination, such as microaggressions, are also powerful in their effects, but this goes more easily unnoticed or unobserved. Microaggressions are comments typically stemming from unconscious bias towards members of marginalized groups, such as racial and ethnic minorities,
  36. 36. Oral Presentations Session 3, page 36 LGBTQ people, women, and people with disabilities. For example, pointing out that a black woman is attractive despite her race is a microaggression because it implies that black women are inherently unattractive. This subtlety makes microaggressions notoriously difficult to quantify and presents many challenges in their categorization. However, examining microaggressions is crucial to fully understanding how certain forms of discrimination - such as racism, sexism, and homophobia - operate. Discrimination works in a variety of complicated ways and is not always obvious; understanding the less obvious interactions of discrimination in people’s daily lives helps to better understand the reality of these forms of discrimination. College campuses are often heralded as bastions of acceptance and progressive thought; however, discrimination remains prevalent in these institutions and often takes the form of microaggressions. Studying microaggressions through the experiences of marginalized students is necessary in order to understand the full scope of how these students’ identities affect them in higher education. Misha Choudhry is a senior from Montville, New Jersey. A Literature major with minors in Sociology and Spanish, she hopes to pursue her academic interests in graduate school. Kate Yost is a senior Sociology major from Green Township, NJ, who plans to earn her Master’s degree in sociology after graduation. Ecuador's Tenuous Relationship with Oil Resources Amanda Wagner Faculty mentor: Karleen West State University of New York at Geneseo Ecuador has a long history of controversy regarding natural resource extraction which, while economically beneficial, does not come without a cost. The extraction of oil, in particular, has become a point of contention for people throughout Ecuador, as it threatens to disrupt many important natural areas while simultaneously providing much needed wealth for a historically poor country. Although some research has been completed regarding some of the immediate impacts of oil extraction on the environment and indigenous groups, little investigation into the larger social and political impacts has been completed. This paper will examine the costs and benefits of oil extraction in the region in an attempt to understand the various ways in which the area’s resource richness has impacted the political atmosphere of the country. Looking to a wide range of sources, including academic, governmental, news and social publications, this paper attempts to provide a cohesive understanding of the interests and demands influencing Ecuadorian politics. Through this interdisciplinary approach, I argue that the presence of oil wealth has served to divide the country, as environmental protection and the preservation of traditional indigenous practices compete with extractive practices and their economic benefits. Examining the emergence of indigenous and environmental groups, environmental lawsuits, political contestation and governmental backlash, I demonstrate that the divides generated by the presence of oil are likely to deepen as the country’s reliance on oil profits continues to grow. Amanda Wagner is a senior International Relations major from Ithaca, New York, with minors in Biology and Environmental Studies. She intends to pursue a career in public health following her graduation in May 2016.
  37. 37. Oral Presentations Session 3, page 37 Hybrid Learning and Student Outcomes: A Student’s Perspective Erin Strickland Faculty mentor: Sarah Baires Eastern Connecticut State University As part of COPLAC’s hybrid learning initiative in Native American studies, supported by the Teagle Foundation, I participated in a collaborative archaeological excavation on Block Island, Rhode Island in summer 2015. This course combined online learning with in-the-field archaeological experience bridging the gap between the online environment and real world fieldwork. As a student in this class I was not only part of a course to learn about the nuances of collaborative archaeological excavation with Native American communities and individuals, but was also directly involved in a salvage archaeological dig where I was able to apply these skills. In this paper I will discuss the benefits and limitations of online hybrid learning from a student’s perspective. I will explore how I utilized the knowledge gained in the online classroom and directly applied it to the archaeological profession in a way not many undergraduates are afforded. I had several opportunities to interact with the public and be part of a larger discussion on how to represent the work that archaeologists do while still being respectful of my fellow First Nations and Native American classmates and peers. From this experience I now have the opportunity to conduct my own research on some of the excavated materials, continuing my practical education in archaeological research. Finally I will discuss how this field experience, and the online hybrid learning model, provided me with a unique opportunity to learn how archaeology relates to the larger world. Erin Strickland is from Gales Ferry, Connecticut and is majoring in History-Social Science and Spanish, and minoring in Anthropology, Asian Studies, and Computer Science. She is planning on attending graduate school for a PhD in Anthropology, focusing on Archaeology. SOCIAL SCIENCES AND ARCHITECTURE Room A-102 Problem-Based Service-Learning Architectural Design Studio Experience: Designing For and With a Community Based Organization Patrick Chabot, Brooke DeYoung, and Rachel Eldridge Faculty mentor: Bartlomiej K. Sapeta Keene State College As a part of the Early Design Studio, an architecture course rooted in the practices of Problem- Based Service-Learning and augmented by industry practitioners, three students engaged in a re- design of an aging K-12 dormitory building on the campus of Hampshire Country School in Rindge, NH. This project included the purposeful integration of collaborative learning strategies with direct community service at an institution supporting boys of significant intellectual potential, hampered by the qualities of a traditional schooling environment. This presentation will: - explain the implementation process of Service-Learning strategies that consist of “preparation, action, reflection, celebration, and evaluation“, a methodology popularized by David Payne; - characterize the variety and quality of interactions among the students, faculty, community clients, project users, and industry experts assigned to the project;

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