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Next-generation multi-wavelength
lithography: survey and roadmap
John S. Petersen, Periodic Structures, Inc.
john@periodic...
Outline and Comments
• Super-resolution with Multi-wavelength lithography (MWL)
– Principles: Improve resolution by trimmi...
Motivation for a New Lithography
• Money
– EUV and 193i multi-patterning is prohibitive except for HVM
of leading edge dev...
InSTED Lithography
• Interlace Activation
(λA) and
Deactivation (λD)
interfering beams
• Trims the beam so
the resist near...
InSTED Lithography Examples
20 nm on 300 nm Pitch
@ 0.4 Intensity λA=405nm
λD=532nm (50X Intensity)
107 nm on 300 nm Pitch...
InSTED Lithography
20 nm on 40 nm Pitch @ 0.4 Intensity λA=405nm λD=532nm
1 1 12 2 23 3 34 4 4
Paper 9052-6 Next-generatio...
InSTED Lithography
Interference STimulated Emission-Depletion Lithography
Absorption 10-15 s
2-photon separation <10-18 s
...
Possible Photo Pathways
2/23/2014
IEUVI Resist TWG Meeting
Periodic Structures, Inc.
11
Spectra and Excitation-Depletion
Absorbance
Fluorescence
Phosphorescence
STED 2-Photon
1-Photon
RelativeSpectralUnits
Wave...
Photo-shutter MGCB Demo
Courtesy of Zuleykhan Tomova, Fourkas Group, UMD 2014
Activation
+
Deactivation
Activation
Activat...
Thin Resist Result
NA=1.45
Resolution Pitch Limit: 673-551 nm
Achieved 400 nm w/pattern collapseFourkas Group Set up
Paper...
Mechanisms Beyond STED for Lithography
• Stimulated Emission-Depletion (STED): None
confirmed for lithography
• Photo reve...
Photon induced Inhibition of Polymerization
9 nm resolution shown in “E” but consumes reactants and won’t cycle without do...
Simple 2-Color Resist
Paper 9052-6
Next-generation multi-wavelength
lithography
17
0
2E+13
4E+13
6E+13
8E+13
1E+14
1.2E+14
1.4E+14
1.6E+14
1.8E+14
2E+14
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
NumberofMolecules/Photons/cm2
...
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
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0.90
1.00
50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 140.00
Re...
Molecular Switch
Write Mask → Image Mask → Erase Mask (Repeat)
• Photo chromic has limited potential:
– Absorbance shutter...
Super-resolution Lithography System Schematic
Camera
Telecentric
Relay
D
M
D B B R
Beam-
splitter
Objective
Light Pipe
Fru...
Pixels Projected to the Wafer
Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 22
US8642232 B2
Deactivation Patte...
Lithography projection using InSTED
J. T. Fourkas and J. S. Petersen, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., (to be published 2014).
Pap...
Throughput varies with the type of Pattern
and the Line Edge Resolution
Pattern Type
Continuous
Lines
Broken
Lines
Arbitra...
Throughput Estimates for a Fully Populated
Super-Resolution System having 20nm Pixel
Size and 2.5 nm Edge Position Grid
DM...
Cost versus Throughput Estimates for a
20 nm Super-Resolution System Using
3rd Generation DMD Technology
0
10
20
30
40
50
...
Resist Technical Requirements
Challenge: Has to work as a resist
– Fast with good LWR
– No pattern collapse, Swelling miti...
PSI Enables Material Development
• Develop and supply tools for:
– Material R & D
– Lithography test
– Lab-2-fab imaging t...
InSTED Apparatus
Activation Lasers
Delivery Through
Beam Splitter
Activation Lasers Activation Lasers
Delivery Through Bea...
Thank You
Work supported by NSF Grant: IIP-1318211
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
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1
1.2
-0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
ExposureDose
Image Position (Microns)
Exposure Dose Profile ...
Fourkas: RAPID1
800 nm CW
800 nm
pulsed
Intiation(solvated)ePI](solvated)ePI[PI diffusionhνexpose
 →+ →+ → −+−+...
J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser writing optica...
Photon induced Inhibition of Polymerization
• Three basic components
– Photoinitiator
• 2,5-bis(p-dimethylaminocinn amylid...
Photon induced Inhibition of Polymerization
Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans and M. Gu, Nat. Commun., 2013, 4, 2061
52 nm Pitch...
Menon: AMOL
R. Menon, H-Y Tsai and S. W. Thomas III, "Far-Field Generation of Localized Light Fields using Absorbance Modu...
References
• S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett., 1994, 19, 780-782.
• J. T. Fourkas and J. S. Petersen, Phys. Chem. Ch...
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20140211 - Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography Printout

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20140211 - Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography Printout

  1. 1. Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography: survey and roadmap John S. Petersen, Periodic Structures, Inc. john@periodicstructures.com 512.751.6171 John T. Fourkas, Univ. of Maryland Steven R. J. Brueck, The Univ. of New Mexico Dave Markle, Periodic Structures, Inc. Rudi Hendel, Periodic Structures, Inc. Paper 9052-6 Time: 11:40 AM - 12:00 PM
  2. 2. Outline and Comments • Super-resolution with Multi-wavelength lithography (MWL) – Principles: Improve resolution by trimming an actinic image using a deactivating λ – Resist Background: For non-SC applications resolution to 9 nm using visible λ • Semiconductor Lithography – Possible Tool Solutions: Modified scanner, Interference litho, Direct-Write – Theoretical Resolution < 10 nm and pitch < 20 nm – Estimated Throughput 30 wafers per hour for grid based designs, 7.8 for arbitrary • Status – Thick to thin resist challenges ITX, DETC and MGCB – Resist screening test apparatus – CINT transitive absorption spectroscopy • Conclusions – The technique holds great promise and requires industrial support to make it real – Resist requirements • 2-color resists will work for small features and large pitches • 3-color resists provide the best avenue to small pitch. – Material development for SC lithography is required. Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 2
  3. 3. Motivation for a New Lithography • Money – EUV and 193i multi-patterning is prohibitive except for HVM of leading edge devices. – Scalable maskless multi-wavelength litho enables the rest. • Enables – Rapid prototyping and limited run products using ODW – EUV mask production – Imprint Templates – Arbitrary and gridded 10 nm DSA piloting structures • Coulomb – Replaces e-beam in DW of masks, templates and wafers Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 3
  4. 4. InSTED Lithography • Interlace Activation (λA) and Deactivation (λD) interfering beams • Trims the beam so the resist near the image is not exposed allowing placement of another line beside it. 107 nm @ 0.4 Intensity λA=405nm λD=532nm; before STED 174 nm Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 4 Relative Intensity Lateral Position (nm)
  5. 5. InSTED Lithography Examples 20 nm on 300 nm Pitch @ 0.4 Intensity λA=405nm λD=532nm (50X Intensity) 107 nm on 300 nm Pitch @ 0.4 Intensity λA=405nm λD=532nm (1.2X Intensity) Before STED trimming: 174 nm @ 0.4 Intensity Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 5 Relative Intensity Lateral Position (nm) Relative Intensity Lateral Position (nm)
  6. 6. InSTED Lithography 20 nm on 40 nm Pitch @ 0.4 Intensity λA=405nm λD=532nm 1 1 12 2 23 3 34 4 4 Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 9
  7. 7. InSTED Lithography Interference STimulated Emission-Depletion Lithography Absorption 10-15 s 2-photon separation <10-18 s Fluorescence 10-9 - 10-7 s Non-Radiative 10-15 - 10-12 s Vibrational Relaxation 10-14 - 10-11 s Inter-System Crossing 10-8 - 10-3 s Ultra-Fast Chemical Rx’s 10-6 - 10-3 s Phosphorescence 10-4 - 10-1 s Fast Chemical Reactions 10-6 - 10-3 s ESA STED Fluorescence Non-RadiativeDecay TTA T1 Tn S1 Sn S0 S0 * S1 * Sn * Tn * 1-PhotonAbsorption 2-PhotonAbsorption Use STED or STED-like to selectively shutdown further reaction to trim the aerial image. Photochemical reaction time scales (Ref: Modern Molecular Photochemistry by Nicholas J. Turro, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, copyright 1991, p. 5 Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 10
  8. 8. Possible Photo Pathways 2/23/2014 IEUVI Resist TWG Meeting Periodic Structures, Inc. 11
  9. 9. Spectra and Excitation-Depletion Absorbance Fluorescence Phosphorescence STED 2-Photon 1-Photon RelativeSpectralUnits Wavelength (nm) 300 810532400 12 Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 12
  10. 10. Photo-shutter MGCB Demo Courtesy of Zuleykhan Tomova, Fourkas Group, UMD 2014 Activation + Deactivation Activation Activation Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 13
  11. 11. Thin Resist Result NA=1.45 Resolution Pitch Limit: 673-551 nm Achieved 400 nm w/pattern collapseFourkas Group Set up Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 14
  12. 12. Mechanisms Beyond STED for Lithography • Stimulated Emission-Depletion (STED): None confirmed for lithography • Photo reversible solvated electrons (Fourkas: Malachite Green using RAPID)) ???? • Triplet-Triplet Absorption (Wegener, also Harke: ITX, DETC research, thought it was STED at first) ???? • Photon induced inhibition of polymerization (PIP) McCleod, and Gu • Photo chromic over layers (PCO) (Menon using AMOL) • Multi-wavelength Molecular switches (PSI proposes) Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 15
  13. 13. Photon induced Inhibition of Polymerization 9 nm resolution shown in “E” but consumes reactants and won’t cycle without dose correction. Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 16 Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans and M. Gu, Nat. Commun., 2013, 4, 2061 Ugly but 9 nm
  14. 14. Simple 2-Color Resist Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 17
  15. 15. 0 2E+13 4E+13 6E+13 8E+13 1E+14 1.2E+14 1.4E+14 1.6E+14 1.8E+14 2E+14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 NumberofMolecules/Photons/cm2 Exposure Time (micro-seconds) 2- Color Model Extended Inhibition, R=10:1, 12.5 μs exposure, T=5E-5 Remaining Excited Atoms Exposed Atoms Exposure Flux Exposed Flux Remaining Excited Species Irreversible Species Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 18
  16. 16. 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 140.00 RelativeExposure Lateral position (nm) Comparison of Three Resist Exposure Models 2-Color Model Simple Model 3-color model Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 19
  17. 17. Molecular Switch Write Mask → Image Mask → Erase Mask (Repeat) • Photo chromic has limited potential: – Absorbance shutter – May work but requires a multilayer process – Challenge partial exposure in undesired areas limits pixel size and pitch resolution • Photochemical (believe this is the best option) – OFF is no actinic functionality: OFF is OFF & ON is ON – Single image layer capable – Rich legacy in the development of switches for storage and molecular electronics Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 20
  18. 18. Super-resolution Lithography System Schematic Camera Telecentric Relay D M D B B R Beam- splitter Objective Light Pipe Frustrated Prism Dose Detector Stage Grating Phase Shifter Laser Diodes Inhibition Laser Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 21 US8642232 B2
  19. 19. Pixels Projected to the Wafer Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 22 US8642232 B2 Deactivation Pattern Activation Pattern Superimposed at the wafer
  20. 20. Lithography projection using InSTED J. T. Fourkas and J. S. Petersen, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., (to be published 2014). Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 23
  21. 21. Throughput varies with the type of Pattern and the Line Edge Resolution Pattern Type Continuous Lines Broken Lines Arbitrary Pattern Assumptions: 2560 by 1600 pixel DMD 20 kHz frame rate, 7.8 μm DMD pixel spacing 20 nm image pixel 50 mm by 75 mm footprint, 0.5 m/s maximum scan rate 266 nm interference wavelength 0.95 NA Period = λ/2NA = 140 nm Magnification = 7.8/.14 = 55.7 Acceleration = 1g Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 24 Line Edge Placement Time/Footprint 20 nm 35.3 s (102/hr) 117.5 s (30.6/hr)20 nm 2.5 nm 460.2 s (7.82/hr)
  22. 22. Throughput Estimates for a Fully Populated Super-Resolution System having 20nm Pixel Size and 2.5 nm Edge Position Grid DMD No of Pixels Frame Rate Pixel size Time/Footprint Throughput* Generation Million kHz (microns) seconds Substrates/hr 0 4.096 20 7.8 458.414 7.604 1 8.192 30 7.8 153.764 21.332 2 16.384 40 5 58.522 48.965 3 32.768 50 5 24.544 91.039 * Includes 15 second substrate change time Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 25
  23. 23. Cost versus Throughput Estimates for a 20 nm Super-Resolution System Using 3rd Generation DMD Technology 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 Throughput(300mmWafers/hr) Cost ($Millions) X 1-Column X 6-Columns X 20-Columns Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 26
  24. 24. Resist Technical Requirements Challenge: Has to work as a resist – Fast with good LWR – No pattern collapse, Swelling mitigated, Good etch selectivity & I2 – Minimal diffusion of active components • Has to act as an optical switch need to recycle hundreds of times with no discernible functional drift – 50 µs full process cycle which is the max frame rate of DMD – Correctable and accountable reactant consumption – Restrict unwanted reaction pathways – Thermal effects during exposure (chemistry and wafer-scale) – Sublimation and outgassing – 3-wavelength (make mask, expose mask, erase mask) is best. • Unwanted quenching controlled – Oxygen effect that grows as resist thins Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 27
  25. 25. PSI Enables Material Development • Develop and supply tools for: – Material R & D – Lithography test – Lab-2-fab imaging tools • Litho • Inspection • PSI Connections and Capability – Fourkas Group at UMD – Resist screening lab and equipment at UNM – CINT transient absorption measurement in film From this meeting we propose creating an effort to develop a commercially available multi-color resist !!! Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 28
  26. 26. InSTED Apparatus Activation Lasers Delivery Through Beam Splitter Activation Lasers Activation Lasers Delivery Through Beam Splitter and Deactivation via Split and Angled Mirrors 405 nm Solid-State Diode Laser (Multi-mode) 364 nm Argon Ion Laser Single Mode Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 29
  27. 27. Thank You Work supported by NSF Grant: IIP-1318211
  28. 28. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 ExposureDose Image Position (Microns) Exposure Dose Profile for Various Inhibition to Exposure Intensity Ratios 1 2 4 8 16 32
  29. 29. Fourkas: RAPID1 800 nm CW 800 nm pulsed Intiation(solvated)ePI](solvated)ePI[PI diffusionhνexpose  →+ →+ → −+−+ hνdeactivate 1Resolution augmentation through photo-induced deactivation (RAPID) lithography L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, John T. Fourkas, "Achieving l/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization", Science, 324, pp. 910-913 (15 May 2009). Vertical Imaging forms ridges in the tower structure. USA Patent: 8432533 Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 32
  30. 30. J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3578–3582 (2010). Fischer, Freyman and Wegener: Evidence for Trimming but not STED STED Not STED 2/23/2014 IEUVI Resist TWG Meeting Periodic Structures, Inc. 33
  31. 31. Photon induced Inhibition of Polymerization • Three basic components – Photoinitiator • 2,5-bis(p-dimethylaminocinn amylidene)-cyclopentanone – Polymerization photo inhibitor • tetraethylthiuram disulphide – Monomer matrix • Capable of high resolution but consumes TED BDCC Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans and M. Gu, Nat. Commun., 2013, 4, 2061 Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 34
  32. 32. Photon induced Inhibition of Polymerization Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans and M. Gu, Nat. Commun., 2013, 4, 2061 52 nm Pitch is good but reactant consumption limits ability to make smaller pitches Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 35
  33. 33. Menon: AMOL R. Menon, H-Y Tsai and S. W. Thomas III, "Far-Field Generation of Localized Light Fields using Absorbance Modulation", PRL 98, 043905 (2007). Control Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 36
  34. 34. References • S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett., 1994, 19, 780-782. • J. T. Fourkas and J. S. Petersen, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., (to be published 2014). • K. Berggren, A. Bard, J. Wilbur, J. Gillaspy, A. Helg, J. McClelland, S. Rolston, W. Phillips, M. Prentiss and G. Whitesides, Science, 1995, 269, 1255-1257. • L. J. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang and J. T. Fourkas, Science, 2009, 324, 910-913. • T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman and R. R. McLeod, Science, 2009, 324, 913-917. • T. L. Andrew, H. Y. Tsai and R. Menon, Science, 2009, 324, 917-921. • J. T. Fourkas, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2010, 1, 1221-1227. • J. Fischer, G. von Freymann and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater., 2010, 22, 3578-3582. • J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Opt. Mater. Expr., 2011, 1, 614-624. • B. Harke, P. Bianchini, F. Brandi and A. Diaspro, Chemphyschem, 2012, 13, 1429-1434. • B. Harke, W. Dallari, G. Grancini, D. Fazzi, F. Brandi, A. Petrozza and A. Diaspro, Adv. Mater., 2013, 25, 904-909. • J. Fischer and M. Wegener, Laser Photon. Rev., 2013, 7, 22-44. • M. P. Stocker, L. Li, R. R. Gattass and J. T. Fourkas, Nat. Chem., 2011, 3, 223-227. • Y. Y. Cao, Z. S. Gan, B. H. Jia, R. A. Evans and M. Gu, Opt. Expr., 2011, 19, 19486-19494. • Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans and M. Gu, Nat. Commun., 2013, 4, 2061. • Z. S. Gan, Y. Y. Cao, B. H. Jia and M. Gu, Opt. Expr., 2012, 20, 16871-16879 Paper 9052-6 Next-generation multi-wavelength lithography 37

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