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RESTful services on IBM Domino/XWork

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RESTful services on IBM Domino/XWork

  1. 1. #engageug 1 REST services and IBM Domino/XWork A presentation for EngageUG 30-31 March 2015 by John Dalsgaard
  2. 2. #engageug 2 Agenda ● About me ● Webservices ● REST & JSON ● Domino/XWork – out of the box... – Domino Access Service (DAS) – Extension Library controls – Build your own – Demos ● Round up
  3. 3. #engageug 3 About me ● Worked with Notes since 1995 version 4.5 ● Java since Notes 5.0.7 (2000) ● Large web-apps. (40.000+ users) ● Object Oriented approach since 1999 (yes, in LotusScript...) ● XPages & mobile apps (Appcelerator Titanium).... ● Certified Principal/advanced administrator and developer – all versions 4.6 → 9.0 ● Developer, project manager, IT manager – own company since 1998. ● IBM Champion for 2015
  4. 4. #engageug 4 About me
  5. 5. #engageug 5 Webservices ● What is a webservice? – Program to program communication – Implemementation independent – ”Contract” about interface ● Traditionally SOAP & XML... – Very ”verbose” (=not ”light”) – Needs pre-/post processing to ”extract” data → Meet the ”new kid on the block”:
  6. 6. #engageug 6 REST services using JSON ● REST = REpresentational State Transfer ● JSON = JavaScript Object Notation ● Why?? → Loose coupling... – Angular, Ext.js, etc. – Mobile apps/web apps ● Let's take a quick look at these terms:
  7. 7. #engageug 7 REST ● Wikipedia: Representational state transfer (REST) is an abstraction of the architecture of the World Wide Web; more precisely, REST is an architectural style consisting of a coordinated set of architectural constraints applied to components, connectors, and data elements, within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements..... WHAT?????
  8. 8. #engageug 8 REST ● Client-server architecture – Uniform interface separates client from server ● Stateless – All info in request ● Cacheable communications protocol – Almost always HTTP ● Uniform interface... – HTML, URIs, XML, JSON, MIME, meta-data.... ● Actually, WWW via HTTP can also be viewed as a REST- based architecture – so nothing new here that you did not know... :-)
  9. 9. #engageug 9 ”RESTful” web-service ● Architectural style: – URI structure (base URI) – Internet media type. JSON – or: XML, Atom, … – Standard HTTP methods: ● GET ● POST ● PUT ● DELETE … also known as: CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) methods
  10. 10. #engageug 10 ”RESTful” web-service ● Designed for networked applications ● Using HTTP as a simple alternative to more complex mechanisms to connect between machines: – WebServices (SOAP, WSDLs etc.) – CORBA – RPC
  11. 11. #engageug 11 ”RESTful” web-service ● Example – SOAP: <?xml version="1.0"?> <soap:Envelope xmlns:soap="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap-envelope" soap:encodingStyle="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap-encoding"> <soap:body pb="http://www.acme.com/phonebook"> <pb:GetUserDetails> <pb:UserID>12345</pb:UserID> </pb:GetUserDetails> </soap:Body> </soap:Envelope> – … must to be sent via a request (HTTP POST) ● Example – RESTful web-service: http://www.acme.com/phonebook/UserDetails/12345 – … just a URL!! (HTTP GET) – simple....
  12. 12. #engageug 12 JSON ● Wikipedia: JSON (/ˈdʒeɪsən/ jay-sən), or JavaScript Object Notation, is an open standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, as an alternative to XML. Although originally derived from the JavaScript scripting language, JSON is a language-independent data format. Code for parsing and generating JSON data is readily available in a large variety of programming languages.
  13. 13. #engageug 13 JSON ● A syntax for storing & exchanging data ● An easier to use alternative to XML ● Is a lightweight data interchange format ● Is language independant ● Is ”self-describing” and easy to understand JSON uses JavaScript syntax, but the JSON format is text only, just like XML. Text can be read and used as a data format by any programming language...
  14. 14. #engageug 14 JSON vs. XML ● XML <employees> <employee> <firstName>John</firstName> <lastName>Doe</lastName> </employee> <employee> <firstName>Anna</firstName> <lastName>Smith</lastName> </employee> <employee> <firstName>Peter</firstName> <lastName>Jones</lastName> </employee> </employees> ● JSON {"employees":[ {"firstName":"John", "lastName":"Doe"}, {"firstName":"Anna", "lastName":"Smith"}, {"firstName":"Peter", "lastName":"Jones"} ]}
  15. 15. #engageug 15 JSON syntax ● Object: {} { 'text' : 'Hello world!', 'number' : 123, 'valid' : true } ● Array: [] { 'numbers' : [ 1, 2, 3 ] } { 'objects' : [ {'a':1}, {'b':2}, {'c':3} ] } ● Value: – string, number, object, array, boolean, null ● Please note: NO date/time type...!!! Grrrrr.....
  16. 16. #engageug 16 JSON and JavaScript var text = ”{ 'name' : 'EngageUG', 'current' : 2015 }”; ● Create an object: – var engageUG = JSON.parse(text); ● Create text representation of an object: – var engageUGText = JSON.stringify(engageUG); ● Refer to attributes: – var name = engageUG.name; ● Add another attribute: – engageUG['venue'] = 'Ghent'
  17. 17. #engageug 17 Domino/XWork - out of the box ● Webservices (SOAP, XML, etc...) – Consumer (client) – since 8.0 – Provider (server) – since 7.0 – Written in LotusScript/Java RESTful service using JSON → ● Domino Access Services (DAS) – core service - since 9.0.1 – data service - since 8.5.3 UP1 (~DDS) – calendar service - since 9.0.1
  18. 18. #engageug 18 Domino Access Services ● Implemented as OSGi plugins/servlets ● Based on Apache Wink ● How to enable & configure – Web access – Enable Domino Access Service (DAS) – Enable for database – Enable for specific elements
  19. 19. #engageug 19 Enable web access ● HTTP Server must be started. – Check console: show tasks HTTP Server Listen for connect requests on TCP Port:80 ● Use internet sites – just do it! – Activate in server document – Create Internet site document for domain ● After changes: restart task http ● Check: – Open the server on the port you saw on the console – http://server.dom.dk:80/ (leave out port if 80)
  20. 20. #engageug 20 Check DAS Open: server.dom.dk/api – lists service and their state
  21. 21. #engageug 21 Enable data service ● On Internet site document (configuration tab): ● Need to refresh http to take effect – tell http refresh
  22. 22. #engageug 22 DAS: List all ”services” (db's) ● Open: server.dom.dk/api/data
  23. 23. #engageug 23 DAS: Open a specific database ● Try: server.dom.dk/reports.nsf/api/data/collections → We need to enable DAS for the database
  24. 24. #engageug 24 DAS: Enable for database ● On the advanced properties of the database: ● Select level in ”Allow Domino Data Service”: ● Important decision: Views and/or documents
  25. 25. #engageug 25 DAS: Open database again ● Try: server.dom.dk/demo/json.nsf/api/data/collections
  26. 26. #engageug 26 DAS: Enable for view ● We need to enable DAS for the view first ● Open the view in Domino Designer ● On the view properties – advanced tab ● Enable: ”Allow Domino Data Service operations”: ● Save the view, open it using the url returned
  27. 27. #engageug 27 DAS: Open a view ● Try: server.dom.dk/.../collections/unid/A892133953... ● ● Heureka!! - we see a list of all documents! ● Also try: server.dom.dk/.../collections/name/persons
  28. 28. #engageug 28 DAS: Open a document ● Try: server.dom.dk/.../documents/unid/33735D0BC... ● Requires ”Views and documents” to be set in DB props.
  29. 29. #engageug 29 DAS: Writing back... ● Remember content type MUST be: – application/json – Set ”Content-type” in header of request ● If you get ”405 Method not allowed” – Enable method in internet site ● By default these are NOT enabled: – PUT – PATCH – DELETE – Or override header in your request ● ”X-HTTP-Method-Override” : ”POST”
  30. 30. #engageug 30 DAS: Save existing document ● Use ”PATCH” to change specific fields – url: …/documents/unid/33735D0BCE799.... – updates only the fields in the request ● Use ”PUT” to change ALL fields – url: …/documents/unid/33735D0BCE799.... – All fields are replaced with the fields from request – fields not specified are blanked....
  31. 31. #engageug 31 DAS: Create / delete document ● Use ”POST” to create a document with specified fields – url: …/documents?form=Person – You MUST add form to url ● Use ”DELETE” to remove the document entirely – url: …/documents/unid/33735D0BCE799....
  32. 32. #engageug 32 DAS: Data service - more... ● See the design of a view: – //.../collections/name/persons/design ● Compute values on update of document – //.../documents/unid/33735D0BC...? computewithform=true ● Use ”normal” url actions to control view collection, e.g. – //.../collections/name/persons?start=1&count=2
  33. 33. #engageug 33 DAS: Calendar service ● There is a catch to enable this service... – In the internet site document you have to type ”Calendar” as an option.... - it is not predefined
  34. 34. #engageug 34 DAS: Calendar service ● Built on the new calendar backend classes in Domino/XWork 9.0.1 ● Current user's calendars, email address, and services server.dom.dk/api/calendar ● Events from specific calendar server.dom.dk/demo/cal.nsf/api/calendar/events ● Events from specific calendar (iCal format) server.dom.dk/.../events?format=iCalendar ● Only shows events that have NOT started yet
  35. 35. #engageug 35 DAS: Calendar service ● You can also CREATE new events!!! – Using POST and specifiying all fields under an ”events” object – Handles the various types: Meeting, appointment, etc. – Will send invites to participants of meetings – Handles notifications – Actions for complete workflow: Accept, decline, delegate, etc. – … and more!
  36. 36. #engageug 36 Extension Library ● Comes with the Domino 9.0.x server (and Domino Designer) ● Just needs to be enabled in XSP properties ● Does NOT require DAS to be enabled ● Provides easy to use controls: – REST Service (data) – Remote Service (JSON-RPC) ● Allow you to run serverside code as a REST service... ● Also provide support for: – NSF and OSGi servlets... - advanced stuff!!
  37. 37. #engageug 37 Extension Library ● Why would you use it...???? ● → Allows further customizations – Include/exclude certain data columns – Include/exclude system columns (@....) – Calculate contents of own columns – Run code before/after CRUD operations – Sort and search – Create ”handles” (variable) to use in XPage as datasources
  38. 38. #engageug 38 Ext. Lib. REST Service ● Create a new XPage ● Drag a ”REST Service” component to it: ● Fill in ”the blanks” – pathInfo → identifies the service – Select service – Fill in the info needed for that type of service
  39. 39. #engageug 39 Ext. Lib. REST Service ● To call your service you open the XPage with the REST Service control(s) and add the pathInfo, e.g.: server.dom.dk/db.nsf/yourpage.xsp/persons – ...assuming you set pathInfo to ”persons” for one of the REST Services on the ”yourpage” XPage
  40. 40. #engageug 40 Ext. Lib. NSF servlet ● You can register a servlet to e.g. give you a JSON representation of a view ● Extends DefaultServletFactory – add a factory that maps to a service (e.g. view name) – Register in Code/Java/META-INF/services ● file: com.ibm.xsp.adapter.servletFactory → Full name of servlet class ● Refer to using url, e.g.: server.dom.dk/db.nsf/xsp/services/Persons ● Does NOT require DAS to be enabled
  41. 41. #engageug 41 Build your own... ● Why?? – … using your own MVC – Java objects – Full control – Does NOT require DAS to be enabled ● Handy ”ingredients” – Java – XPages ● Use an ”XAgent” (or an NSF/OSGi servlet) ● Select a JSON ”package” – Built-in with XPages – Or others like GSON – (wrap as plugin!!)
  42. 42. #engageug 42 Build your own... ● Use cases: – Generate JSON directly from your Java class – Consume your JSON POSTs directly by parsing them to the corresponding Java class → Ready to use in your logic – Control e.g. date formating generally for all Date fields ● Eg. use ISO datetime format
  43. 43. #engageug 43 Build your own... ● LotusScript.... – You didn't expect me to say this! – An option if you have existing systems with business logic written in LotusScript – Simple: ● print – correct content-type ● print …. your JSON (as text) – … but I would not advice to build new this way → you would like to use a library/package to build your JSON for you! ● Does NOT require DAS to be enabled
  44. 44. #engageug 44 Demo... ● Server: – Local VM with Domino 9.0.1FP2 on CentOS 6.6 – Extension Library (from IBM) – OpenNTF Domino API installed – OpenNTF Essentials installed ● A demo database – Showing an MVC pattern I use – Added a number of JSON demos – Is available for download ● Tool for testing: – Google Chrome Postman
  45. 45. #engageug 45 Demo... ● DAS – core – data – calendar ● Extension Library REST Service ● Build you own – Built-in JSON classes – GSON based on Java objects – LotusScript... ● Download DB from Bitbucket.org
  46. 46. #engageug 46 LiveDEMO
  47. 47. #engageug 47 Round Up ● What are REST and JSON ● GET, POST, PUT, DELETE – ~CRUD ● Domino Access Services – out of the box – Data – Calendar ● Extension Library – REST Service – (Remote Service) ● Build own solution – Java & JSON ”package” - …. & LotusScript ;-)
  48. 48. #engageug 48 Questions?? ● Did you learn something? ● Could you use it? ?
  49. 49. #engageug 49 Contact info Please feel free to contact me: John Dalsgaard Dalsgaard Data A/S Solbjergvej 42 Solbjerg DK-4270 Høng Phone: +45 4914-1271 Email: john@dalsgaard-data.dk www.dalsgaard-data.dk Blog: www.dalsgaard-data.eu Twitter: @john_dalsgaard, @DalsgaardDataAS Skype: john_dalsgaard
  50. 50. #engageug 50 Sources & links ● Wikipedia: Representational state transfer ● Learn REST: A Tutorial ● VIEW Tips: Brad Balassaitis on JSON-RPC ● IBM Domino Access Services 9.0.1 ● Wikipedia: JSON / JavaScript Object Notation ● Introducing JSON ● JSON Tutorial ● REST services in Domino - Domino Access Services (PDF) ● Extension Library REST Services (PDF) ● Extension Library on OpenNTF (includes demo db) ● JSON test client: Chrome Postman ● Wrap an existing jar into a plugin ● Demo-DB on Bitbucket.org
  51. 51. #engageug 51 Sources & links ● For the advanced – check these frameworks.... – Apache Wink (what DAS etc. is build on) – … and Wink with OpenNTF Extension Library – Jersey – Specifikation: Java API for RESTful Services (JAX-RS)

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