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Pitch&FundamentalFrequency

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Pitch&FundamentalFrequency

  1. 1. What is Pitch and Fundamental Frequency? John Hammond John Hammond
  2. 2. Pitch: How the Ear Perceives Frequency
  3. 3. How Do We Tell the Difference Between Different Frequencies?
  4. 4. How Do We Tell the Difference Between Different Frequencies?
  5. 5. How Do We Tell the Difference Between Different Frequencies?
  6. 6. How Do We Tell the Difference Between Different Frequencies?
  7. 7. How Do We Tell the Difference Between Different Frequencies?
  8. 8. Fundamental Frequency: Node Node Anti-Node String
  9. 9. Complete Wave Frequency:
  10. 10. Complete Wave Frequency: Node Node
  11. 11. Fundamental Frequency: First Harmonic (Fundamental Frequency Second Harmonic Third Harmonic Fourth Harmonic Fifth Harmonic Sixth Harmonic Seventh Harmonic
  12. 12. Images Used: (In Chronological Order) 7-25-16_kniwingPark_Flickr_ear 7-25-16_ReflectedSerendipity_Flickr_Ripple 7-25-16_Dan Century_Flickr_The inside of your ear 7-25-16_HarmonicPartialsonstring_Wikimedia_Qef

Editor's Notes

  • Intro:
    Hello, my name is John Hammond
    My presentation is on, as you can see, Pitch and Fundamental Frequency
    We will begin with pitch.
  • What this title means, is the effect that a frequency has on the brain, and ear
    Directly proportional – No frequency, no pitch
    Low frequency, low pitch
    High frequency, high pitch
    Some people, especially musicians, have the ability to hear even a difference between 2 Hz (Hertz, the measure of frequency)
  • Now... Not only are you probably asking the question of how these people can hear such a miniscule difference, but how can anyone hear sound?
    To begin with, think of sound like a ripple in a pond. Sound creates vibrations through objects, and those vibrations create more vibrations, etc., until it reaches your ear.
  • Once the sound waves get to your outer ear, it vibrates your eardrum. That then vibrates these three bones in the middle ear. Those, in turn, move fluid around in the inner ear. There are thousands of sensitive hair-like cells that then turn that movement into nerve impulses, which are then transferred to the brain. Remember, throughout all these steps, the wavelengths are moving at the speed of sound, which is approximately 761 mph, or 13x the speed of a car on the highway (60mph)
  • Once the sound waves get to your outer ear, it vibrates your eardrum. That then vibrates these three bones in the middle ear. Those, in turn, move fluid around in the inner ear. There are thousands of sensitive hair-like cells that then turn that movement into nerve impulses, which are then transferred to the brain. Remember, throughout all these steps, the wavelengths are moving at the speed of sound, which is approximately 761 mph, or 13x the speed of a car on the highway (60mph)
  • Once the sound waves get to your outer ear, it vibrates your eardrum. That then vibrates these three bones in the middle ear. Those, in turn, move fluid around in the inner ear. There are thousands of sensitive hair-like cells that then turn that movement into nerve impulses, which are then transferred to the brain. Remember, throughout all these steps, the wavelengths are moving at the speed of sound, which is approximately 761 mph, or 13x the speed of a car on the highway (60mph)
  • Once the sound waves get to your outer ear, it vibrates your eardrum. That then vibrates these three bones in the middle ear. Those, in turn, move fluid around in the inner ear. There are thousands of sensitive hair-like cells that then turn that movement into nerve impulses, which are then transferred to the brain. Remember, throughout all these steps, the wavelengths are moving at the speed of sound, which is approximately 761 mph, or 13x the speed of a car on the highway (60mph)
  • The Fundamental Frequency is also called the First Harmonic. This is the lowest frequency that a specific instrument can play. Think of a guitar string. At this end, the guitar is fixed to the board. At this end, it is also tied off. Therefore, these are Nodes, or places with no displacement when the string is plucked. The Anti-Node is where there is the most amount of displacement, or movement. The definition of the first harmonic, is there is One Anti-Node, between two Nodes, as shown above.
    Note that this isn’t a complete wave.
  • A complete wave must rise up, reach a maximum, go back through the x axis, and up again.
  • The Fundamental Frequency is cut in half, when it gets to the x axis.
  • Notice how the first harmonic has ½ of a wave
    Second harmonic has 1 wave
    Third harmonic has 1 ½ waves
    Fourth has 2 waves.
    The pattern is, for the n harmonic, there are n/2 waves.

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