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Namaganda agnes


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Digitization of Uganda’s Musical Cultural Heritage: Lessons from the Digital Music Archive, Makerere University

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Namaganda agnes

  1. 1.  Makerere University is the oldest University in East Africa-established 1922. It became a fully-fledged Institution of Higher Learning and National University in July1970. At the heart of the University is MakLib founded in 1940. It is a legal depository library of Uganda and United Nations materials. MakLib has 400,000 volumes of monographs and 82,000 volumes of bound serials. MakLib serves a population of approximately 40,000 users, consisting of about 3,911staff, 35,000 students and external users.
  2. 2.  The Uganda Broadcasting Corporation The Uganda Museum (1908)-Field recordings and musical instruments The Uganda Popular Music Archive Project (2002)-Commercial recordings The Global Music Archive (2003)- Traditional music
  3. 3.  Makerere University Digital Music Archive is a multi-media archive for traditional, popular and art music, recited word, dances and stories and recollections of musicians and dancers of Uganda. (
  4. 4.  The archive fosters the educational and cultural role of Makerere University through the preservation and access to music and oral traditions.
  5. 5.  Music scores, manuscripts and transcriptions Personal stories and recollections of musicians and dancers Legal music deposits Fieldrecordings (contains a huge collection of Klaus Wachsmann and Peter Cooke)
  6. 6. ConceptionBy 2004, MakLib had made initial contacts with digitization projects (under collaborative linkages with Tufts University; the University of Tennessee and the University of Bergen)USDL is the first comprehensive digitization project at MakLibAn interdisciplinary committee Noted that documentation of Uganda’s musical cultural heritage was not accessible Envisaged an Archive for documenting, preserving and disseminating Uganda’s traditional music to scholars and other researchers Makerere University Digital Music Archive
  7. 7.  Library Management Ugandan Ethnomusicologist, researcher & Associate professor at Makerere University Music Librarian Music Archivist Digitization Librarian Library Cataloguers Collectors-Ethnomusicologists DICTs
  8. 8.  NORAD The American Embassy in Uganda The Grieg Academy, University of Bergen The University of Bergen Library
  9. 9.  Makerere University & University of Bergen MakLib & University of Bergen Library The Grieg Academy & MDD The American Embassy The British Library Sound Archives
  10. 10.  2004: Library conceives idea 2005: USDL project 2006: USDL launched 2006: Collaboration established 2007: NORAD funding arrived 2007: Partitioning of the Archive 2008: Music Librarian travels to Norway 2008: Software installation & pilot project 2009: Digital Archive launched 2010: Collecting of field recordings
  11. 11.  Reel-to-reel player Compact Cassette player Amplifier, sound card Turntable Apple computers Field recorder Scanner Printer Earphones
  12. 12.  Dspace Amadeus Pro Toast 11 Titanium iTunes
  13. 13.  Customization of default template in Dspace Creating communities & sub communities MARC21 (Printed materials) Dublin core
  14. 14.  Is the conversion of analogue records to a universal computer readable languageWhy digitize? Access Preservation Original media was fragile playback equipment was scarce The original condition is threatened !
  15. 15.  Itis crucial that the process results in files in the right format and right quality so they can be reused and secured for the future! Eachrecording was converted to more than one computer file Sampling rate (44.1 kHz) Sample size (16 bits stereo)
  16. 16.  Each photograph is scanned at archival quality (8-bit gray scale with a jpeg reference image) Black & White photographs were scanned at 8- bit Coloured pictures were scanned at 24-bit TIFF files are scanned from textual data
  17. 17. Internally accepted standardsEnsure that bits/bytes can be reused in futureAudio .aiff (preservation) ; .mp3 (Access)Sheet music .tiff (preservation) ; .jpeg (Access)Video .avi (preservation) ; .mp4 (Access)
  18. 18. Preservation Access/ promotionaudio .aiff .mp3/ (Compressed file format) .wma (Windows Media Audio)Sheet music .tiff .jpg, gif (Tagged Image File Format) Joint Photographic (lossy compression for digital Experts photography) Group (Graphics Interchange Format) lossless data compression technique to reduce the file size without degrading the visual .avi mov, mp4 (mp4-allows streaming over the Internet). (Audio Visual Interleave files support multiple streaming audio and video) (mov- compressed multimedia format often used for saving movies and other video files)
  19. 19. Agroup of three ethnomusicologists-Four major regions (North, East, Central and West)So far: 835 items of audio recordings 1100 items of video recording 1000 photo items/objects
  20. 20.  All Library registered users External users pay library fees OPAC (Finding aid) Digital music repository Restricted access to some sound recordings Listening and viewing facilities (workstations)
  21. 21.  Copyright is a complex issue that strongly impacts the selection of materials for digitization Technology has a short life cycle (technology requirements) Human resource development Project Communication Teamwork & team building crucial Building partnerships & collaborations
  22. 22. Procurement planning is vital to avoid unnecessary delaysThe budgeting process should take into consideration staff costs- motivation
  23. 23.  Need for constant migration Create an online streaming repository Buildingpartnerships with cultural heritage institutions Training & re-training staff
  24. 24.  Digitisation provides visibility and access to this unique collections and a historical context for the appreciation and understanding of Ugandan musical cultural heritage. Therefore there is need to continue the journey on this revolutionary path towards preserving the musical cultural heritage. Challenges should be addressed and opportunities embraced in preserving and promoting access to information.
  25. 25. Thank you