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Cube.key

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Cube - PW

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Cube.key

  1. 1. Black Holes are Outta Sight Peter Watson Peter Watson, Dept. of Physics
  2. 2. Peter Watson
  3. 3. Peter Watson
  4. 4. Black Holes Peter Watson
  5. 5. Black Holes• Invented by .....? Peter Watson
  6. 6. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein Peter Watson
  7. 7. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking? Peter Watson
  8. 8. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire Peter Watson
  9. 9. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist? Peter Watson
  10. 10. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist?• Polymath. Peter Watson
  11. 11. Black Holes• Invented by .....?• Einstein• Hawking?• Well, actually, John Michell, rector of Thornhill Church in Yorkshire• geologist?philosopher? astronomer? Seismologist?• Polymath.• presented his ideas to the Royal Society in London in 1783. Peter Watson
  12. 12. Peter Watson
  13. 13. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back Peter Watson
  14. 14. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes Peter Watson
  15. 15. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape. Peter Watson
  16. 16. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
  17. 17. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
  18. 18. • If we throw something up from the earth, it will fall back• Throw it at 11 km/s and it escapes• But if the escape velocity is the speed of light c, nothing can escape.• If the earth was 4 mm in radius, it would be a Black hole Peter Watson
  19. 19. • Stuff falling in will become very hot and produce X-rays• Cygnus X-1: visible star ~20 mass of sun• Invisible object M~9Mo• Power output in X-rays is 10,000 x total power output by sun! Peter Watson
  20. 20. • One way to see a black hole: it’s black!• If we are really lucky....(or unlucky) as a gap in the sky Too Close to a Black HoleCredit & Copyright: Robert Nemiroff (MTU)< Peter Watson
  21. 21. But there are much bigger black holes around Peter Watson
  22. 22. But there are much bigger black holes around • This is the Milky way, showing the whole sky Peter Watson
  23. 23. But there are much bigger black holes around • This is the Milky way, showing the whole sky Peter Watson
  24. 24. • If we look at it with radio waves, see very intense source at centre Peter Watson
  25. 25. • which gets brighter as we zoom in Peter Watson
  26. 26. • The stars there are swirling round something 10 million times as heavy as the sun Peter Watson
  27. 27. • The stars there are swirling round something 10 million times as heavy as the sun Peter Watson
  28. 28. • All galaxies seem to have a huge black hole at the centre Peter Watson
  29. 29. • And this is maybe where it is happening now:• Two galaxies have collided and the black holes seem to be coalescing Peter Watson
  30. 30. 3C75 X-rays from Chandra• And this is maybe where it is happening now:• Two galaxies have collided and the black holes seem to be coalescing Peter Watson
  31. 31. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electrons Peter Watson
  32. 32. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electrons Peter Watson
  33. 33. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electronsThere are attracted gravitationally Peter Watson
  34. 34. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electronsThere are attracted gravitationally Peter Watson
  35. 35. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electronsThere are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically Peter Watson
  36. 36. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons?• We don’t understand gravity• e.g take two electronsThere are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically Peter Watson
  37. 37. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons? • We don’t understand gravity • e.g take two electrons There are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically However the electric force is4000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 larger Peter Watson
  38. 38. • So what do huge things like galaxies have to do with tiny things like protons? • We don’t understand gravity • e.g take two electrons There are attracted They are repelled gravitationally electrostatically However the electric force is4000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 largerActually 4.2x1042 times larger: Hitchhiker’s Guide fans note! Peter Watson
  39. 39. • One way out:• Maybe space has more dimensions than 3:• This would make gravity much stronger at short distances: Peter Watson
  40. 40. If Peter Watson
  41. 41. If Peter Watson
  42. 42. • This is true, then we will get a new kind of black holesIf• Very small• Very short-lived• THis is what it might look like at in ATLAS Peter Watson
  43. 43. • This is true, then we will get a new kind of black holesIf• Very small• Very short-lived• THis is what it might look like at in ATLAS Peter Watson
  44. 44. Peter Watson
  45. 45. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world? Peter Watson
  46. 46. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world?• The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay (easy come, easy go!) Peter Watson
  47. 47. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world?• The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay (easy come, easy go!) Peter Watson
  48. 48. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world? • The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay (easy come, easy go!)• but better: nature has been doing this experiment for 14 billion years with cosmic rays Peter Watson
  49. 49. • How do we know they won’t grow and escape and consume the world? • The theory that predicts them predicts they will decay (easy come, easy go!)• but better: nature has been doing this experiment for 14 billion years with cosmic rays• and we are still here! Peter Watson

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