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referencing tips

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  1. 1. REFERENCING Johanna Heinonen 2011
  2. 2. When to mark sources?• If you have thought or analyzed something yourself, you do not have to mark sources (i.e. the idea and the fact comes from your own head)• Usually background for analyzing comes from an outside source, which must be marked appropriately• You cannot know things 
  3. 3. Where to mark sources1?• In a text AND in a bibliography in the end of report!!• In a text we give a short ”code” about the source. o Code varies depending on the type of the source (book, article etc.) o Instructions how code is marked is given later on• In bibliography you open this ”code” o It means, that you should have this code in the beginning of opening up • If there is a reference (Haaga-Helia 2011) in text, the equivalent mark in bibliography should start with Haaga-Helia. 2011. after which you explain what this code was all about. E.g. Haaga-Helia. 2011. DP in Business and Administration in Porvoo Campus. URL: http://www.haaga- programmes/business/dp-in-international-business-porvoo- campus-youth-education. Quoted 2.11.2011
  4. 4. Where to mark sources in text?• In text you can mark sources either after a sentence or a text chapter• If you refer only to one previous sentence, you mark source right after the sentence before full stop. o As it can be seen the uses are various and refer to sight, hearing, verbal and non-verbal communication, feelings, views and opinions (Solis 2009; Kaplan – Haenlein 2010, 61).• If you are referring to more than one sentences, you mark the source after them and the full stop comes inside the parentheses. o The existence of social media and their influence on peoples’ lives is accepted. People wish to use the Internet and get involved in services offered through the online network. Therefore actively working social media are the answer to people’s needs. The question arises however about how this fulfillment of needs is done and how it should be done to function as a tool helping human beings’ development and not destroying societies. (Fletcher, Bell & McNaughton 2004, 133.)• You can also combine different ways o Marketing in virtual platforms and in social media can be defined as “network-enhanced word of mouth” (Jurvetson 1.5.2000) or as “a piece of content so good that people want to pass it on” (Bonello 2006, 38). Customers’ opinions are highly affected by communal experiences given by their network in social media. Communal experiences are becoming even more important than personal ones. (Jacobs 2010, 1.)
  5. 5. How to mark sources? Books and publications• Code for a book with one author o In text (author’s last name publication year, pages where the information is taken from)  E.g. (Hanson 2000, 292) o In bibliography this is opened up with Authors last name. Letter for first name. Publication year. Name of the book. Country: Publisher.  Hanson, W. 2000. Principles of internet marketing. USA: West Publishing.• Code for a book with two writers o In text (last name of the 1st author & last name of the 2nd author publication year and pages where the information is taken from) • E.g. (Zeithaml and Bitner 2003, 102-104), o In bibliography this is opened as Author 1’s last name. Letter for first name. & Author 2’s last name. Letter for first name. Publication year. Name of the book. Country: Publisher. • Zeithaml, V. and Bitner, J. 2003. Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm. McGraw-Hill, Boston. 3rd ed.• Code for a book with several writers o When you mention the book first time in text, you name (all the author last names publication year and pages where the information is taken from) • E.g. (Storbacka, Blomqvist, Dahl & Haeger 1999, 16) o After that you just mention the first author with “et al.” publication year and pages in text • E.g. (Storbacka et al. 1999, 16) o In bibliography this is opened as Author 1’s last name. Letter for first name. & Author 2’s last name. Letter for first name. ….Publication year. Name of the book. Country: Publisher. • Storbacka, K., Blomqvist, R. Dahl, J. and Haeger, T. 1999. Asiakkuuden arvon lähteillä. Juva:WSOY.
  6. 6. How to mark sources? Articles• If you are using articles as your reference, you use author’s last name as the code in text, if it is available• You also mark pages, if they are available o E.g. o (Gretzel & Yoo 2008, 36ff) o (Helsingin Sanomat 8.11.2011) o (Vermeulen & Seegers 2008, 124-125)• In bibliography you mark author(s)’s last name(s) (if available). Publication year. Name of the article. Publication where it is taken from (NOTE! There can also be articles in books, when you mark also the writers to a book here). Place:Publisher. Pages in which the article lies (if available) o Gretzel, U., & Yoo, K. H. 2008. Use and impact of online travel reviews. Article in O’Connor, P., Höpken, W. & Gretzel, U. (Eds.). Information and communication technologies in tourism 2008. New York: Springer. Pages 35–46. o Helsingin Sanomat. 8.11.2011. Article about tourism. Travel section. o Vermeulen, I. E. and Seegers, D. 2008. Tried and tested: the impact of online hotel reviews on consumer consideration. Tourism Management 30(1). Pages 123–127.
  7. 7. How to mark sources? Articles, publications etc.• If you cannot find a proper writer or editor to a publication or the article, you use the administrator’s or publisher’s name o In text: (Keskuskauppakamari 2009, 12) o In bibliography: Keskuskauppakamari 2009. Yrityksen perustajan opas 2009. Keskuskauppakamari. Helsinki.•
  8. 8. How to mark sources? Laws• When referring to legislation, it is important to indicate the exact act or decree in question.• When you refer to an act for the first time, write the entire name of the act as well as its reference number. The reference number can be presented in the form no. / yyy or o E.g. (Contracts Act (228/1929) )• After that you can use abbreviation, which must be explained in a separate attachment for abbreviations o E.g. OikTL• In bibliography you use the longer form again o Contracts Act 13 June 1929/228
  9. 9. How to mark sources? Interviews, emails, lectures etc.• If you are using so called personal data from interviews, lectures, emails, phone calls etc. you mark the person’s last name, first letter of first name and the date into text. o E.g. (Heinonen-Salakka, J. 8.11.2011)• In bibliography you tell, who the person was, where did s/he come from and what kind of message was in question and what the contents was o Heinonen-Salakka, J. 8.11.2011. Senior Lecturer. Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences. Lecture: How to mark references in Haaga-Helia!
  10. 10. How to mark sources? Webpages• If you can find the author / writer of the webpage, use instructions given to the article or book• If you cannot find the author, you should use the publisher’s (administrator, owner of the pages = usally the company) name, year of publishing/updating (nad if this cannot be found, then current year) and pagenumber, if available.• Usually internet sources are marked like this in text o (Haaga-Helia 2011)• This is marked in bibliography like this o Haaga-Helia. 2011. Studies in Haaga-Helia. Webpages for Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences. URL: ja-hakeminen. Quoted 8.11.2011
  11. 11. How to mark sources? Exceptions1• If there are two sources with exactly the same year from the same author or from the same website o In text an alphabet a, b, c etc. Is added in order to separate different sources from each other o E.g. (Lahtinen & Isoviita 1998a; Lahtinen & Isoviita 1998b) OR (MEK 2011a; MEK 2011b)• In bibliography the code is mentioned and by this differences are pointed out o Lahtinen, J. & Isoviita, A. 1998a. Markkinoinnin suunnittelu. Jyväskylä: Gummerrus Kirjapaino. o Lahtinen, J. & Isoviita, A. 1998b. Markkinointitutkimus. Jyväskylä: Gummerrus Kirjapaino. o MEK 2011a. Homepages for Matkailun edistämiskeskus (Visit Finland). Marketing. URL: Quoted 8.11.2011 o MEK 2011b. Homepages for Matkailun edistämiskeskus (Visit Finland). Introduction. Quoted 8.11.2011
  12. 12. How to mark sources? Exceptions2• Always try to find the original source (book, article etc.)• If this is not possible, you mark the source accordingly: o Kotler (1974 in Lahtinen & Isoviita 1998, 12)) has invented the concept of 4P’s….• In bibliography you mention only the book from which the information is gathered o Lahtinen, J. & Isoviita, A. 1998a. Markkinoinnin suunnittelu. Jyväskylä: Gummerrus Kirjapaino.
  13. 13. How to mark several sources?• You just put semicolon between sources in text - otherwise instructions are the same as given earlier o E.g. (MEK 11.8.2010; Steinbauer – Werthner 2007, 65ff)• In bibliography these sources are then given separately according to instructions o MEK 11.8.2010. Matkailu ja sosiaalisen median käyttö. Research by Mediacom and commissioned by VisitFinland. o Steinbauer, A. and Werthner, H. 2007. Consumer behavior in e-Tourism. Article in Sigala, M., Mich, L. and Murphy, J. (eds.) 2007. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2007. Austria:SpringerComputerScience. Pages 65 – 76.
  14. 14. REMEMBER!• If you haven’t invented something yourself, you should mark the source• Sources are marked after each text chapter even though the idea comes from the same book and the source marking looks exactly the same• The way sources are marked in text, is the code how sources are found in bibliography• No internet adresses to the text• Copy+paste is plagiarism and is a reason to give automatically failed. Changing one word in a sentence is still plagiarism.• You cannot write to much explanations is bibliography – in text you should try to be as short as possible