David Vine, American University            vine@american.eduUNRAVELING THE PENTAGONS    FOREIGN PRESENCE
Note: This PowerPoint presentation is intended as an evolvingand shared resource for learning about and researching foreig...
NEEDS UPDATINGSource: David Vine, Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia (Princeton...
Panetta reassures Portugal onAzores Islands after U.S. downsizesdecades-old base thereJanuary 15, 2013By Craig WhitlockU.S...
Pentagon eyeing Europeanbase consolidationsMar 8, 2013Kate BrannenWith a shift in military strategy and the withdrawal of ...
OVERVIEW• The Basics about Bases• Researching Financial Costs• Researching Other Costs• Some Research Principles and Key R...
David Vine, American University      vine@american.edu
David Vine, American University      vine@american.edu
costsofwar.org  David Vine, American University        vine@american.edu
NEEDS UPDATINGSource: David Vine, Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia (Princeton...
David Vine, American University      vine@american.edu
RonaldMcDonald atNaval StationGuantánamoBay, Cuba                                                            Photo        ...
Scooby Doo at Naval Station                                  Guantánamo Bay, Cuba?David Vine, American University      vin...
World War I Vine, AmericanWeapons Testing Base       David Chemical University            vine@american.edu      Spring Va...
Army Corps of Engineers Munitions andChemical Weapons Disposal Area, SpringValley, Washington, DC                         ...
Not Diego Garcia(Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera)
Source: David Vine, Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia (Princeton University Pr...
Diego Garcia
Iraq   Afghanistan
Iraq   Iran   Afghanistan
Camp Justice, Diego Garcia
Chagossian Children at School, circa 1955
~1,200 mi.     ~1,200 mi.
~1,200 mi.     ~1,200 mi.
Final Chagossian Expulsion Order from Diego Garcia(Memo from Chief of Naval Operations Admiral ElmoZumwalt, U.S. Navy Arch...
- http://www.dg.navy.mil/web/
Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on              Diego Garcia (Princeton University Press, 20...
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• >1,000 Estimated Military “Base Sites” Abroad      760 "Base Sites Claimed by DOD outside 50 S...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Germany = 232; Japan = 109; South Korea = 85; Italy = 59• Afghanistan ~ 550 max.• (Iraq = 505 ...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• What‘s a ―Base‖? What‘s a ―Base Site‖?• 84% DOD Reported Sites = ―Small Base Sites‖• ―Small Ba...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• 555,074 Buildings & Structures Occupied Worldwide       Including 114,571 overseas• 298,897 Bu...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Troop Presence in 166 Countries [many quite small]   See: Department of Defense, “Active Duty ...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK    WHAT’S IT ALL COST?
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK                COSTS• $22.1 Billion (“Overseas Cost Summary”)   Department of Defense, “Operati...
$169,963,153,283- David Vine, ―Picking Up a $170 Billion Tab: How U.S. Taxpayers Are Payingthe Pentagon to Occupy the Plan...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                 All data FY2012 unless indi...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad               All data FY2012 unless indica...
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad               All data FY2012 unless indica...
DOD, Office of the Secretary of Defense, ―Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 President‘s Budget,Contingency Operations (Base Budget),‖ ...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                All data FY2012 unless indic...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                All data FY2012 unless indic...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                All data FY2012 unless indic...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                All data FY2012 unless indic...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                All data FY2012 unless indic...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                 All data FY2012 unless indi...
CLASSIFIED, CIA, OTHER       BLACK BUDGETS• Robert Beckhusen and Noah Shachtman, ―See for Yourself:  The Pentagon‘s $51 Bi...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                 All data FY2012 unless indi...
WAR COSTS• Costs of War Project: www.costsofwar.org• Amy Belasco, ―The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other  Global War on...
Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad                 All data FY2012 unless indi...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK          UNCOUNTED COSTS• Pentagon Offices, Embassies, Other GovernmentAgencies Supporting Base...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK          UNCOUNTED COSTS• Temporary Duty Assignments (TDY) Abroad Salaries• U.S.-based Troops i...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK          UNCOUNTED COSTS• Recruiting Costs to Staff Bases Abroad• Interest on Debt Attributable...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK        NON-BUDGETARY COSTS          TO THE U.S.ECONOMY• Income Foregone by Spouses, Dependents ...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK             TRADE-OFFS/          OPPORTUNITY COSTS• Military Spending Creates Fewer Jobs per $1...
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK             TRADE-OFFS/          OPPORTUNITY COSTS• Military Spending Creates Fewer Jobs per $1...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORKWHAT ARE THE OTHER COSTS?
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK             OTHER COSTS• Displacement and Dispossession• Environmental• Health• Local Economic ...
THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK             OTHER COSTS• Exploitation and Gender Violence (e.g., Exploitative SexWork Industrie...
SOME RESEARCH PRINCIPLES   AND KEY RESOURCES        David Vine, American University             vine@american.edu
SOME RESEARCH PRINCIPLES• Be Accurate• Talk to Locals, Visit Bases and Base Communities• Work Collaboratively• Listen Care...
SOME RESEARCH PRINCIPLES• Be an Investigative Journalist      (Don‘t give up until you get the answers.)• Ask the Military...
KEY RESEARCH RESOURCES• Government Sources• Research Tools• Websites• Key Books and Articles• Maps• Films and Photography ...
GOVERNMENT SOURCES• Government Accountability Office (GAO)• Congressional Research Service (CRS)• Congressional Budget Off...
GOVERNMENT SOURCES• ―Base Structure Reports‖   DOD, published annually online ~ Oct.                      David Vine, Amer...
Base Structure Report 2012                             David Vine, American University                                  vi...
GOVERNMENT SOURCES• ―Base Structure Reports‖   DOD, published annually online ~ Oct.• ―Overseas Cost Summary‖   Department...
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
GOVERNMENT SOURCES• ―Base Structure Reports‖   DOD, published annually online ~ Oct.• ―Overseas Cost Summary‖   Department...
―Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates‖                     David Vine, American Universit...
GOVERNMENT SOURCES• ―Base Structure Reports‖   DOD, published annually online ~ Oct.• ―Overseas Cost Summary‖   Department...
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
GOVERNMENT SOURCES• DOD, ―Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area  and by Country (309A),‖ report, Washi...
GOVERNMENT SOURCES• Amy Belasco, ―The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War  on Terror Operations Since 9/11,‖ C...
RESEARCH TOOLS• DOD Websites: www.defense.gov• DOD Contracts: www.defense.gov/contracts  Federal Business Opportunities: h...
RESEARCH TOOLS• Google Alerts: E.g., ―military bases,‖ ―[base name]‖• Google Images, Flickr: Search by base name• YouTube:...
RESEARCH TOOLS• Digital National Security Archive:  http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/marketing/index.jsp• MuckRock: https://w...
RESEARCH TOOLS• Offices of Members of Congress: Ask questions, they  can do research if prompted• Databases for Military a...
RESEARCH TOOLS• Stars and Stripes independent military newspaper:  Search by base, country name http://www.stripes.com/• P...
WEBSITES• Global Security: www.globalsecurity.org• Contract Data: http://www.usaspending.gov/   Federal Procurement Data S...
WEBSITES• Costs of War Project: www.costsofwar.org• Militarism Watch, Fellowship of Reconciliation:  http://forusa.org/gro...
PRIMERS• Transnational Institute, ―Outposts of Empire: The Case  against Foreign Military Bases,‖ Amsterdam, March 2007.• ...
KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• George Weller, Bases Overseas: An American Trusteeship in  Power (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1944)....
KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• Roland A. Paul, American Military Commitments Abroad (New  Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press...
KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• Joseph Gerson and Bruce Birchard, eds., The Sun Never  Sets: Confronting the Network of Foreign U....
KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism,  Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New Yo...
KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• David S. Sorenson, Military Base Closure: A Reference  Handbook (Westport, CT: Praeger Security, 2...
KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• Catherine Lutz, ed., The Bases of Empire: The Global  Struggle against U.S. Military Posts (New Yo...
KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• John Lindsay-Poland, ―Pentagon Building Bases in Central  America and Colombia,‖ Fellowship of Rec...
MAPS                     (a small sample)• Transnational Institute, ―See the World‘s Foreign Military  Bases from Outer Sp...
FILMS                      (a small sample)• Standing Army• Living Along the Fenceline• Restrepo• Fort Bliss• Camp Victory...
ANTI-BASE MOVEMENTS                    (a small sample)• Close the Base (Okinawa): http://closethebase.org/• No Base Stori...
ANTI-BASE MOVEMENTS                     (a small sample)• No Dal Molin (Vicenza, Italy): www.nodalmolin.it/• Chagos Refuge...
PUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO USE        David Vine, American University             vine@american.edu
“ONE PAGERS”  David Vine, American University       vine@american.edu
NEEDSUPDATING
NEEDSUPDATING
TALKING POINTS   David Vine, American University        vine@american.edu
NEEDSUPDATING           David Vine, American University                vine@american.edu
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
COSTS OF WAR       PROJECTWatson Institute for International Studies           Brown University             costsofwar.org...
costsofwar.org  David Vine, American University       vine@american.edu
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:       HISTORY & RECENT DEVELOPMENTS       David Vine, American University            vine@american...
A VERY BRIEF HISTORY      OF BASES ABROAD• Army Forts on Indian Lands Enable Western Conquest• Small collection of oversea...
CHANGES IN THE GLOBAL    BASE NETWORK• Shift begins around 2000• Planned closure of 1/3 Cold War-era bases• Shift bases so...
GLOBAL DEFENSE POSTURE REVIEW (GDPR)• Shift bases south and east from Western Europe• Focus on creating smaller, more flex...
NEW BASE         NOMENCLATURE• Main Operating Bases (MOB)• Forward Operating Sites (FOS)• Cooperative Security Locations (...
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
CHANGES IN THE  GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Outcome 1: Significant reductions, especially in  - Germany and Europe  - Some consol...
CHANGES IN THE  GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Outcome 2: Significant expansion related to     - The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq   ...
WESTERN EUROPE• Base closures; Army consolidating to 8 ―enduringinstallations‖ in Germany, Italy, Benelux• 2 Brigade Comba...
US ARMY
EAST ASIA              (“ASIA PIVOT”)• South Korea: Consolidating at fewer expanding bases, awayfrom the DMZ, south of Seo...
-Washington Post
- From Washington Posthttp://www.washingtonpos       t.com/world/national-security/a-new-us-military-  strategy-old-bases-...
•   Jim Watson/AP - U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta, left, receives a photo album of his visit to    Vietnam from Gen....
CENTRAL ASIA• Post-9/11 bases: Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan(closed); reported facilities in Tajikistan, Georgia•Afghan...
PERSIAN GULF/              MIDDLE EAST• Withdrawal (mostly) from Iraq and 505 bases• Large base infrastructure remains: Qa...
David Vine, American University     vine@american.edu
USS Ponce                aka ―the mothership‖                 forward afloat baseUS Navy photo # 110310-N-3154P-087: MEDIT...
AFRICA• AFRICOM (still headquartered in Germany)• Major bases: Djibouti, Diego Garcia• Other bases: Central African Republ...
AFRICA                                                        Diego                                                       ...
-Washington Post
- Washington Posthttp://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-drone-base-in-ethiopia-is-operational/2011/10/27...
•   U.S. Africa Command/Major Eric Hilliard - The Seychelles, where the U.S. had temporarily    stationed MQ-9s under the ...
Mysterious fatal crash offers rarelook at U.S. commando presencein MaliBy Craig Whitlock, Published: July 8, 2012In pre-da...
LATIN AMERICA• Removal: Panama (1999), Ecuador (2009)• Bases: GTMO, Colombia (7 new attempted after 2009),Honduras, El Sal...
LATIN AMERICALATIN AMERICA
BRAC:          DOMESTIC BASES• 2015?
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David Vine Overseas Bases webinar 21 mar 2013 web

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Unraveling the Pentagon's Foreign Presence - this slide show by Prof. David Vine of American University presented as webinar sponsored by Fellowship of Reconciliation (forusa.org/militarism-watch) March 22, 2013. Includes extensive data on the costs of US bases, as well as sources for more information.

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David Vine Overseas Bases webinar 21 mar 2013 web

  1. 1. David Vine, American University vine@american.eduUNRAVELING THE PENTAGONS FOREIGN PRESENCE
  2. 2. Note: This PowerPoint presentation is intended as an evolvingand shared resource for learning about and researching foreignmilitary bases. Apologies for the many omissions and errorssurely contained below. Corrections, questions, additions, andsuggestions can be sent to vine@american.edu.Thanks to John Lindsay-Poland, Catherine Lutz, the Fellowship ofReconciliation, and my many other teachers and mentors in theworld of bases.-David, March 21, 2013 David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  3. 3. NEEDS UPDATINGSource: David Vine, Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia (Princeton University Press, 2011)
  4. 4. Panetta reassures Portugal onAzores Islands after U.S. downsizesdecades-old base thereJanuary 15, 2013By Craig WhitlockU.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta listens to questions from journalists… (RAFAELMARCHANTE/REUTERS )LISBON — The Pentagon‘s era of austerity is starting to pinch some remote corners ofthe globe, including a volcanic island in the mid-Atlantic. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  5. 5. Pentagon eyeing Europeanbase consolidationsMar 8, 2013Kate BrannenWith a shift in military strategy and the withdrawal of thousands of U.S. troops inEurope, the Pentagon is eyeing a smaller European footprint — a move that could pavethe way for further base closures at home.Before leaving office, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta directed senior Pentagonofficials to launch a study of the U.S. military infrastructure in Europe with the goal of David Vine, American Universityeliminating excess capacity. vine@american.edu
  6. 6. OVERVIEW• The Basics about Bases• Researching Financial Costs• Researching Other Costs• Some Research Principles and Key Resources• Anti-Base Movements• Putting Knowledge to Use• Costs of War Project and Other Perspectives• Q&A David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  7. 7. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  8. 8. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  9. 9. costsofwar.org David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  10. 10. NEEDS UPDATINGSource: David Vine, Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia (Princeton University Press, 2011)
  11. 11. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  12. 12. RonaldMcDonald atNaval StationGuantánamoBay, Cuba Photo David Vine, American University vine@american.edu David Vine 2012
  13. 13. Scooby Doo at Naval Station Guantánamo Bay, Cuba?David Vine, American University vine@american.edu Photo David Vine 2012
  14. 14. World War I Vine, AmericanWeapons Testing Base David Chemical University vine@american.edu Spring Valley, Washington, DC
  15. 15. Army Corps of Engineers Munitions andChemical Weapons Disposal Area, SpringValley, Washington, DC David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  16. 16. Not Diego Garcia(Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera)
  17. 17. Source: David Vine, Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia (Princeton University Press, 2011)
  18. 18. Diego Garcia
  19. 19. Iraq Afghanistan
  20. 20. Iraq Iran Afghanistan
  21. 21. Camp Justice, Diego Garcia
  22. 22. Chagossian Children at School, circa 1955
  23. 23. ~1,200 mi. ~1,200 mi.
  24. 24. ~1,200 mi. ~1,200 mi.
  25. 25. Final Chagossian Expulsion Order from Diego Garcia(Memo from Chief of Naval Operations Admiral ElmoZumwalt, U.S. Navy Archives, Washington, DC)
  26. 26. - http://www.dg.navy.mil/web/
  27. 27. Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia (Princeton University Press, 2009)
  28. 28. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  29. 29. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  30. 30. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• >1,000 Estimated Military “Base Sites” Abroad 760 "Base Sites Claimed by DOD outside 50 States & DC [Excludes Afghanistan, secret, other omitted sites]• >5,500 Total Base Sites in US and Abroad DOD=5,211 [Excludes Afghanistan, secret, other omitted sites]• ≈ Number of Registered Hospitals in the US (5,724) - Department of Defense, Base Structure Report 2012; Nick Turse, ―The Pentagons Planet of Bases,‖ TomDispatch.com, 2011 American Hospital Association, 2013
  31. 31. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Germany = 232; Japan = 109; South Korea = 85; Italy = 59• Afghanistan ~ 550 max.• (Iraq = 505 max.) - Department of Defense, Base Structure Report 2012; - Nick Turse 2012, 2011
  32. 32. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• What‘s a ―Base‖? What‘s a ―Base Site‖?• 84% DOD Reported Sites = ―Small Base Sites‖• ―Small Base Sites‖ = Up to $915 million in Reported Value• Luxembourg = 3 Base Sites; 65 Buildings - Department of Defense, Base Structure Report 2012
  33. 33. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• 555,074 Buildings & Structures Occupied Worldwide Including 114,571 overseas• 298,897 Buildings Occupying 2.3 Billion Sq. Ft. Worldwide• That‘s About Four Times the Space of Walmart - Department of Defense, Base Structure Report 2012
  34. 34. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Troop Presence in 166 Countries [many quite small] See: Department of Defense, “Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by Country (309A),” report, Washington, DC, December 31, 2011.• 11 Navy Aircraft Carriers• Growing Presence in Space
  35. 35. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK WHAT’S IT ALL COST?
  36. 36. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  37. 37. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK COSTS• $22.1 Billion (“Overseas Cost Summary”) Department of Defense, “Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates,” Washington, DC, February 2013, p. 199-202.• $250 Billion (Dancs) Anita Dancs, “The Cost of the Global U.S. Military Presence,” Foreign Policy in Focus, report, July 3, 2009.• $170 Billion (Vine) David Vine, “Picking Up a $170 Billion Tab: How U.S. Taxpayers Are Paying the Pentagon to Occupy the Planet,” TomDispatch.com, December 11, 2012. http://www.tomdispatch.com/blog/175627/
  38. 38. $169,963,153,283- David Vine, ―Picking Up a $170 Billion Tab: How U.S. Taxpayers Are Payingthe Pentagon to Occupy the Planet,‖ TomDispatch.com, December 11, 2012.http://www.tomdispatch.com/blog/175627/- For full-length article, table of calculations (below): www.davidvine.net
  39. 39. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000Naval Vessels and Personnel outside U.S. Waters; Prepositioned Ships and Stocks; Other 5,244,562,000Sealift, Airlift, and MobilizationHealth Care, Military and Family Housing Construction, Exchange* and Postal Service 12,526,099,520SubsidiesNet “Rent” Payments and NATO Contributions (Funds from Other Nations Subtracted*) 6,850,087,520Counternarcotics, Humanitarian, and Environmental Programs 681,420,000Classified Programs, Military Intelligence, and CIA Paramilitary Activities 13,558,891,583War Costs (Personnel, Operations & Maintenance, Military Construction, Health Care, 18% of 104,896,568,660State Department Aid as “Rent,” Other) David Vine, American UniversityGRAND TOTAL $169,963,153,283 vine@american.edu
  40. 40. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000 David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  41. 41. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  42. 42. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000 David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  43. 43. DOD, Office of the Secretary of Defense, ―Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 President‘s Budget,Contingency Operations (Base Budget),‖ February 2012.
  44. 44. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000 • U.S. Census Bureau, ―Puerto Rico and the Island Areas,‖ in Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2012), 815-22. • ―One Guam Buildup‖; Guam Realignment Annual Report, 2012; Bureau of Statistics and Plans, ―Guam‘s Facts & Figures at a Glance,‖ Office of the Governor, Hagatna, 2011, available at http://www.bsp.guam.gov/images/stories/pip/guamfacts_2011.pdf. • www.statemaster.com (2004 data) for other territories. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  45. 45. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000Naval Vessels and Personnel outside U.S. Waters; Prepositioned Ships and Stocks; Other 5,244,562,000Sealift, Airlift, and Mobilization • Operations and Maintenance Costs (O&M): Department of Defense, ―Financial Summary Tables, Department of Defense Budget for Fiscal Year 2013,‖ Washington, DC, February 2012, FAD 792, 2. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  46. 46. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000Naval Vessels and Personnel outside U.S. Waters; Prepositioned Ships and Stocks; Other 5,244,562,000Sealift, Airlift, and MobilizationHealth Care, Military and Family Housing Construction, Exchange* and Postal Service 12,526,099,520Subsidies • Defense Health Program: http://comptroller.defense.gov/defbudget/fy2013/budget_justification/pdfs/09 _Defense_Health_Program/VOL_II/Vol_II-Sec_3I_R- 2_RDTE_Program_Element_0605013_DHP_PB13.pdf • Defense-Wide Spending: Department of Defense, ―Financial Summary Tables, Department of Defense Budget for Fiscal Year 2013,‖ Washington, DC, February 2012, 10. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  47. 47. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000Naval Vessels and Personnel outside U.S. Waters; Prepositioned Ships and Stocks; Other 5,244,562,000Sealift, Airlift, and MobilizationHealth Care, Military and Family Housing Construction, Exchange* and Postal Service 12,526,099,520SubsidiesNet “Rent” Payments and NATO Contributions (Funds from Other Nations Subtracted*) 6,850,087,520 • Burdensharing and Host Nation Support: Office of Management and Budget, ―The Budget for Fiscal Year 2013,‖ Washington, DC, February 2012, 277, 324. • On “Rent”: Kent Calder, Embattled Garrisons; James Blaker, United States Overseas Basing (full citations below). David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  48. 48. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000Naval Vessels and Personnel outside U.S. Waters; Prepositioned Ships and Stocks; Other 5,244,562,000Sealift, Airlift, and MobilizationHealth Care, Military and Family Housing Construction, Exchange* and Postal Service 12,526,099,520SubsidiesNet “Rent” Payments and NATO Contributions (Funds from Other Nations Subtracted*) 6,850,087,520Counternarcotics, Humanitarian, and Environmental Programs 681,420,000 • Counternarcotics and Humanitarian Programs: Department of Defense, “Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates,‖ Washington, DC, February 2013, pp. 59, 244. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  49. 49. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000Naval Vessels and Personnel outside U.S. Waters; Prepositioned Ships and Stocks; Other 5,244,562,000Sealift, Airlift, and MobilizationHealth Care, Military and Family Housing Construction, Exchange* and Postal Service 12,526,099,520SubsidiesNet “Rent” Payments and NATO Contributions (Funds from Other Nations Subtracted*) 6,850,087,520Counternarcotics, Humanitarian, and Environmental Programs 681,420,000Classified Programs, Military Intelligence, and CIA Paramilitary Activities 13,558,891,583 David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  50. 50. CLASSIFIED, CIA, OTHER BLACK BUDGETS• Robert Beckhusen and Noah Shachtman, ―See for Yourself: The Pentagon‘s $51 Billion ‗Black‘ Budget,‖ Wired 15 February 2012, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/02/pentagons-black- budget/• Robert Beckhusen and Noah Shachtman, ―2013 DOD Black Budget,‖ spreadsheet, 21 February 2012, https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0Anb82yNPJZ c0dDVadWM1c0xTZXlfVjRGZUlRQ3pja0E#gid=3.• Federation of American Scientists, ―Intelligence Budget Data,‖ available at http://www.fas.org/irp/budget/index.html David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  51. 51. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000Naval Vessels and Personnel outside U.S. Waters; Prepositioned Ships and Stocks; Other 5,244,562,000Sealift, Airlift, and MobilizationHealth Care, Military and Family Housing Construction, Exchange* and Postal Service 12,526,099,520SubsidiesNet “Rent” Payments and NATO Contributions (Funds from Other Nations Subtracted*) 6,850,087,520Counternarcotics, Humanitarian, and Environmental Programs 681,420,000Classified Programs, Military Intelligence, and CIA Paramilitary Activities 13,558,891,583War Costs (Personnel, Operations & Maintenance, Military Construction, Health Care, 18% of 104,896,568,660State Department Aid as “Rent,” Other) David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  52. 52. WAR COSTS• Costs of War Project: www.costsofwar.org• Amy Belasco, ―The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11,‖ Congressional Research Service, March 29, 2011, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL33110.pdf• Basic Pay: # Troops x $125,000/troop/year (widely used estimate)• DOD, ―Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by Country (309A),‖ report, Washington, DC, 31 December 2011. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  53. 53. Calculating the Costs of U.S. Military Bases and U.S. Military Presence Abroad All data FY2012 unless indicated by * where some data from 2004, 2008, 2011. OMITTED SPENDING CATEGORY TOTALPentagon “Overseas Cost Summary” Total $22,148,900,000Missing Countries 435,404,000Territories,* Possessions, and Pacific Island Nations 3,621,220,000Naval Vessels and Personnel outside U.S. Waters; Prepositioned Ships and Stocks; Other 5,244,562,000Sealift, Airlift, and MobilizationHealth Care, Military and Family Housing Construction, Exchange* and Postal Service 12,526,099,520SubsidiesNet “Rent” Payments and NATO Contributions (Funds from Other Nations Subtracted*) 6,850,087,520Counternarcotics, Humanitarian, and Environmental Programs 681,420,000Classified Programs, Military Intelligence, and CIA Paramilitary Activities 13,558,891,583War Costs (Personnel, Operations & Maintenance, Military Construction, Health Care, 18% of 104,896,568,660State Department Aid as “Rent,” Other) David Vine, American UniversityGRAND TOTAL $169,963,153,283 vine@american.edu
  54. 54. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK UNCOUNTED COSTS• Pentagon Offices, Embassies, Other GovernmentAgencies Supporting Bases, Troops Overseas• U.S. Training Facilities, Depots, Hospitals, Cemeteries• Currency Exchange Costs• Lawyers‘ Fees and Lawsuit Damages Paid
  55. 55. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK UNCOUNTED COSTS• Temporary Duty Assignments (TDY) Abroad Salaries• U.S.-based Troops in Exercises Overseas• NASA Military Functions Abroad• Spaced-based Weapons
  56. 56. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK UNCOUNTED COSTS• Recruiting Costs to Staff Bases Abroad• Interest on Debt Attributable to Past Overseas Costs• Veterans Administration and Other Retirement Spendingfor Military Abroad
  57. 57. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK NON-BUDGETARY COSTS TO THE U.S.ECONOMY• Income Foregone by Spouses, Dependents Not WorkingOverseas• Military Personnel Salaries, Rent Spent Abroad & Other―Spillover Costs‖ Not Benefitting the U.S. Economy
  58. 58. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK TRADE-OFFS/ OPPORTUNITY COSTS• Military Spending Creates Fewer Jobs per $1 billion thanEducation, Health Care, Energy Efficiency
  59. 59. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  60. 60. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK TRADE-OFFS/ OPPORTUNITY COSTS• Military Spending Creates Fewer Jobs per $1 billion thanEducation, Health Care, Energy Efficiency• Military Spending Don‘t Boost Long-run Productivity LikeInfrastructure and Other Investments• For Trade-Offs: National Priorities Projecthttp://costofwar.com/tradeoffs/state/US/program/12/tradeoff/0http://nationalpriorities.org/en/interactive-data/trade-offs/
  61. 61. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORKWHAT ARE THE OTHER COSTS?
  62. 62. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK OTHER COSTS• Displacement and Dispossession• Environmental• Health• Local Economic (e.g., Damage to Economies, ―BurdenSharing‖ Payments, Lawsuits)• Political (e.g., Democracy, Sovereignty, Human Rights)• Crimes
  63. 63. THE US GLOBAL BASE NETWORK OTHER COSTS• Exploitation and Gender Violence (e.g., Exploitative SexWork Industries, Trafficking, Violence against Women)• Labor Exploitation (Bases as places of labor)• Rising Hostility and Anti-Americanism• Military Personnel and Family Members (e.g., FamilySeparation, Mental Health, Substance Abuse, Divorce,Sexual Assault, Suicide)• War and Its Human Toll (e.g., Death, Injury, Displacement)
  64. 64. SOME RESEARCH PRINCIPLES AND KEY RESOURCES David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  65. 65. SOME RESEARCH PRINCIPLES• Be Accurate• Talk to Locals, Visit Bases and Base Communities• Work Collaboratively• Listen Carefully to Everyone; Ignore No One• Where Are the Women? David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  66. 66. SOME RESEARCH PRINCIPLES• Be an Investigative Journalist (Don‘t give up until you get the answers.)• Ask the Military Questions (Yours are legitimate & deserve answers.)• Call (Don‘t be shy. Get your questions answered.)• Knock on Doors (Go in person to get questions answered.) David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  67. 67. KEY RESEARCH RESOURCES• Government Sources• Research Tools• Websites• Key Books and Articles• Maps• Films and Photography David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  68. 68. GOVERNMENT SOURCES• Government Accountability Office (GAO)• Congressional Research Service (CRS)• Congressional Budget Office (CBO)• Congressional Committees (esp. House and Senate Armed Services Committees)• Department of Defense Appropriations and Authorization Bills (esp., Military Construction) David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  69. 69. GOVERNMENT SOURCES• ―Base Structure Reports‖ DOD, published annually online ~ Oct. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  70. 70. Base Structure Report 2012 David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  71. 71. GOVERNMENT SOURCES• ―Base Structure Reports‖ DOD, published annually online ~ Oct.• ―Overseas Cost Summary‖ Department of Defense, ―Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates,‖ Washington, DC, February 2013, p. 199-202. [Mandated annually by Congress] David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  72. 72. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  73. 73. GOVERNMENT SOURCES• ―Base Structure Reports‖ DOD, published annually online ~ Oct.• ―Overseas Cost Summary‖ Department of Defense, ―Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates,‖ Washington, DC, February 2013, p. 199-202. [Mandated annually by Congress]• DOD, ―Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates.‖ [Annual] David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  74. 74. ―Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates‖ David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  75. 75. GOVERNMENT SOURCES• ―Base Structure Reports‖ DOD, published annually online ~ Oct.• ―Overseas Cost Summary‖ Department of Defense, ―Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates,‖ Washington, DC, February 2013, p. 199-202. [Mandated annually by Congress]• DOD, ―Operations and Maintenance Overview Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates,‖ February 2012. [Annual]• ―The Green Book‖ [Annual] DOD, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), ―National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2013,‖ March 2012. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  76. 76. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  77. 77. GOVERNMENT SOURCES• DOD, ―Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by Country (309A),‖ report, Washington, DC, 31 December 2011. [Updated sporadically.]• DOD, Office of the Secretary of Defense, ―Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 President‘s Budget, Contingency Operations (Base Budget),‖ February 2012. [Annual]• Combatant Commands‘ Budgets: E.g., ―Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Estimates, United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM),‖ February 2012. [Annual]• Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan, ―Transforming Wartime Contracting: Controlling Costs, Reducing Risks,‖ final report, August 2011. www.wartimecontracting.gov David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  78. 78. GOVERNMENT SOURCES• Amy Belasco, ―The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11,‖ Congressional Research Service, March 29, 2011, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL33110.pdf• Department of State, ―Congressional Budget Justification: Foreign Assistance Summary Tables Fiscal Year 2013,‖ 2012. [Annual] David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  79. 79. RESEARCH TOOLS• DOD Websites: www.defense.gov• DOD Contracts: www.defense.gov/contracts Federal Business Opportunities: https://www.fbo.gov/• DOD Publications: E.g., Diálogo, Engineering in Europe• Base Websites: E.g., www.ramstein.af.mil• Base Public Affairs Offices David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  80. 80. RESEARCH TOOLS• Google Alerts: E.g., ―military bases,‖ ―[base name]‖• Google Images, Flickr: Search by base name• YouTube: Search by base name• Military Conferences: E.g., Association of the United States Army (AUSA), Marine Military Expos• National Security Archive: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/ David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  81. 81. RESEARCH TOOLS• Digital National Security Archive: http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/marketing/index.jsp• MuckRock: https://www.muckrock.com/• Listservs: E.g., Center for Public Environmental Oversight (http://www.cpeo.org)• Wikileaks: E.g., search by base, country, city name David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  82. 82. RESEARCH TOOLS• Offices of Members of Congress: Ask questions, they can do research if prompted• Databases for Military and Government Documents: e.g., EBSCO Military and Government; Government Printing Office Monthly Catalog• Library of Congress: www.loc.gov• National Archives and Armed Services‘ Archives David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  83. 83. RESEARCH TOOLS• Stars and Stripes independent military newspaper: Search by base, country name http://www.stripes.com/• Public Opinion Survey Research: E.g., Rasmussen Reports, Gallop• Experiential Learning: – Solidarity Tours – Ethnographic Research – Oral History Interviewing – Just Visiting Base Communities David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  84. 84. WEBSITES• Global Security: www.globalsecurity.org• Contract Data: http://www.usaspending.gov/ Federal Procurement Data System-Next Generation: https://www.fpds.gov/fpdsng_cms/ Federal Business Opportunities: https://www.fbo.gov/• http://militarybases.com• National Priorities Project: http://costofwar.com/ http://nationalpriorities.org/ David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  85. 85. WEBSITES• Costs of War Project: www.costsofwar.org• Militarism Watch, Fellowship of Reconciliation: http://forusa.org/groups/services/militarism-watch• Women for Genuine Security: http://www.genuinesecurity.org• American Friends Service Committee: http://afsc.org http://afsc.org/search/node/military%20bases http://afsc.org/project/withdrawing-us-troops David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  86. 86. PRIMERS• Transnational Institute, ―Outposts of Empire: The Case against Foreign Military Bases,‖ Amsterdam, March 2007.• American Friends Service Committee, ―Ten Reasons Why U.S. Military Bases Must Go,‖ http://www.dmzhawaii.org/wp- content/uploads/2008/12/10reasons-en.pdf• Wilbert van der Zeijden, ―Foreign Military Bases and the Campaign to Close Them: A Beginner‘s Guide,‖ http://www.tni.org/primer/foreign-military-bases-and-global- campaign-close-them David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  87. 87. KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• George Weller, Bases Overseas: An American Trusteeship in Power (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1944).• George Marion, Bases and Empire: A Chart of American Overseas Expansion (New York: Fairplay Publishers, 1948).• Merlo J. Pusey, The U.S.A. Astride the Globe (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971).• United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on United States Security Agreements and Commitments Abroad, ―United States Security Agreements and Commitments Abroad: Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate,‖ 91st Congress, Vols. I-II,David Vine, American University 1971. vine@american.edu
  88. 88. KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• Roland A. Paul, American Military Commitments Abroad (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1973).• Robert E. Harkavy, Bases Abroad: The Global Foreign Military Presence (Oxford: Oxford University Press/SIPRI, 1989).• Cynthia Enloe, Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989).• James R. Blaker, United States Overseas Basing: An Anatomy of the Dilemma (New York: Praeger, 1990). David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  89. 89. KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• Joseph Gerson and Bruce Birchard, eds., The Sun Never Sets: Confronting the Network of Foreign U.S. Military Bases, (Boston: South End Press, 1991).• Dan Cragg, Guide to Military Installations, 4th ed. (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1994).• Monthly Review editors, ―U.S. Military Bases and Empire," Monthly Review, March 2002, http://www.monthlyreview.org/0302editr.htm.• Zoltan Grossman, ―War and New U.S. Military Bases,‖ Counterpunch February 2-4, 2002, http://www.counterpunch.org/2002/02/02/war-and-new-us- military-bases/ David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  90. 90. KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004).• Robert E. Harkavy, Strategic Basing and the Great Powers, 1200-2000 (London: Routledge, 2007).• Mark Gillem, American Town: Building the Outposts of Empire (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007).• Kent E. Calder, Embattled Garrisons: Comparative Base Politics and American Globalism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007). David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  91. 91. KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• David S. Sorenson, Military Base Closure: A Reference Handbook (Westport, CT: Praeger Security, 2007).• Tom Engelhardt, ―Baseless Considerations,‖ Tom Dispatch.com, November 5, 2007, http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/174858• Various authors, Mother Jones, ―Mission Creep,‖ August 2008, http://www.motherjones.com/special- reports/2008/08/mission-creep• Alexander Cooley, Base Politics: Democratic Change and the Politics of U.S. Military Installations Overseas (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008). David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  92. 92. KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• Catherine Lutz, ed., The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Posts (New York: New York University Press, 2009).• Maria Höhn and Seungsook Moon, Over There: Living with the U.S. Military Empire from World War Two to the Present (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010).• Andrew Yeo, Activists, Alliances, and Anti-U.S. Base Protests (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).• Nick Turse, ―The Pentagons Planet of Bases,‖ TomDispatch.com, January 9, 2011, http://www.tomdispatch.com/blog/175338/ David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  93. 93. KEY BOOKS AND ARTICLES• John Lindsay-Poland, ―Pentagon Building Bases in Central America and Colombia,‖ Fellowship of Reconciliation, January 27, 2011, http://forusa.org/blogs/john-lindsay- poland/pentagon-building-bases-central-america- colombia/8445• Nick Turse, ―Afghanistan‘s Base Bonanza: Total Tops Iraq at That War‘s Height,‖ TomDispatch.com, 4 September 2012, http://www.tomdispatch.com/blog/175588/• Others by Nick Turse and Tom Engelhardt at TomDispatch.com.• Articles by Walter Pincus, Washington Post columnist. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  94. 94. MAPS (a small sample)• Transnational Institute, ―See the World‘s Foreign Military Bases from Outer Space,‖ Google Earth file: http://www.tni.org/article/see-world%E2%80%99s- foreign-military-bases-outer-space• Fellowship of Reconciliation, ―Annotated Map of Military Construction in Latin America‖• Zoltan Grossman, ―New U.S. Military Bases: Side Effects or Causes of War‖ (powerpoint)• Military Bases in the Continental United States: http://www.nps.gov/nagpra/documents/basesmilitarymap .htm David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  95. 95. FILMS (a small sample)• Standing Army• Living Along the Fenceline• Restrepo• Fort Bliss• Camp Victory Afghanistan• Stealing a Nation David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  96. 96. ANTI-BASE MOVEMENTS (a small sample)• Close the Base (Okinawa): http://closethebase.org/• No Base Stories Korea: http://nobasestorieskorea.blogspot.com/• Save Jeju: www.savejeju.org/ and www.savejejunow.org• We Are Guahan (Guam): http://weareguahan.com/• Coalición Colombia No Bases: http://colombianobases.org/nobases/ David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  97. 97. ANTI-BASE MOVEMENTS (a small sample)• No Dal Molin (Vicenza, Italy): www.nodalmolin.it/• Chagos Refugees Group (Diego Garcia): http://www.chagosrefugeesgroup.net/• UK Chagos Support Association (Diego Garcia): http://www.chagossupport.org.uk/• No Bases Network (out of date): http://nobasesglobalnetwork.blogspot.com/• School of the Americas Watch: www.soaw.org David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  98. 98. PUTTING KNOWLEDGE TO USE David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  99. 99. “ONE PAGERS” David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  100. 100. NEEDSUPDATING
  101. 101. NEEDSUPDATING
  102. 102. TALKING POINTS David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  103. 103. NEEDSUPDATING David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  104. 104. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  105. 105. COSTS OF WAR PROJECTWatson Institute for International Studies Brown University costsofwar.org David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  106. 106. costsofwar.org David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  107. 107. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: HISTORY & RECENT DEVELOPMENTS David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  108. 108. A VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF BASES ABROAD• Army Forts on Indian Lands Enable Western Conquest• Small collection of overseas bases pre-WWII• Global base network emerges from WWII - Largest in human history• Post-Cold War Reductions - 60% of foreign bases close - ~300,000 troops to CONUS - But, a significant base and troop posture remains that remains largest in human history
  109. 109. CHANGES IN THE GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Shift begins around 2000• Planned closure of 1/3 Cold War-era bases• Shift bases south and east from Western Europe• Focus on creating smaller, more flexible bases• Global Defense Posture Review (2004)
  110. 110. GLOBAL DEFENSE POSTURE REVIEW (GDPR)• Shift bases south and east from Western Europe• Focus on creating smaller, more flexible bases• Consolidate forces at smaller number of MOBs• New base nomenclature (below)
  111. 111. NEW BASE NOMENCLATURE• Main Operating Bases (MOB)• Forward Operating Sites (FOS)• Cooperative Security Locations (CSL), - aka ―Lily Pad‖ Bases
  112. 112. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  113. 113. CHANGES IN THE GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Outcome 1: Significant reductions, especially in - Germany and Europe - Some consolidation in Japan and South Korea - But continued new construction in Italy and Germany
  114. 114. CHANGES IN THE GLOBAL BASE NETWORK• Outcome 2: Significant expansion related to - The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq - The global war on terror - Proliferation of lily pads and other small bases increasing breadth of the base network
  115. 115. WESTERN EUROPE• Base closures; Army consolidating to 8 ―enduringinstallations‖ in Germany, Italy, Benelux• 2 Brigade Combat Teams withdrawn 2013-14• Major new construction: Vicenza, Ramstein, Wiesbaden,Landstuhl(?)• New bases: Romania, Poland, Bulgaria, Lithuania• Attempted: Czech Republic
  116. 116. US ARMY
  117. 117. EAST ASIA (“ASIA PIVOT”)• South Korea: Consolidating at fewer expanding bases, awayfrom the DMZ, south of Seoul•Okinawa: 8,000 Marines moving; not waiting for Futenmareplacement• Guam: Build-up downsized (4,700); others moving toAustralia, Hawai‘i• New bases created or (discussed): Darwin, (Cocos, Perth,Brisbane, Australia); Singapore; (Philippines); (Thailand)
  118. 118. -Washington Post
  119. 119. - From Washington Posthttp://www.washingtonpos t.com/world/national-security/a-new-us-military- strategy-old-bases-near- the-south-china-sea/2012/06/22/gJQAZwf5 vV_graphic.html
  120. 120. • Jim Watson/AP - U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta, left, receives a photo album of his visit to Vietnam from Gen. Vu Chien Thang upon his departure at Noi Bai International Airport in Hanoi, Vietnam Tuesday, June 5, 2012.• http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-seeks-return-to-se-asian- bases/2012/06/22/gJQAKP83vV_story.html
  121. 121. CENTRAL ASIA• Post-9/11 bases: Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan(closed); reported facilities in Tajikistan, Georgia•Afghan withdrawal: NATO agreements with Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan; Russia(?)• India? Attempting closer military ties• Afghanistan? Bases after 2014???
  122. 122. PERSIAN GULF/ MIDDLE EAST• Withdrawal (mostly) from Iraq and 505 bases• Large base infrastructure remains: Qatar, Bahrain, UAE,Oman, Kuwait, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia
  123. 123. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  124. 124. USS Ponce aka ―the mothership‖ forward afloat baseUS Navy photo # 110310-N-3154P-087: MEDITERRANEAN SEA (March 10, 2011) by MC3 ScottPittman. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  125. 125. AFRICA• AFRICOM (still headquartered in Germany)• Major bases: Djibouti, Diego Garcia• Other bases: Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Senegal, Seychelles, South Sudan, Uganda• Bases planned/investigated/reported: Algeria, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe• 3,000+ soldier brigade begins rotations 2013
  126. 126. AFRICA Diego Garcia - From Washington PostDavid Vine, American University http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/the-african- vine@american.edu network/2012/06/13/gJQAmozvaV_graphic.html
  127. 127. -Washington Post
  128. 128. - Washington Posthttp://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-drone-base-in-ethiopia-is-operational/2011/10/27/gIQAznKwMM_story.html
  129. 129. • U.S. Africa Command/Major Eric Hilliard - The Seychelles, where the U.S. had temporarily stationed MQ-9s under the operational authority of U.S. Africa Command, now houses a base where a small fleet of ―hunter-killer‖ drones resumed operations this month.• http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-building-secret-drone-bases-in-africa- arabian-peninsula-officials-say/2011/09/20/gIQAJ8rOjK_story.html
  130. 130. Mysterious fatal crash offers rarelook at U.S. commando presencein MaliBy Craig Whitlock, Published: July 8, 2012In pre-dawn darkness, a -Toyota Land Cruiser skidded off a bridge inNorth Africa in the spring, plunging into the Niger River. When rescuersarrived, they found the bodies of three U.S. Army commandos —alongside three dead women. David Vine, American University vine@american.edu
  131. 131. LATIN AMERICA• Removal: Panama (1999), Ecuador (2009)• Bases: GTMO, Colombia (7 new attempted after 2009),Honduras, El Salvador, Aruba & Curaçao, Paraguay(?),Peru(?), Chile(?), Argentina(?)• Expanding: GTMO, Honduras• Funding: local military/police bases in Belize, Colombia,Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,Panama, Peru• 4th Fleet Reactivation
  132. 132. LATIN AMERICALATIN AMERICA
  133. 133. BRAC: DOMESTIC BASES• 2015?

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