3D is used in many different industries such as the education,engineering and architecture industries. But it is primarily usedwithin the vast industry of video games. In gaming it is used tocreate 3D models of things that would be seen or even playedwith in the game. That means things from characters all theway down to a random object in the background that you maynot even interact with at all. 3D "dumb" solids are created in away similar to manipulations of real world objects (not oftenused today). Basic three-dimensional geometric forms (prisms,cylinders, spheres, and so on) have solid volumes added orsubtracted from them, as if assembling or cutting real-worldobjects. Two-dimensional projected views can easily begenerated from the models. These models are used in thegaming industry because when placed in a 3D game, theplayer will be able to go around the object and see the entireobject, compared to a 2D version of something where theplayer will only be able to see the front or back.The education sector is an industry which can link with many other industries by teachingpeople how to model in 3D and give them the skills which could be transferred to theindustry in which the person learning goes into. This is commonly used in the video gamesindustry or the architect industry due to these 2 industries using 3D the most and relying onpeople to model things in 3D for them. Many universities and colleges offer a course(s) which is primarily based on 3D modelling. Scientists, hospital staff and patients benefit from the use of systems that present information in understandable formats by using a unique combination of 3D technology, science, and software engineering. 3D CT imaging in human medicine is mainstream and used in numerous applications such as vascular studies, cardiac imaging, virtual endoscopy, and presurgical planning. 3D imaging in veterinary medicine is far less common. This is likely because of the fact that newer CT machines are necessary to generatediagnostic images and the applications for 3D CT are different.As well as the medicine industry using 3D models the science sector uses them as highlydetailed models of chemical compounds. In recent decades the earth science communityhas started to construct 3D geological models as a standard practice. This has helped thedevelopment of science due to professionals now being able to look around compounds andlearn much more about them, compared to the limited amount of things they could see whenusing 2D or just simple images of the compound. They now have the freedom to lookcompletely around it and explore, much more than they could do before the introduction of3D models in science and medicine.
The engineering community uses 3D as designs of new devices, vehicles and structures as well as a host of other uses. 3D modelling has come a long way in the last few years, bringing new uses for 3D vehicle modelling and speeding up developments. The entry of more professional experts and new and improved 3D modelling softwareprograms has made 3D vehicle and engineering modelling moreaccessible and affordable for entrepreneurs and businessesfrom small to large, further fuelling and enabling thedevelopment of new vehicles, parts, manufacturing processes, safety measures andbusiness ideas. In fact without fast and effective 3D engineering modelling we would notbeing enjoying many of the great vehicles and features that we now use every day. This notonly applies to family cars but racing vehicles, recreational vehicles, commercial and privateaircraft, marine craft and the safety of military vehicles. 3D modelling can be and is used tocreate things from a simple mock up of the vehicles design all the way to engineering vitalpieces such as the gearbox and engine to go inside the vehicle. Every single part ofengineering on anything can now be modelled in 3D and then transferred straight to the vehicle. Professional 3D modelling for product design has come on huge leaps and bounds in recent years. New technology and more professional experts have made 3D product design modelling more affordable and accessible to most companies out there, of all sizes, therefore opening up this industry vastly. In fact without the current usage of 3D modelling we not be enjoying many of the great products we now use on a daily basis. This is anything from household items to tech gadgetsand new cars but many economies of the world would not be enjoying the high quality of lifethat we currently enjoy. This is addition to the lack of jobs that there would be without 3Dmodelling. Around you right now, almost everything you see was probably developed from3D product design modelling at some point. Inshort, without 3D modelling we would not havethe amount of jobs and the variety of industrieswe see today. Overall, 3D modelling is used inmostly all parts of the product design industryand can be used to design anything from thenewest piece of technology, like a new appleproduct, to something as vintage as an antiqueteapot made to sell for the Queen’s anniversary.The architecture industry uses 3D modelling to demonstrate proposed buildings andlandscapes through Architectural Models. Digital architecture uses computer modelling,programming, simulation and imaging to create both virtual forms and physical structures.3D modelling is vital in most architectural designs due to the fact that without them
3D computer graphics software is used to make computer-generated imagery for movies,etc. Recent availability of CGI software and increased computer speeds has allowedcompanies to create huge feature length films which have made millions of pounds. All madefrom 3D models and CGI animation. An example of a film that uses just 3D models and CGI is Disney’s Toy Story films. There are many different steps to creating a 3D model. Wire frame, texture mapping and displaying the 3D. A wire frame model is a visual presentation of a 3D or physical object used in 3D modeling. It is created by having 3 or more points which are joined on the 3 axis (x, y, and z) in a 3D space. The object is projected onto the computer screen by drawing lines at the location of each edge. The term wireframe comes from designers using metal wire to represent the 3 dimensional shape of solid objects.3D wireframe allows to construct and manipulate solid surfaces. Triangles always inhabit a single plane. The flat nature of triangles makes it simple to determine their surface normal, a three-dimensional vector perpendicular to the triangles surface.Surface normals are useful for determining lighttransport in ray tracing. Some rendering systems usevertex normal’s instead of face normal’s to create abetter-looking lighting system at the cost of moreprocessing. In many systems only one of the normals isconsidered valid – the other side of the polygon isreferred to as a back face, and can be made visible orinvisible depending on the programmer’s desires. A texture map is applied (mapped) to the surface of a shape or polygon. This process is akin to applying patterned paper to a plain white box. Every vertex in a polygon is assigned a texture coordinate either via explicit assignment or by procedural definition. Image sampling locations are then put across the face of a polygon to produce a visual result that seems to have more richness than could otherwise be achieved with a limited number of polygons. Multitexturing is the use of more than one texture at a time on a polygon. For instance, a light map texture may be used to light a surface as an alternative to recalculating that lighting every time the surface is rendered. This is then followed by displaying the3D image by usually rendering the 3D model so that it can be displayed in its full glory withall the shading, texture mapping etc. This will then show you all the things you have done toit in its entirety that you may not have seen before.There are so many different pieces of software for 3D modelling out there, so much thatmany people may get confused as to which to purchase or use for the 3d model they want tocreate. Although that there are so many different pieces of software for this out there, manyof them are very similar in what they do, how they present your model and also the price ofthe software itself. Here are some examples of different pieces of software for 3D modelling.
3d TinAn online 3D modeling program with an intuitive interface. All models saved in the cloud, andcan be exported to standard file formats such as STL, DAE and OBJ. This is a free piece ofsoftware.3ds MaxAutodesk 3ds Max Design is a 3D modeling, animation, rendering, and compositing softwareproduct for architects, designers, civil engineers, and visualization specialists. This couldcost up to $3500 but is defiantly professional quality, whereas some others are not up to £DsMax’s standards.AC3D3D software for games, virtual reality and flight simulation, scientific, medical and generaldata visualization, rapid prototypes of 3D designs, high resolution 3D renderings, GoogleEarth, Second Life and more. AC3D is around $99 in price to buy but isn’t as high quality asthe more expensive pieces of software.AutoCADAutodesk AutoCAD is an industry leader in 3D CAD design, drafting, modeling, architecturaldrawing, and engineering software and a best-in-class customizable and extendable CADapplication. AutoCAD is very expensive due to it high quality and professional looks within itspresentation. It can be as high as $1500 to purchase.Cheetah3DCheetah3D is a 3D modeling, rendering and animation software for Mac OS X. It offersnative support for importing and exporting STL files (ASCII and Binary). This isrecommended for lesser experienced 3D modelers as its price is only around $50 but isn’tthe high quality some may expect.Inventor 3DAutodesk Inventor 3D is a mechanical design and 3D CAD software product that has toolsfor product simulation, tooling creation, and design communication.MayaAutodesk® Maya® 3D animation software delivers an end-to-end creative workflow withcomprehensive tools for animation, modeling, simulation, visual effects, rendering, matchmoving, and compositing on a highly extensible production platform. This is another top endpiece of software as it is over $3000 in price and is usually use by industry professionals dueto its highest quality of all the 3D software.RhinoRhinoceros (Rhino) is a NURBS-based 3-D modeling tool used for industrial design,architecture, marine design, jewelry design, automotive design, CAD/CAM, rapidprototyping, reverse engineering as well as the multimedia and graphic design industries.SolidworksDassault Systèmes’ SolidWorks a leading 3D CAD product design engineering software withmore than 1,400,000 users at over 136,800 locations around the worldZbrush
ZBrush is a digital sculpting and painting program that has revolutionized the 3D industrywith its powerful features and intuitive workflows You may see that some of the 3D software are clearly only for beginners and people whoare not experienced in modeling, whereas some of them are used for industry professionalsas they are in the thousands in cost and are very high quality when creating and presentingyour 3D models.Restrictions with using 3DThere are quite a few restrictions when using 3D modelling. One of the biggest restrictions in3d modelling is the polygon count. Some people find a problem with the amount of polygonswhen modelling something big such as a character or an object for a game or film/movie.This is because when building a model a modeller may find that they have created too manypolygons and this can cause a massive amount of lag on the computer due the amount thatthe computer has to do but also when the person wants to render out the model, so that theycan use it in other places than just the software that they used, they will find that it could takea very long time to render due to its huge amount of polygons that it needs to render.Another restriction with using 3d is the problem with using 3d is that the file size can becomeextremely large due to the amount of objects the file may have. Some people may not havea computer with the capacity to hold the amount of models they want to build so thereforesome may have to use an external hard drive to save the work on, which can lead to otherproblems such as loosing the hard drive and it failing. Therefore, concluding that they mayloose their work.