INTRODUCTION The Copenha gen School, officially the "Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen (Cercle Linguistique de Copenha gue )", was a group of schola rs dedicated to the study of structural linguistics founded by Louis Hjelmslev and Viggo Brøndal In the mid twentieth centur y the Copenhagen school was one of the most importa nt centers of linguistic structuralism together with the Geneva School and the Prague School.
Louis Hjelmslev (1899–1965), Danish linguist and semiotician, author of an original theory of verbal and other signsystems called glossematics, which attempts to radicalize Ferdinand de Saussures claimthat language is form rather than substance. According to glossematics, any scientificstudy of language must analyze language asa hierarchy of interrelated formal functions. The analysis of any concrete linguistic element is carried out as a calculus ofcombinations of such functions. Due to their general character, the theoretical foundations and methodological principles of glossematics have had a greater impact in semiotics than in linguistics. This theoretical approach is identified with the Copenhagen School of linguistics. Louis Hjelmslev
In his general grammar, Hjelmslev tries to articulate the basicprinciples for a description of language as form. The grammaritself is a system of forms from which the specific forms of anynatural language can be generated. These forms are obtainedinductively from an analysis of the syntactical chain. Although hisbook on case foregrounds morphology and semantics, Hjelmslevstill attempts to isolate a few formal features from which allpossible manifestations of case can be constructed throughcalculated combinations. The center of a given casesystem, called an intensive case, is established inductively, but itacquires its status as a true linguistic element only through thesystem to which it belongs. Such systems of interrelated elementsfunction according to two general language -specific structuralprinciples: The differences between the elements are more fundamental than the elements themselves; and The elements enter into the system through participation —that is, certain cases, called extensive cases, can absorb or take over the role of the intensive cases, or they might occupy a neutral position, being alternatively extensive and intensive.
These two early works areexamples of a structural but preglossematic linguistics: they try to develop a description of language as an immanent system offorms, though it is based onelements that are identified through induction—that is, on a nonformal basis.
Hj el ms l ev s i mportanc e i n s emi oti c s i s a res ul t of hi s ri gorous attempt to turn Saus sures heterogenous and s omewhat flexible structural i s m i nto a theory of max i mal ex pl i c i tness and c onc eptual homogenei ty on al l l ev el s . Moreov er, hi swi ll i ngness to rec ons i der, al bei t s omewhatrel uc tantl y, the formal l i mi ts of hi s theorys ets the s tandard for any s eri ous s emi oti c res earc h.
Their main Inspiration was the Prague Linguistic Circle, which had been founded in 1926. The Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen It was, in the first place, a forum for discussion of theoretical and methodological problemInitially, their interest s in linguistics.lay mainly in developingan alternative conceptof the phoneme, but itlater developed into a Membership of the group grew rapidly and a significant list ofcomplete theory which publications resulted, including anwas coined irregular series of larger works underglossematics, and was thenotably influenced by name Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague.structuralism.
The princip al ideas of the school are: A language consists of content and expression A language consists of a successio n and a system Content and expression are intercon nected by commutation. There are certain relation s in the succession and the system. There are no one -to -on e correspon den ts between content and expression , but the signs may be divided into smaller co mpo nen ts.
The Copenhagen School of Linguistics evolved around Louis Hjelmslev and his developing theory of LOUISlanguage, glossematics. Together with HJELMSLEY Viggo Brødal he founded the Cercle Linguistique de Copenhague a group of linguists based on the model of the Prague Linguistic Circle.
Within the circle the ideas of Brøndal and Hjelmslev were not always compatible and Hjelmslevs moreformalist approach attracted a group of followers, principal among them Hans Jørgen Uldall and Eli FischerJørgensen, who would strive to apply Hjelmslevs abstract ideas of the nature of language to analyses of actual linguistic data.
In the mid twentieth century the Copenhagen school was one of the most important centers of linguistic structuralism together with the Geneva School and the Prague School. In 1989 a group of members of the Copenhagen Linguistic circle inspired by the advances incognitive linguistics and the functionalist theories of Simon C. Dik founded the School of Danish.
Functional Grammar aiming tocombine the ideas of Hjelmslev and Brøndal, and otherimportant Danish linguists such as Paul Diderichsen and Otto Jespersen with modern functional linguistics. Among the prominent members of this new generation of the Copenhagen School of Linguistics were Peter Harder, Elisabeth Engberg Petersen, Frans Gregersen and Michael Fortescue, and he basic work of the school is "Danish Functional Grammar."
Establishes a Danish framework for Functional understanding Grammar communication as a (1989) formal system. Development of terminology to describe founded parts of linguistic Geneva systems and their Linguistic School and interrelatedness The Copenhagen School Structuralism Prague «The Circle of School - Language consist of Copenhagen»content and expression.- Language consiste of a founders succession and system.-Content and expression are interconected by Louis Viggo Formal properties communication. Hjelmslev Brøndal of a system should There are certain be kept apart from relations in the its substance succession as the Hans Jorgen Glossemantics Uldall and Eli system. (the double Fisher and duality of the Jorgensenv linguistic sign) Saussure and older traditions