Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a bitmap image format. Lossless data compression technique to reduce the file size without degrading the visual quality.TIFF: Tagged Image File Format) is a file format for storing images
JPEG: Lossy compression for digital photography; .bwf: Broadcast Wave Format .wma-Windows Media Audio.avi-Audio Video Interleave files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)format is widely supported by image-manipulation applications ; (mp4-downloading video clips)
Makerere University is the oldest University in East Africa-established 1922. It became a fully-fledged Institution of Higher Learning and National University in July1970. At the heart of the University is MakLib founded in 1940. It is a legal depository library of Uganda and United Nations materials. MakLib has 400,000 volumes of monographs and 82,000 volumes of bound serials. MakLib serves a population of approximately 40,000 users, consisting of about 3,911staff, 35,000 students and external users.
The Uganda Broadcasting Corporation The Uganda Museum (1908)-Field recordings and musical instruments The Uganda Popular Music Archive Project (2002)-Commercial recordings The Global Music Archive (2003)- Traditional music
Makerere University Digital Music Archive is a multi-media archive for traditional, popular and art music, recited word, dances and stories and recollections of musicians and dancers of Uganda. (http://musicarchive.mak.ac.ug)
The archive fosters the educational and cultural role of Makerere University through the preservation and access to music and oral traditions.
Music scores, manuscripts and transcriptions Personal stories and recollections of musicians and dancers Legal music deposits Fieldrecordings (contains a huge collection of Klaus Wachsmann and Peter Cooke)
ConceptionBy 2004, MakLib had made initial contacts with digitization projects (under collaborative linkages with Tufts University; the University of Tennessee and the University of Bergen)USDL is the first comprehensive digitization project at MakLibAn interdisciplinary committee Noted that documentation of Uganda’s musical cultural heritage was not accessible Envisaged an Archive for documenting, preserving and disseminating Uganda’s traditional music to scholars and other researchers Makerere University Digital Music Archive
Library Management Ugandan Ethnomusicologist, researcher & Associate professor at Makerere University Music Librarian Music Archivist Digitization Librarian Library Cataloguers Collectors-Ethnomusicologists DICTs
NORAD The American Embassy in Uganda The Grieg Academy, University of Bergen The University of Bergen Library
Makerere University & University of Bergen MakLib & University of Bergen Library The Grieg Academy & MDD The American Embassy The British Library Sound Archives
2004: Library conceives idea 2005: USDL project 2006: USDL launched 2006: Collaboration established 2007: NORAD funding arrived 2007: Partitioning of the Archive 2008: Music Librarian travels to Norway 2008: Software installation & pilot project 2009: Digital Archive launched 2010: Collecting of field recordings
Reel-to-reel player Compact Cassette player Amplifier, sound card Turntable Apple computers Field recorder Scanner Printer Earphones
Customization of default template in Dspace Creating communities & sub communities MARC21 (Printed materials) Dublin core
Is the conversion of analogue records to a universal computer readable languageWhy digitize? Access Preservation Original media was fragile playback equipment was scarce The original condition is threatened !
Itis crucial that the process results in files in the right format and right quality so they can be reused and secured for the future! Eachrecording was converted to more than one computer file Sampling rate (44.1 kHz) Sample size (16 bits stereo)
Each photograph is scanned at archival quality (8-bit gray scale with a jpeg reference image) Black & White photographs were scanned at 8- bit Coloured pictures were scanned at 24-bit TIFF files are scanned from textual data
Internally accepted standardsEnsure that bits/bytes can be reused in futureAudio .aiff (preservation) ; .mp3 (Access)Sheet music .tiff (preservation) ; .jpeg (Access)Video .avi (preservation) ; .mp4 (Access)
Preservation Access/ promotionaudio .aiff .mp3/ (Compressed file format) .wma (Windows Media Audio)Sheet music .tiff .jpg, gif (Tagged Image File Format) Joint Photographic (lossy compression for digital Experts photography) Group (Graphics Interchange Format) lossless data compression technique to reduce the file size without degrading the visual quality.video .avi mov, mp4 (mp4-allows streaming over the Internet). (Audio Visual Interleave files support multiple streaming audio and video) (mov- compressed multimedia format often used for saving movies and other video files)
Agroup of three ethnomusicologists-Four major regions (North, East, Central and West)So far: 835 items of audio recordings 1100 items of video recording 1000 photo items/objects
All Library registered users External users pay library fees OPAC (Finding aid) Digital music repository Restricted access to some sound recordings Listening and viewing facilities (workstations)
Copyright is a complex issue that strongly impacts the selection of materials for digitization Technology has a short life cycle (technology requirements) Human resource development Project Communication Teamwork & team building crucial Building partnerships & collaborations
Procurement planning is vital to avoid unnecessary delaysThe budgeting process should take into consideration staff costs- motivation
Need for constant migration Create an online streaming repository Buildingpartnerships with cultural heritage institutions Training & re-training staff
Digitisation provides visibility and access to this unique collections and a historical context for the appreciation and understanding of Ugandan musical cultural heritage. Therefore there is need to continue the journey on this revolutionary path towards preserving the musical cultural heritage. Challenges should be addressed and opportunities embraced in preserving and promoting access to information.