Bartholomew heritage 310113 part1

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A Family of Mapmakers: National Library of Scotland – 31 January 2013 (Part 1, no audio)

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  • > Acknowledgements upfront – family and NLS. Chris Fleet Senior Map Curator, NLS – esp Karla Baker BA Curator > Informal talk – personal view, feelings Pleasure to be here tonight. Thank you. Thank you for coming Be ENTHUSIASTIC ! Informal talk / almost a conversation Not so much about maps or indeed about a map company. Others far better qualified It’s about the family – a family of mapmakers. I’d like to share what it feels like being part of this Bartholomew family. Share my own personal memories first of dad, his family and the company. Then I’ll turn the clock back to tell the story starting with my 3rd great grandfather. At the end there will be time for questions. I’m determined to not let this become too much of a lecture, so don’t be surprised if I stop once or twice to ask you for questions – or even change the tone of my talk as I get into it! Thank you’s: NLS for the invitation – especially Karla and Chris The exhibition – pride, emotions – wonderful! Thanks Karla and all the NLS team My family for the support – especially my brother Ivon And you for coming!
  • > This talk is about a family of mapmakers, rather than about the maps themselves, or the company and the processes of creating and publishing atlases and maps PERSONAL > CHARM > WARM > INFORMAL > SMILE, EYE CONTACT Just out of curiosity, can I put you on the spot for a moment with three easy questions? How many of you here actually worked for Bartholomew’s or had a family member that did? Is there anyone here who’s not from the Edinburgh area? Finally – who in this room can confidently say they’ve used at one time or another a map published by Bartholomews? Thank you – that helps me understanding a little better who you all are.
  • > Boxes from the attic/clearing the house: Work in progress today – fascinating – cartons from attic not opened in over 50 years! More for the archive! A legacy from dad! > Robbie genealogy > Building on his amazing work and sharing it colourfully with the new generation > I’ve got to know my ancestors a lot better these past two years, since I came back to Scotland > Hope this comes through a bit tonight
  • This talk is about a family of mapmakers, rather than about the maps themselves, or the company and the processes of creating and publishing atlases and maps
  • Earliest memories: [[Share with RICH DESCRIPTIONS]] Going to the office with dad: Lift – smells: printing inks – bronze plaques of granddad and his dad on either side of the huge globe in the hall.
  • > A favourite place 1928 Largest camera of it’s kind in Scotland 42” x 32” PERSONAL > CHARM > WARM > INFORMAL > SMILE, EYE CONTACT
  • Anyone from Edinburgh can relate to this (or others that looked similar) …. My memories > bus shelters > Got teased at school
  • > Going around as a young boy could be daunting – all these busy people working in the office staring at you. As a small boy - Proud yet quite shy and self-conscious of being Mr John’s son. > Staff was family – something that we will see later through generations > Remember the Christmas hampers – for retirees – and their widows. > CHARM, SMILE, EYE CONTACT
  • Engravers exercises > Engraving: Even when dad worked Bartholomew, there wasn’t a better place in Edinburgh to do an engravers apprenticeship. See exhibition!
  • My only real recollection of my grandfather, John (or Ian) Bartholomew was a gentle though a little forbidding silhouette against a window in his home in Inveresk. He died when I was still five – so all I know of him in a more personal way is based on old family 8mm films from my dad’s childhood years and later when I was very small. He was quite infirm with arthritis in his later years so he always moved with crutches.
  • >Some of you know will already know these special people or my grandparents. Please come up after to say hello. Introduce each of the brothers > A small regret – because they worked side by side every day – the families got together too rarely.
  • A wonderful photo
  • Boardroom seemed austere – poorly lit. Ivon observes – almost emotionally and uncomfortably detached from the industry of the factory floor – perhaps not unusual for most of the 1900’s? Through the door from dad’s office. As Ivon recollect, really very different two worlds on each side of that door
  • PERSONAL > CHARM > WARM > INFORMAL > SMILE, EYE CONTACT Alick: Fastidious and knowledgeable editor and a skilled cartographer. Being a good map-maker – quirky combinations of strengths: Artistic eye yet a mind organised like a scientist. Classifying Very high attention to detail, precision – almost perfection Traits – at odds with good management – certainly in dad’s case Very in tune with geography and the world – but obsessive curiosity about places and staying “in touch” After successive generations – these become so engrained in the family traits they start to define many of us – possibly not always in positive ways too, especially where perfectionism is concerned. So it was from my father John Christopher that my brothers and I got a unique window on his passion for maps and geography. Every aspect of his enthusiasm for the natural world with all his five sons. Evening meals were invariably times for sharing knowledge about: People he had met, or facts about places, natural things or world events. He quizzed us regularly on our knowledge of geography, capital cities, countries, or river lengths. His interests went beyond geography. On Tuesdays, he would go to his Edinburgh Business Club lunches. In the evening, he would bring out his little notebook to recount the titbits and anecdotes from the guest speakers, regardless of the theme. He kept notes on everything! Scissors were always by his side to snip cuttings from the newspaper on anything that could be remotely of interest in the future or worth keeping for posterity. Life : St Trinnians Gordonstoun – different from his siblings - artistic / less regimented. Army / University / Apprenticeship
  • Not only a map-maker – but learnt the skill of military surveying in North Africa.
  • > A Russian professor’s visit – without the KGB following him! > Salichev Career: Continued the work of his father and grandfather
  • Public roles > for RSGS and for Barts Every boy’s dream! For all of us to meet John Hunt (my grandfather presented him with Livingstone Medal after Everest ascent, Neil Armstrong, Francis Chichester, Wally Herbert, Chris Bonnington, Ranalf Finnes, Tazief, John Simpson, Michael Palin and many others. Exploration was as much about meeting and understanding people who were themselves the explorers: Naturalists, mountaineers, mariners and even astronauts. Contributor to geographical and cartographic conferences Highly respected in international circles. Involvements: Cartography: Barts / ICA/ BCS Geography: RGS / President of the RSGS / PCGN / Scottish Rights of Way
  • Constant exploration: >Scottish Hill Tracks / Scottish Rights of Way – President until he died. His personal travels took him to six continents. Home filled with books on geography, astronomy, meteorology, oceanography, nations and world cultures.
  • Always the perfectionist! Project Urquart – Surveying bottom Loch Ness – Nicholas Wichall Among Insurgents – maps / forward - Shelby Tucker Speeches – every small speech was a big job to him Bartholomew House - plaque Judging Bartholomew Award entries Shelby Tucker – Among Insurgents ; Freddie Spencer Chapman Love of the night sky – comets, noctilucent clouds – letter from Patrick Moore Meticulous Maps for car insurance claims – the companies won’t have know what hit them!
  • > Remember me, brothers and cousins! Like my dad and the four generations before him, my parents called me John too! Feeling Predestined: Describe early feelings of being predestined to play a role in the firm in the next generation. I was never pushed though – unlike dad was. Mum’s role. Loved to look over dad’s shoulder when he brought work home at night – manager at office / hands-on at home. And I incessantly asked questions. So, nonetheless, like several cousins – I went on to study geography at university Three of us did postgraduate studies in cartography – I went to Zurich – but in NO HURRY to rush back to Scotland. Many of the family – siblings and cousins have memories working at Bartholomews during holidays from school or university – packing maps at the warehouse in Loanhead; or Editorial at Duncan Street; Brothers in Export department or in Production My world was turned upside down when back at Edinburgh University to do business studies, dad told me that family decided to sell the business to Reader’s Digest. That was in 1979. We were all quite shaken. [[We’ll revisit that again towards the end of my talk]] So I joined RD – keeping options open – just in case – but 1985 – sold on to News Intl I stayed with RD for 16 years in Switzerland and the USA – a marketing career with assignments all round the world. Then seven years ago I came back to Edinburgh. Now I find myself having gone full circle and working Geowise a small but immensely successful company selling clever interactive mapping software for the internet.
  • > The event that would have made my father more happy than anything imaginable. > Tip of the iceberg of dad’s main legacy – as champion of the cause the cause and help organize the transfer of everything to the NLS.
  • Before I turn the clock back to the history of the family, I will take happily a couple of questions. Or does anyone have something they’d like to add?
  • This talk is about a family of mapmakers, rather than about the maps themselves, or the company and the processes of creating and publishing atlases and maps
  • Work back through Generations from Dad The family is descended from a line of tenant farmers in West Lothian who later became merchants in Linlithgow.
  • George (1784–1871) Brought up by his mother alone in humble circumstances on the south side of Edinburgh’s Old Town (off Richmond Street). Founder of the dynasty. Where South Edinburgh? Apprenticed to Lizars: He was an engraver in both steel and copper for 60 years Independent engraver in 1806 (while continuing to work for Lizars). Worked on: John Lothian’s plans of Edinburgh and Leith and his County Atlas of Scotland. Latterly worked for his son. George (1784–1871) born Dunfermline? should be considered as the founder of the dynasty. In 1797 he was apprenticed to the well-known engraver Daniel Lizars, becoming an independent engraver in 1806, while continuing to work for Lizars. He worked on John Lothian’s plans of Edinburgh and Leith and his County Atlas of Scotland. He was an engraver in both steel and copper for 60 years, and latterly worked for his father, John Sr. (1805–1861) , who set up his own business in 1826. This has been regarded as the beginning of the family firm, as George did not actually publish the maps he engraved. We follow brother John’s contention that he in fact started the dynasty, as his son would probably otherwise not have chosen to start his map business. George outlived his father by a decade. For a time there were three generations working together – John, his father and his sons.
  • PERSONAL > CHARM > WARM > INFORMAL > SMILE, EYE CONTACT
  • John Sr. (1805–1861) , Set up his own business in 1826. John Sr. was a veritable master copper plate engraver Learnt trade from his father, George – at Lizars Worked on engraving some fine maps for local firms, such as street maps for W. H. Lizars , others for the Encyclopaedia Britannica and for some educational publishers like A & C Black. Pioneer, encouraging his son to make contacts abroad and learn from the German school of cartography. He was a shy man, holding back from public life. John Sr. was a veritable master copper plate engraver, who engraved some fine maps for local firms, such as street maps for Lizars, others for the Encyclopaedia Britannica and for some educational publishers like A & C Black. He was a pioneer, encouraging his son to make contacts abroad and learn from the German school of cartography. He trained several of his sons, one of whom, Henry, engraved the Lord’s Prayer on the polished back of a sixpenny bit, which I had in my coin collection. John Sr. was the ideal person to inaugurate what became one of the most admired cartographic institutions in the world. A man of high standards, as were his successors; he was a superb engraver, and engraving became the foundation of the firm. Lithography would follow later. He also had the vision to recognise the potential for the firm. He was a shy man, holding back from public life.
  • > Ahead of its time ? > 1826 – the year it all started
  • Edinburgh is becoming a city of printers in the early 1800’s, but there aren’t many high quality engravers to go around. John builds up a reputation quickly, especially after a client is let down by poor work done by another city engraver. John lives and works initially from home at 4 East St. James Street, near the east end of Princes Street. By 1855 he is married with 5 children living at 59 York Place. He employs his son Henry and 5 engravers and apprentices. In the old tradition, they live in the house as members of the family. As alluded to earlier, John even hired his father George to work on town plans. John Senior’s health starts to fail and by 1859, he lets his son take over and retires. He died two years later in 1861.
  • In 1859, shortly before he died, John Sr. passed the business on to his son John Jr. (1831–1898) , Expanded business with lithographic printing Print runs were huge, and profitable. An internationalist: business acquired a world reputation among geographers and cartographers. Spent much time abroad visiting business contacts. Introduced a pioneering system of layer colouring. Basis of all Bartholomew cartography to follow. Enriched firm’s tradition and its reputation for accurate, painstaking cartography. Negotiate with Ordnance Survey let Barts take on their Half-inch Series and produce two national series of sheet maps, reduced from the O.S. One-inch. Saw the potential of maps on specialised themes (eg a map of diseases) Worked on large numbers of maps and many new atlases for Scottish publishers also. E.g. The Comparative Atlas. In 1859, shortly before he died, John Sr. passed the business on to his son John Jr. (1831–1893) , who expanded it significantly with noisy, steam driven ‘flat bed’ lithographic printing presses, in which a huge block of limestone trundled back and forth with a great shudder. The latter part of the nineteenth century was a time of exploration and colonial expansion. Teaching about this expanding world blossomed in all schools with a demand for school atlases. This was a very profitable market, with large print numbers and reprints, and many different editions. (The Oxford Press ordered school atlases in about ten different languages for India alone – eg Urdu, Marathi, etc) Bartholomews produced large numbers of maps and many new atlases for Scottish publishers also. One that went through dozens of editions, The Comparative Atlas (1870s), was still in print when I ran Meiklejohn in London (1954-58). Educational reform also created a demand for encyclopaedias – which often had an atlas gazetteer volume. Again the print runs were huge, and profitable. John Sr. was an internationalist, and soon the business acquired a world reputation among geographers and cartographers. John Jr. was creative and saw the potential of the firm to create cartography as a social benefit rather than just a printed product. In the late 1870s he introduced a pioneering system of showing height by changing the colour between contours: delicate greens and browns for plains and foothills, darker browns for high ground, white for mountain tops and blue for water depth (layer colouring). This took time to catch on, but was the basis of all Bartholomew cartography to follow. He greatly enriched his firm’s tradition and its reputation for accurate, painstaking cartography. Geography, travel and the study of maps were now popular. His main contribution was to negotiate with Ordnance Survey to let Barts produce two national series of sheet maps, reduced from the O.S. One-inch, one of them to replace the O.S. half-inch scale. These popular scales of a quarter- and a half-inch to the mile contributed significantly to the popularisation of maps and their study. He also saw the potential of maps on specialised themes (eg a map of diseases), which his son, John George (JGB) was to expand. Johns Sr. and Jr. worked very hard; the father developed an illness in mid-life. John Jr. loved travel, and after JGB joined the business in 1879, John Jr. spent much time abroad visiting business contacts. In 1885 he made a tour of the USA (we have his journal). There was friendly competition between Bartholomew and George Philip of Liverpool. Connected through marriage, Philip’s suggestion of a merger met with a cool response, as much because John’s roots were in Edinburgh as his need for independence. His son later turned down other approaches in the 1890s. Bartholomew was clearly now the success story of cartography. John Jr. — Introduced layer colouring (with Lake District One-inch for Baddeley’s Guide, 1880) Negotiated use of O.S. One-inch as the base for two series of sheet maps of the UK Brought in lithography, printing detailed anatomical and botanical illustrations as well as maps Developed a large product range for schools, especially in atlases Specialised themes for maps Produced 19 atlases and 16 map publications
  • In 1848, at the age of 17, John got to meet Augustus Peterman in Edinburgh. Some six years older than him, Augustus was a young German cartographer visiting town to do business with rival map-makers W. & A.K. Johnson. Augustus’ employer was Justus Perthes, a map-making company in Germany. The two men really clicked. The German wanted John to join him at his London Office. John’s father blocked this, feeling that his son was still too young. Augustus asked is friend again 7 years later and this time, John was allowed to go. He stayed in London for 2 years – gaining experience in all aspects of map-making. He also met and developed connections with cartographers and business associates of Perthes. We know at this point that John dreamt of going to work in Germany at the main Perthes Office in the city of Gotha, Germany. (This is the city Victoria’s Prince Albert came from.). But his dad whose health was already weakening wouldn’t hear of it. He was needed back in Edinburgh and offered a partnership in the firm.
  • John Bartholomew begs respectfully to draw the attention of Lawyers, Engineers and Architects to his facilities for preparing Plans …. In the shortest possible notice and in the most correct and careful manner. When John Junior joined the business, it is clearly with ambitious visions. He moved the firm to much larger premises at 4 North Bridge [image 150 years]. The brass plate on the door reads “Edinburgh Engraving & Lithographic Establishment”, perhaps as Leslie Gardner says – “a somewhat high faluting title for a business as which, within memory, had been a one-man jobbing engraver’s.
  • Step back – without reading it - his contemporary – what was core message here Where John Senior was more of a craftsman at the office every day with a personal hand in every practical aspect of the business, his son John was more adventurous. Through his education and experience gained in London connecting with the world of geographers and map-makers, he could really feel the romance and see the exciting potential for the business…. Where there was one steam printing press he added two more. He started travelling further afield looking for business. Thanks to his acquired skills as a draughtsman, he could handle all processes to make maps within the company. His neighbour and client, Adam Black (of A & C Black publishers) wrote of him: “ We can recommend Mr Bartholomew as an excellent practical engraver and compiler of Maps etc., thoroughly acquainted with the Minutiae of his business. He possesses an extensive and recent knowledge of geography and is most attentive to any work he undertakes…”
  • The key innovation came with the introduction of lithographic printing. They bought their first steam-powered litho printing press. In simple terms, the process entails printing from a stone, typically German limestone slabs. Some can weigh up to a ton, so they need careful handling. The intricacies of this technology are beautifully presented in the exhibition. The big difference to the business was that now it could print a much larger number of maps than the old copper presses – 4000 impressions from a single machine in a typical 8-hour day.
  • The times were perfect for the firm to flourish. Besides needing maps, there was a burgeoning demand for all forms of coloured lithographic printing by other publishers. [image 150 flower engravings] The advance of scientific education created a need for medical, biological and botanic textbooks. Rail networks were adding lines throughout the country and were constantly needing to print new prospectuses [image 150] and the maps to go with them. The British Empire was growing with new territories explored and needing mapped. Missionary societies were a veritable industry sending their teams into all remote corners of the globe…. But of all the societal developments which popularised maps to make cartographic publishing a commercially exciting new industry, perhaps the most significant was geography education. The masses of people learnt to understand and read maps as part of their school curriculum. Young working people would sit in libraries browsing through atlases as if they were exciting picture books. Geography wasn’t the preserve of a small academic élite any more!
  • Publications for other publishers
  • Internationally, John is most remembered for his pioneering work to refine and commercially implement contour-layer coloured mapping. These were based on concepts first developed in Germany to use layers of different colours to show heights in the landscape. John experimented with different colour scales to maximise the visual impact of these colour layers whilst interfering as little as possible with the legibility of other features and text on the map. To do this, he picked lighter green shades on lower ground and valleys where generally most map detail is concentrated, with progressive colour steps through lighter browns to darker browns, culminating in greys and whites for mountain tops. Even today, so many atlases in the world today still include topographic maps which use a similar colour schema as John’s.
  • His Legacy – added draughtmanship + Printing (lucrative lithographic printing and an international outlook + layer colouring)
  • PERSONAL > CHARM > WARM > INFORMAL > SMILE, EYE CONTACT One of the more charming maps of that time was a fantasy one. The engraving of the frontispiece map of RLS’s Treasure Island was commissioned to John Bartholomew. [Treasure Island] – [more text]
  • In 1885, John Bartholomew Junior spent three months travelling around North America. These are some of the souvenirs he brought back. The principal aim of his trip was to foster new business connections but he also met President Cleveland and visited Yosemite National Park. John greatly cultivated his international connections to broaden his client base worldwide. Yet from the records we have, he seems to have travelled surprisingly little overseas. In the exhibition, you can see a lovely display of memorabilia from the one big trip he made to North America in 1885. The National Library of Scotland has the diaries of that journey. [NLS Blog images].
  • His Legacy Looks like dad George: founder of the dynasty as the first engraver. John Senior : Went into business on his own as an Engraver John Junior: Added draughtsmanship ; lithographic printing Friends described John Junior as a “shy but shrewd man, unfailingly courteous and good-natured”. From two marriages he had eleven children, of which nine survived infancy. When John Junior retired in 1888, he could look back on a 40-year career living through big changes in society and science and the practice of mapmaking. So many positive forces which all worked simultaneously to create an environment for the company to flourish through his generation and the two that followed.
  • Bartholomew heritage 310113 part1

    1. 1. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEA Family of Mapmakers:My FamilyNational Library of Scotland – 31 January 2013by John Eric Bartholomew
    2. 2. 1.Personal MemoriesBARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    3. 3. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEBartholomew Family Heritage Website: www.johnbartholomew.comLinks to many other sites incl. NLS Bartholomew Archive and Blog
    4. 4. What does it feel like to be partof the Bartholomew family? Early memories: “The Office” The last generation: The three brothers John Christopher : Father and cartographer Personal perspectives and aspirations The family legacy and the exhibitionBARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    5. 5. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEEdinburgh Geographical Institute in Duncan Street“The Office”
    6. 6. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    7. 7. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEMemories: Rotary Printing Presses in Duncan Street
    8. 8. Memories: “The big camera”BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    9. 9. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    10. 10. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEThe Bartholomew Staff were part of theextended family and developed meaningfulsocial bonds – even into retirement
    11. 11. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEEngraver’s rights of passage...
    12. 12. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    13. 13. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEThree Bartholomew brothers: John Christopher, Peter and Robert:Progressively took charge of the firm from their father John (Ian) between 1949 and 1956.
    14. 14. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEPeter Bartholomew (1924–1987)
    15. 15. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEBartholomew’s Board of Directors in1976 in the Boardroom in Duncan StreetLeft to Right:Michael Chittleburgh - MarketingDavid Cunningham – FinanceDavid Ross Stewart – MDPeter Bartholomew – ChairmanRobert Bartholomew – ProductionJohn C Bartholomew - Cartographic
    16. 16. Growing up with a cartographerand the last generation in the firmBARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    17. 17. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGECapt. John C Bartholomew – RE Surveyor in North Africa and Palestine
    18. 18. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    19. 19. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    20. 20. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    21. 21. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEJohn C Bartholomew – Projects
    22. 22. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEA further generation pre-destinedto join the company?
    23. 23. The exhibition encapsulates acollective legacyBARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE… until 7thMay 2013
    24. 24. Before I move on...Any questionsor personalrecollections?BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    25. 25. 2.Turning the clock backSix GenerationsBARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    26. 26. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGESix Generations
    27. 27. George Bartholomew1784–1871BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE Apprenticed to the well-knownengraver Daniel Lizars Worked on illustrations andstationery but later moved to maps. He was involved with JohnLothian’s Plan of the City of Edinburgh(1825) and plans of Leith for JohnWood’s Town Atlas of Scotland (1828) Worked later for his son John.
    28. 28. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEDrawing for Carlisle Cumberland
    29. 29. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEThis wasn’t George after all!
    30. 30. John Bartholomew, Senior1805-1861BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE Veritable master copper plateengraver in Edinburgh Engraved some fine maps for localfirms, such as street maps for W.H.Lizars. Inaugurated the firm in 1826 bysetting himself up independently. Had the vision to recognise thepotential for the business. He was ashy man, holding back from public life. A pioneer, encouraging his son tomake contacts abroad and learn fromthe German school of cartography
    31. 31. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE
    32. 32. Drawn and engraved by John Bartholomew(Senior) for W.H.LizarsBARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEDirectory Plan of Edinburgh 1826.
    33. 33. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEJohn “Senior” and his son move theirbusiness from home at East St JamesStreet to 4 North BridgeNorth Bridge, Edinburgh 1859-1870,looking south from Princes Street.Bartholomew printing premises on left
    34. 34. John Bartholomew, Junior1831-1898BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE He trained with August Petermann,German cartographer in London Expanded business withdraughtsmanship and lithographicprinting Introduced a pioneering system oflayer colouringSpent much time abroad visitingbusiness contactsEnriched firm’s tradition and itsreputation for accurate, painstakingcartography.
    35. 35. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEAugustus Petermann – Pivotal influence on the destiny of theBartholomew cartographic vision?
    36. 36. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEJohn Bartholomew, Junior 1831-1893John Bartholomew begs respectfullyto draw the attention of Lawyers,Engineers and Architects to hisfacilities for preparing Plans ….… In the shortest possible notice andin the most correct and carefulmanner.
    37. 37. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE“We can recommend Mr Bartholomew as anexcellent practical engraver and compiler of Mapsetc., thoroughly acquainted with the Minutiae of hisbusiness. He possesses an extensive and recentknowledge of geography and is most attentive to anywork he undertakes…”John Junior’s neighbour and client, Adam Black (of A & C Black publishers)wrote of him:
    38. 38. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEJohn Junior introduces lithographic printing to the business. Print runsbecame huge, and profitableFrom copper plate presses to lithography
    39. 39. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEJohn Junior’s new premises in BrownSquare (now Chambers Street)Company moves fromNorth Bridge to BrownSquare
    40. 40. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE British Empire growing: New territories explored andneeding mapped. Rail networks adding lines: Constantly needing to printnew prospectuses and the maps to go with them. Missionary societies: A veritable industry: Sendingpeople into all remote corners of the globe. Geography education popularised maps. Besides maps, huge demand for engraving and colouredlithographic printing by other publishers (e.g. medical,biological and botanic textbooks).The times were perfect forBartholomew’s business toflourish.
    41. 41. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEStill mainly maps for other publishers: e.g. Blackwood’s County Maps: Sutherland
    42. 42. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEMaps mainly for other publishers: e.g. North British Railway (1846)Railways proliferated and every new line required plans
    43. 43. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGEJohn Junior introduced layer colouring, perfected later by his son (1880)
    44. 44. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGELayer colouring – the innovationBartholomew, Plate 46 of the Survey Atlas of Scotland, 1912‘the mountains of poor Scotland [be] represented as sprawling andwriggling about like so many inebriated centipedes and convulsedcaterpillars’James Geikie, 1895John Thomson, Southern Part of Ross and Cromatry Shires, 1820[Slide after: Chris Fleet, NLS]
    45. 45. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE John Bartholomew, Jr.commissioned to engrave the map ofTreasure Island for Robert LouisStevensons bestseller. (1895Edinburgh edition on left) Johns brother, Henry Bartholomew(1834-99), may have been the onewho actually crafted it, though this isuncertain.Treasure IslandJohn Bartholomew, Junior 1831-1893
    46. 46. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGETreasure Island
    47. 47. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE1885: John Junior heads to North America for three months to make connections
    48. 48. BARTHOLOMEW: A SCOTTISH FAMILY HERITAGE

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