What is learning?
Is a relatively permanent change in mental processing,
emotional functioning and / or behaviour as a result of
experience (Bastable 2002)
Has a lasting or permanent change in behaviour
A complex process which involves changes in mental
processing, development of emotional functioning and
Starts from birth and ends in death
How does learning occur?
1. Interaction with the environment (e.g. society,
2. Incorporation of new information or experience to
3. Learning style of the learner.
1. Right brain/ left brain and whole brain thinking
2. Field-independent and field-dependent perception
3. Dunn and Dunn learning styles
4. Jung and Myer-Briggs typology
Learning Styles (Contd)
5. Kolb’s experiential learning model
6. 4MAT system
7. Theory of Multiple Intelligences
8. VARK learning styles
1. Right brain/ left brain and whole
Although not technically a model, it adds our
understanding on how the brain functions that are
associated with learning.
The brain is divided by 2 parts, the left and right
hemisphere. These two parts are connected by the
corpus callosum which serves as a link between the 2
Individuals have a preferred hemisphere (dominancy)
Thinking is critical, logical, convergent, focal
Prefers talking and writing
Recognizes and remembers names
Solves problems via breaking of parts, sequential in
problem solving and uses logic
Good organizational skills
Likes stability willing to adhere to rules
Not as good in interpreting body language
Hemisphere Functions (Contd)
Thinking is creative, intuitive, divergent, diffuse
Prefers drawing and manipulating objects
Solves problems by looking at the whole, the
configurations, then approaches the problem through
pattern via hunches
• Loose organizational skills, sloopy
• Good at interpreting body language
• Free with emotions
2. Field Independent/Dependent
Studied by Witkin, Oltman, Raskin and Carp
This is based on the bipolar distribution of the characteristics of
how learners process and structure information within the
Field Independence hinges on the perceptual skill of "seeing the
forest for the trees." A person who can easily recognize the
hidden castle or human face in 3-D posters and a child who can
spot the monkeys camouflaged within the trees and leaves of an
exotic forest in coloring books tend toward a field independent
style. The "field" may be perceptual or it may be abstract, such
as a set of ideas, thoughts, or feelings from which the task is to
perceive specific subsets.
Field dependence is, conversely, the tendency to be "dependent"
on the total field so that the parts embedded within the field are
not easily perceived, though that total field is perceived most
clearly as a unified whole (Brown: 1994).
1. Impersonal orientation
1. Personal orientation
i.e. reliance on internal frame of reference in i.e. reliance on external frame of reference in
i.e. perceives a field in terms of its
component parts; parts are distinguished
i.e. perceives field as a whole; parts are fused
i.e. sense of separate identity
i.e. the self view is derived from others
4. Socially sensitive
i.e. greater skill in interpersonal/social
4. Not so socially aware
i.e. less skilled in interpersonal/social
3. The Dunn and Dunn Learning
The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model indicates a range of
variables proven to influence the achievements of individual
learners from kindergarten age to adulthood.
Each learner has his or her own unique combination of preferences.
Some preferences may be strong, in which case the learner will
benefit significantly if the need is addressed when he or she is
learning challenging content.
Others preferences may be moderate – worth addressing if learning
isn’t progressing smoothly.
For some variables, no preference may be indicated. The learner’s
ability to engage with the work and to achieve success may depend
on extraneous factors or his/her level of interest in the subject - or it
may be that that particular variable has no real bearing on the
learner’s ability to concentrate and study.
4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Myers and Briggs extrapolated their MBTI theory from Jung's writings in his book
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire
designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and
make decisions. These preferences were extrapolated from the typological theories
proposed by Carl Gustav Jung and first published in his 1921 book Psychological
Types (English edition, 1923). Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological
functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and
thinking. One of these four functions is dominant most of the time.
The original developers of the personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and
her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers; these two, having studied extensively the work of
Jung, turned their interest of human behavior into a devotion of turning the theory of
psychological types to practical use. They began creating the indicator during World
War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who
were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of wartime jobs that would be "most comfortable and effective". The initial questionnaire
grew into the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was first published in 1962. The MBTI
focuses on normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring
differences. Robert Kaplan and Dennis Saccuzzo believe "the underlying assumption
of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our
experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and
motivation" (p. 499).
Fundamental to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is
the theory of psychological type as originally
developed by Carl Jung. Jung proposed the existence
of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions:
• The "rational" (judging) functions: thinking and feeling
• The "irrational" (perceiving)
functions: sensation and intuition
Jung believed that for every person each of the
functions are expressed primarily in either an
introverted or extraverted form
Jung's typological model regards psychological type as similar to
left or right handedness: individuals are either born with, or
develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The
MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four
opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible
psychological types. None of these types are better or worse;
however, Briggs and Myers theorized that individuals
naturally prefer one overall combination of type
differences.:9 In the same way that writing with the left hand is
hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using their
opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if they
can become more proficient (and therefore behaviorally flexible)
with practice and development.
The 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four
letters—the initial letters of each of their four type preferences
(except in the case of intuition, which uses the abbreviation N to
distinguish it from Introversion). For instance:
• ESTJ: extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J)
• INFP: introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)
This method of abbreviation is applied to all 16 types.
The preferences for extraversion and introversion are often called "attitudes". Briggs
and Myers recognized that each of the cognitive functions can operate in the external
world of behavior, action, people, and things ("extraverted attitude") or the internal
world of ideas and reflection ("introverted attitude"). The MBTI assessment sorts for
an overall preference for one or the other.
People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: they tend to act, then
reflect, then act further. If they are inactive, their motivation tends to decline. To
rebuild their energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely,
those who prefer introversion "expend" energy through action: they prefer to reflect,
then act, then reflect again. To rebuild their energy, introverts need quiet time alone,
away from activity.
The extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, and the
introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics
between extraverts and introverts include the following:
Extraverts are "action" oriented, while introverts are "thought"
Extraverts seek "breadth" of knowledge and influence, while
introverts seek "depth" of knowledge and influence.
Extraverts often prefer more "frequent" interaction, while
introverts prefer more "substantial" interaction.
Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with
people, while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time alo
Functions: sensing/intuition (S/N) and
The two perceiving functions, sensing and intuition
The two judging functions, thinking and feeling
According to Jung's typology model, each person uses one of these four functions
more dominantly and proficiently than the other three; however, all four functions are
used at different times depending on the circumstances.
Sensing and intuition are the information-gathering (perceiving) functions. They
describe how new information is understood and interpreted. Individuals who
prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible, and
concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses.
Thinking and feeling are the decision-making (judging) functions. The thinking and
feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions, based on the data received
from their information-gathering functions (sensing or intuition). Those who
prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the
decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent, and matching a given
set of rules. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or
empathizing with the situation, looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the
situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering
the needs of the people involved. Thinkers usually have trouble interacting with
people who are inconsistent or illogical, and tend to give very direct feedback to
others. They are concerned with the truth and view it as more important than being
As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in the everyday
sense, "think better" than their feeling counterparts; the opposite preference is
considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions (and, in any case, the MBTI
assessment is a measure of preference, not ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling
do not necessarily have "better" emotional reactions than their thinking counterparts.
A diagram depicting the cognitive functions of each type. A
type's background color represents its Dominant function,
and its text color represents its Auxiliary function.
According to Jung, people use all four cognitive functions.
However, one function is generally used in a more
conscious and confident way. This dominant function is
supported by the secondary (auxiliary) function, and to a
lesser degree the tertiary function. The fourth and least
conscious function is always the opposite of the dominant
function. Myers called this inferior function the shadow.
The four functions operate in conjunction with the
attitudes (extraversion and introversion). Each function is
used in either an extraverted or introverted way. A person
whose dominant function is extraverted intuition, for
example, uses intuition very differently from someone
whose dominant function is introverted intuition.
Lifestyle: judging/perception (J/P)
Myers and Briggs added another dimension to Jung's typological model by identifying
that people also have a preference for using either the judging function (thinking or
feeling) or their perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to the outside
Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judging show the world their
preferred judging function (thinking or feeling). So TJ types tend to appear to the
world as logical, and FJ types asempathetic. According to Myers,judging types like to
"have matters settled".
Those types who prefer perception show the world their preferred perceiving function
(sensing or intuition). So SP types tend to appear to the world as concrete and NP
types as abstract. According to Myers, perceptive types prefer to "keep decisions
For extraverts, the J or P indicates their dominant function; for introverts, the J or P
indicates their auxiliary function. Introverts tend to show their dominant function
outwardly only in matters "important to their inner worlds". For example:
Because the ENTJ type is extraverted, the J indicates that the dominant function is the
preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). The ENTJ type introverts the
auxiliary perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is sensing
and the inferior function is introverted feeling.
Because the INTJ type is introverted, however, the J instead indicates that
the auxiliary function is the preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). The INTJ
type introverts the dominant perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary
function is feeling and the inferior function is extraverted sensing.
5. Kolb Experiencial Learning Style
David Kolb published his learning styles model in 1984
from which he developed his learning style inventory.
Kolb's experiential learning theory works on two
levels: a four stage cycle of learning and four separate
learning styles. Much of Kolb’s theory is concerned
with the learner’s internal cognitive processes.
Kolb states that learning involves the acquisition of
abstract concepts that can be applied flexibly in a
range of situations. In Kolb’s theory, the impetus for
the development of new concepts is provided by new
“Learning is the process whereby knowledge is
created through the transformation of experience”
(David A. Kolb, 1984).
The Experiential Learning Cycle
Kolb's experiential learning style theory is typically
represented by afour stage learning cycle in which the
learner 'touches all the bases':
1. Concrete Experience - (a new experience of
situation is encountered, or a reinterpretation of
2. Reflective Observation (of the new experience. Of
particular importance are any inconsistencies
between experience and understanding).
3. Abstract Conceptualization (Reflection gives rise t
o a new idea, or a modification of an existing abstract
4. Active Experimentation (the learner applies them
to the world around them to see what results).
Effective learning is seen when a person progresses through a cycle of
four stages: of (1) having a concrete experience followed by (2)
observation of and reflection on that experience which leads to (3) the
formation of abstract concepts (analysis) and generalizations
(conclusions) which are then (4) used to test hypothesis in future
situations, resulting in new experiences.
Kolb (1975) views learning as an integrated process
with each stage being mutually supportive of and
feeding into the next. It is possible to enter the cycle
at any stage and follow it through its logical
However, effective learning only occurs when when a
learner is able to execute all four stages of the model.
Therefore, no one stage of the cycle is an effective as
a learning procedure on its own.
6. 4MAT System
Developed by Bernice McCarthy, author of 4MAT in Action:
Creative Lesson Plans for Teaching to Learning Styles with
Right/Left Mode Techniques.
This cycle of learning is based on a number of premises. First,
different individuals perceive and process experience in different
preferred ways. These preferences comprise our unique learning
styles. Essential to quality learning is an awareness in the learner
of his/her own preferred mode, becoming comfortable with
his/her own best ways of learning, and being helped to develop
a learning repertoire, through experience with alternative
The fact that a student may have a preferred, most-comfortable
mode does not mean she/he cannot function effectively in
others. In fact, the student who has the flexibility to move easily
from one mode to another to fit the requirements of the
situation is at a definite advantage over those who limit
themselves to only one style of thinking and learning. The four
learning styles identified by McCarthy are:
Type 1: Innovative Learners are primarily interested in personal meaning.
They need to have reasons for learning--ideally, reasons that connect new
information with personal experience and establish that information's
usefulness in daily life. Some of the many instructional modes effective with
this learner type are cooperative learning, brainstorming, and integration of
content areas (e.g., science with social studies, writing with the arts, etc.).
Type 2: Analytic Learners are primarily interested in acquiring facts in order
to deepen their understanding of concepts and processes. They are capable
of learning effectively from lectures, and enjoy independent research,
analysis of data, and hearing what "the experts" have to say.
Type 3: Common Sense Learners are primarily interested in how things
work; they want to "get in and try it." Concrete, experiential learning
activities work best for them--using manipulatives, hands-on tasks,
kinesthetic experience, etc.
Type 4: Dynamic Learners are primarily interested in self-directed discovery.
They rely heavily on their own intuition, and seek to teach both themselves
and others. Any type of independent study is effective for these learners.
They also enjoy simulations, role play, and games.
This curriculum is designed so that all styles are
addressed, in order that more than one type of
student may be permitted to both "shine" and
"stretch." That is, each lesson contains "something
for everybody," so each student not only finds the
mode of greatest comfort for him/her, but is
challenged to adapt to other, less comfortable but
equally valuable modes.
The instructional sequence suggested by Bernice
McCarthy and used in this curriculum teaches to the
four styles using both right- and left-brain processing
techniques. This integration of styles and processing
modes ensures that we are educating the "whole
7. Theory of multiple intelligences
Proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind:
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences as a model
of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily
sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing it as dominated by a
single general ability.
Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities,
but that there are only very weak correlations among them. For
example, the theory postulates that a child who learns to
multiply easily is not necessarily more intelligent than a child
who has more difficulty on this task. The child who takes more
time to master multiplication may best learn to multiply through
a different approach, may excel in a field outside mathematics,
or may be looking at and understanding the multiplication
process at a fundamentally deeper level. Such a fundamental
understanding can result in slowness and can hide a
mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child
who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite
possessing a shallower understanding of the process of
Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet
these criteria:spatial, linguistic, logical-mathematical,
bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal,
intrapersonal, and naturalistic. He later suggested
that existential and moral intelligence may also be
worthy of inclusion.
This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning,
numbers and critical thinking. This also has to do with
having the capacity to understand the underlying
principles of some kind of causal system. Logical
reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to
This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability
to visualize with the mind's eye. Spatial ability is one
of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical
model of intelligence.
People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display
a facility with words and languages. They are typically
good at reading, writing, telling stories and
memorizing words along with dates. Verbal ability is
one of the most g-loaded abilities.
The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are
control of one's bodily motions and the capacity to handle
objects skillfully. Gardner elaborates to say that this also includes
a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action,
along with the ability to train responses.
People who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn
better by involving muscular movement (e.g. getting up and
moving around into the learning experience), and be generally
good at physical activities such as sports, dance, acting, and
Gardner believes that careers that suit those with this
intelligence include: athletes, pilots, dancers, musicians, actors,
surgeons, builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these
careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will
not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this
This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds,
rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical
intelligence normally have good pitch and may even
have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical
instruments, and compose music. Since there is a
strong auditory component to this intelligence, those
who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture.
They will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn.
They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone,
melody or timbre.
This area has to do with interaction with others. In theory,
individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are
characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods,
feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability
to cooperate in order to work as part of a group.
According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple
Intelligences in the Classroom, "Inter- and Intra- personal
intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted
or liking other people..." Those with this intelligence
communicate effectively and empathize easily with others,
and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn
best by working with others and often enjoy discussion
Gardner believes that careers that suit those with this
intelligence include sales persons , politicians, managers,
teachers, counselors and social workers
This area has to do with introspective and selfreflective capacities. This refers to having a deep
understanding of the self; what your strengths/
weaknesses are, what makes you unique, being able
to predict your own reactions/emotions.
This area has to do with nurturing and relating
information to one’s natural surroundings. Examples
include classifying natural forms such as animal and
plant species and rocks and mountain types. This
ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as
hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be
central in such roles as botanist or chef.
Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory
proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a
possible additional type. Gardner did not want to
commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that
an "existential" intelligence may be a useful
construct. The hypothesis of an existential
intelligence has been further explored by educational
8. VARK Learning Styles
Visual, Aural, Reading, and Kinesthetic Learning
The popularity of this concept grew dramatically during the 1970s
and 1980s, despite the evidence suggesting that personal learning
preferences have no actual influence on learning results.
While the existing research has found that matching teaching
methods to learning styles had no influence on educational
outcomes, the concept of learning styles remains extremely
popular. There are many different ways of categorizing learning
styles including Kolb's model and the Jungian learning styles. Neil
Fleming's VARK model is one of the most popular representations.
In 1987, Fleming developed an inventory designed to help students
and others learn more about their individual learning preferences.
In Fleming's model, sometimes referred to VARK learning styles,
learners are identified by whether they have a preference for visual
learning (pictures, movies, diagrams), auditory learning (music,
discussion, lectures), reading and writing (making lists, reading
textbooks, taking notes), or kinaesthetic learning (movement,
experiments, hands-on activities).
Visual learners learn best by seeing. Graphic displays such as
charts, diagrams, illustrations, hand-outs, and videos are all
helpful learning tools for visual learners. People who prefer this
type of learning would rather see information presented in a
visual rather than in written form.
If you think you might be a visual learner, answer the
•Do you have to see information in order to remember it?
•Do you pay close attention to body language?
•Is art, beauty, and aesthetics important to you?
•Does visualizing information in your mind help you
If you can answer yes to most of these questions, chances are
good that you have a visual learning style.
Aural (or auditory) learners learn best by hearing
information. They tend to get a great deal out of lectures
and are good at remembering things they are told.
Are you an auditory learner? Consider the following
•Do you prefer to listen to class lectures rather than
reading from the textbook?
•Does reading out loud help you remember
•Would you prefer to listen to a recording of your
class lectures or a podcast rather than going over
your class notes?
•Do you create songs to help remember
If you answered yes to most of these questions, then you
are probably an auditory learner.
Reading and Writing Learners
Reading and writing learners prefer to take in information
displayed as words. Learning materials that are primarily
text-based are strongly preferred by these learners.
Could you be a reading and writing learner? Read through
the following questions and think about whether they
might apply to you.
• Do you find reading your textbook to be a great way to learn
• Do you take a lot of notes during class and while reading your
• Do you enjoy making lists, reading definitions, and creating
• Do you prefer it when teachers make use of overheads and
If you answered yes to these questions, it is likely that you
have a strong preference for the reading and writing style
Kinesthetic (or tactile) learners learn best by touching and
doing. Hands-on experience is important to kinesthetic
Not sure if you're a kinesthetic learner? Answer these
questions to find out:
•Do you enjoy performing tasks that involve directly
manipulating objects and materials?
•Is it difficult for you to sit still for long periods of
•Are you good at applied activities such as painting,
cooking, mechanics, sports, and woodworking.
•Do you have to actually practice doing something in
order to learn it?
If you responded yes to these questions, then you are
most likely a kinesthetic learner.
The Characteristics of Effective Learning and the
Prime and Specific Areas of Learning and
Development are all interconnected.
The ways in which the individual engages with other
people and their environment – playing and
exploring, active learning, and creating and thinking
critically – underpin learning and development across
all areas and support the person to remain an
effective and motivated learner.
3 Characteristics of Effective
1. Playing and exploring – engagement
Finding out and exploring
Playing with what they know
Being willing to ‘have a go’
2. Active learning – motivation
Being involved and concentrating
Enjoying achieving what they set out to do
3. Creating and thinking critically – thinking
Having their own ideas
Choosing ways to do things
Success depends upon:
Objectives for the Course
Characteristics of Participants
Who’s Responsible ? The Instructor
Elements of Instructional Situation
1. Learning Objective
Written in behavioral terms
Outlined to participants clearly and specifically
Past learning experience
Knowledge and understanding
Positive or Negative
Provides guidance, support, and structure to the
Characteristics of a good
Knowledge of the subject matter
Facilitator of learner participation
Ability to serve as a model
Ability to provide effective feedback
Ability to perform effective evaluation
Ability to administer & manage the course