Occupational health issues
associated with fracking
John Cherrie

INSTITUTE OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE . Edinburgh . UK

www...
Summary…
•
•
•

Workplace regulations
Hazardous substances
Main potential risk from crystalline silica
•

•
•
•
•

Silicos...
COSHH Regulations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Finding out what the health hazards are
Undertaking a risk assessment
Providing control m...
Occupational Hazards
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Diesel engine exhaust
Volatile organic compounds
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Acid gases (...
Exposure to crystalline silica
•
•

•

NIOSH measured exposure levels at
11 fracking sites in 5 states
NIOSH Recommended E...
With permission from Eric J. Esswein, NIOSH
With permission from Eric J. Esswein, NIOSH
Crystalline silica

EssweinEJ, et al (2013) Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during
hydraulic fract...
Respirable crystalline silica in EU
Main hazards from crystalline silica
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Silicosis
Tuberculosis
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Lung canc...
Risks from USA silica sand workers
•

Steenland and Sanderson (2001)
•
•

4,626 industrial sand workers
Average employment...
Risks from UK silica sand workers
•

Brown and Rushton (2005)
•
•

2,703 employees / former employees at seven
quarries
Ov...
Silica surface properties…
•

•
•

IARC noted… “carcinogenicity in humans
was not detected in all industrial
circumstances...
Surface treated quartz

Duffin R, Tran CL, Clouter A, Brown D, MacNee W, et al. (2002) The Importance of
Surface Area and ...
Health surveillance
•

•
•
•
•
•
•

Where there is a reasonable likelihood of
silicosis developing, health surveillance wi...
Exposure controls
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Prevention through Design
Remote operations
Substitution (ceramic vs. sand)
Mini‐baghou...
Questions?

NIOSH proposed mini-baghouse unit
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Occupational health issues from fracking

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Slides from a presentation given at a Fracking and Health: Research Workshop held in London on the 15 November, 2013.

Sponsored by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency

Published in: Health & Medicine
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  • Need to know where each of these comes from
  • Nearly half the samples were form Sand Movers
  • Need to look at the strength of evidence for each of these and reorder
  • Need to read a bit more about the epi studies, also MacDonald et al
  • Refer to WATCH also – freshly fractures vs “aged”
  • What was the quartz coated with?
  • What about the scleroderma etc?
  • Selection of sand with lower intrinsic toxicity
  • Occupational health issues from fracking

    1. 1. Occupational health issues associated with fracking John Cherrie INSTITUTE OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE . Edinburgh . UK www.iom-world.org
    2. 2. Summary… • • • Workplace regulations Hazardous substances Main potential risk from crystalline silica • • • • • Silicosis, COPD, renal failure and lung cancer Putting these risks in context What can be done about this problem? Appropriate health surveillance Managing other risks to health
    3. 3. COSHH Regulations • • • • • • • Finding out what the health hazards are Undertaking a risk assessment Providing control measures to reduce harm to health Making sure they are used Keeping control measures in working order Providing information, instruction and training for employees and others Undertaking monitoring and health surveillance
    4. 4. Occupational Hazards • • • • • • • • Diesel engine exhaust Volatile organic compounds Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) Acid gases (HCl) Metals (Pb) Aldehydes Water and other additives Respirable crystalline silica
    5. 5. Exposure to crystalline silica • • • NIOSH measured exposure levels at 11 fracking sites in 5 states NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit REL = 0.05 mg/m3 as an 8-hour average British Workplace Exposure Limit WEL = 0.1 mg/m3 Esswein EJ, Breitenstein M, Snawder J, Kiefer M, Sieber WK (2013) Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. J Occup Environ Med 10: 347–356.
    6. 6. With permission from Eric J. Esswein, NIOSH
    7. 7. With permission from Eric J. Esswein, NIOSH
    8. 8. Crystalline silica EssweinEJ, et al (2013) Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. J Occup Environ Med 10: 347–356.
    9. 9. Respirable crystalline silica in EU
    10. 10. Main hazards from crystalline silica • • • • • • • Silicosis Tuberculosis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Lung cancer Chronic renal disease Scleroderma Rheumatoid arthritis
    11. 11. Risks from USA silica sand workers • Steenland and Sanderson (2001) • • 4,626 industrial sand workers Average employment was 9 years and estimated average exposure was 0.05 mg/m3 Cause of death (SRR) <0.1 mg/m3.yr 0.1-0.5 0.5-1.28 mg/m3.yr mg/m3.yr >1.28 p for trend mg/m3.y r Lung cancer (15 yr lag) 1.0 0.78 1.51 1.57 Silicosis 1.0 1.22 2.91 7.39 Other resp. disease, inc silicosis 1.0 1.63 1.45 2.4 0.07 <0.00001 0.02 Steenland K, Sanderson W (2001) Lung cancer among industrial sand workers exposed to crystalline silica. Am J Ind Med 153: 695–703.
    12. 12. Risks from UK silica sand workers • Brown and Rushton (2005) • • 2,703 employees / former employees at seven quarries Overall geometric mean silica concentration was 0.09 mg/m3 Cause of death (RR) <0.13 mg/m3.yr 0.13-0.4 mg/m3.yr 0.4-1.0 mg/m3.yr >1.0 mg/m3.yr p for trend Lung cancer (no lag) 1.0 1.14 1.12 0.92 0.80 Non-malignant resp. disease 1.0 1.33 0.98 1.12 0.98 Brown TP, Rushton L (2005) Mortality in the UK industrial silica sand industry: 2. A retrospective cohort study. Occup Environ Med 62: 446–
    13. 13. Silica surface properties… • • • IARC noted… “carcinogenicity in humans was not detected in all industrial circumstances studied, carcinogenicity may be dependent on inherent characteristics of the crystalline silica…” Cancer and silicosis risk most probably arise from inflammation Key physicochemical parameters are surface reactivity and particle size (surface area) Borm PJA, Tran L, Donaldson K (2011) The carcinogenic action of crystalline silica: A review of the evidence supporting secondary inflammation-driven genotoxicity as a principal mechanism. Crit Rev Toxicol 41: 756–770.
    14. 14. Surface treated quartz Duffin R, Tran CL, Clouter A, Brown D, MacNee W, et al. (2002) The Importance of Surface Area and Specific Reactivity in the Acute Pulmonary Inflammatory Response to Particles. Ann OccupHyg 46: 242–245.
    15. 15. Health surveillance • • • • • • • Where there is a reasonable likelihood of silicosis developing, health surveillance will be necessary. Baseline assessment of health status Clinical examination Work history information Chest x-rays Symptoms questionnaire / lung function Screening for chronic kidney disease?
    16. 16. Exposure controls • • • • • • • • Prevention through Design Remote operations Substitution (ceramic vs. sand) Mini‐baghouse, screw augur assemblies Passive enclosures, e.g. stilling curtains Minimize distance that sand falls End caps on fill nozzles Effective respiratory protection program
    17. 17. Questions? NIOSH proposed mini-baghouse unit

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