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Developing a New Decision Support System for SuDS

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Presentation for International Conference on Hydroinformatics 2012 in Hamburg

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Developing a New Decision Support System for SuDS

  1. 1. Developing a New DSS for SuDS Design and Flood Risk Management Jo-fai Chow*, Dragan Savić, David Fortune and Zoran Kapelan
  2. 2. Introduction jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (01/21) • About this project – STREAM Industrial Doctorate Centre • Cranfield, Exeter*, Imperial, Newcastle & Sheffield University – Micro Drainage (an XP Solutions Company) – EPSRC funded • Goal – New features for commercial drainage design software • About me – Civil and Environmental Engineering (BEng, MSc) – Water Infrastructure Asset Management Consultant • Data-driven Modelling • Optimisation using Genetic Algorithm – PhD candidate in Hydroinformatics
  3. 3. Towards Sustainability jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (02/21) Social • What are covered in most drainage design software packages? – Environmental • Water quantity • Water quality – Economic • Life cycle cost • Not enough emphasis on – social impact – multiple benefits Sustainability Circles
  4. 4. Research Objectives jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (03/21) • Maximising multiple benefits – Identifying best trade-off • Communication Platform – Planners, engineers, architects, landscape architects, developers, local government, insurance companies, water companies … • Integration with existing software – Additional decision support
  5. 5. Sustainable Drainage Systems Conventional Drainage Systems How to Define a “Good” Drainage Design? jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (04/21) • In the past – least cost design with sufficient hydraulic performance • Now – Market drivers: legislation, best practice – must consider the use of SuDS first • Challenge – optimal combination? Better use of large pipes ?? Das Park Hotel, Australia
  6. 6. SuDS Management Train jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (05/21) Source: CIRIA (2005) SuDS Management Train <http://www.ciria.com/suds/suds_management_train.htm>
  7. 7. SuDS in Drainage Network Model jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (06/21) Porous car park Swale Pond A typical development site model
  8. 8. How many different options? jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (07/21) No. of options = No. of feasible SuDS techniques ^ No. of Location = 51 = 5 Simple calculation example: Say, after an initial analysis of a development site, there is ONE suitable location for SuDS. For this location, there are FIVE feasible choices of SuDS. How many different design options?
  9. 9. How many more options? jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (08/21) Second calculation example: Now consider THREE suitable locations for SuDS and FIVE feasible choices of SuDS. How many different design options now? No. of options = No. of feasible SuDS techniques ^ No. of Location = 53 = 125
  10. 10. Can it get more complicated? jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (09/21) • Solution – Brute Force? – Optimisation – Smart Rules – Parallel Computing • Yes! There are other factors – Sizing parameters – Infiltration parameters – Multiple scenarios • The search space is HUGE!!
  11. 11. Prototype Framework jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (10/21) • Caveats: – Simple Muskingum Routing – No backwater – No flow control – Simple Pollutant Removal % • Focus: –Application prototyping –Simple and easy to understand –Graphical Outputs
  12. 12. Optimisation Framework jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (11/21) Prototype SuDS Treatment Train Optimisation Framework Optimisation Parameters, Range and True Values SuDS Key Performance Indicators Graphical Outputs Min. Max. Description of KPI Value SuDS Technique 1 to 16 10 1 16 Infiltration Basin Peak Flow at Outlet (m3/s) 2.73 Physical Dimension 1 1 to 10 10 10 29 11.9 Total Storage Required (m3) 6187 Physical Dimension 2 1 to 10 34 19 26 21.4 Time to Reach Peak Flow (min) 238 Physical Dimension 3 1 to 10 62 2 5 3.7 Total Nitrogen 6.75 Inflitration % (Side) 1 to 10 67 0 25 16.8% Total Phosphorus 8.52 Inflitration % (Base) 1 to 10 16 0 25 4.0% Total Suspended Solids 5.70 SuDS Technique 1 to 16 1 1 16 Pervious Pavements Hydrocarbons 10.78 Physical Dimension 1 1 to 10 59 10 33 23.6 Heavy Metals 5.45 Physical Dimension 2 1 to 10 25 6 43 15.3 Faecal Coliforms 18.56 Physical Dimension 3 1 to 10 20 1 3 1.0 SuDS 1 WLC (£ at 2012 value) £175,620 Inflitration % (Side) 1 to 10 14 0 25 3.5% SuDS 2 WLC (£ at 2012 value) £225,519 Inflitration % (Base) 1 to 10 25 0 25 6.3% SuDS 3 WLC (£ at 2012 value) £317,955 SuDS Technique 1 to 16 13 1 16 Stormwater Wetlands Total WLC (£ at 2012 value) £719,093 Physical Dimension 1 1 to 10 95 19 26 25.7 Physical Dimension 2 1 to 10 74 9 36 29.0 Other Measurements Physical Dimension 3 1 to 10 48 1 3 1.7 Inflitration % (Side) 1 to 10 94 0 25 23.5% Description of KPI Value Inflitration % (Base) 1 to 10 91 0 25 22.8% SuDS 1 Total Surface Area (m2 ) 254 SuDS 2 Total Surface Area (m2 ) 359 Optimisation Objectives and Penalty Function SuDS 3 Total Surface Area (m2 ) 743 Total Surface Area (m2 ) 1,357 Type Objective Value SuDS 1 Land Value (£ at 2012 value) £31,803 Hydraulics Maximise -0.29% SuDS 2 Land Value (£ at 2012 value) £89,861 Costs Minimise 719,093 SuDS 3 Land Value (£ at 2012 value) £130,084 Penalty Cost Avoid 40,951,441,427.47 Total Land Value (£ at 2012 value) £251,747 Background Calculations - Optimisation Contraints and Penalty Costs Other Controls Level Penalty Cost Description of KPI Settings 2.5 9,358,715,432.56 Hydraulics Flow Calculation Method (Choose) Muskingum 5000 23,744,725,994.91 180 0.00 10 0.00 10 0.00 10 0.00 10 7,848,000,000.00 10 0.00 No Constraint 50 0.00 50 0.00 50 0.00 100 0.00 100 0.00 100 0.00 40 0.00 40 0.00 40 0.00 allowed No Constraint allowed No Constraint allowed No Constraint 40,951,441,427.47 Hydraulics Land Value Pollutant Concentration at Outlet (mg/L) Whole Life Cost Location 1 True Value Range Description Optimsation Range Optimisation Value ContraintsDescription of KPI True Value SuDS 1 - Dimension 2 (m) Total Suspended Solids Hydrocarbons SuDS 1 - Dimension 1 (m) should be <= should be <= should be <= should be <= should be <= should be <= Faecal Coliforms should be <= Hydraulics Peak Flow at Outlet (m3 /s) Total Storage Required (m3 ) Time to Reach Peak Flow (min.) SuDS 3 - Dimension 1 (m) should be <= Use of infiltration at location 1 is Location 2 Location 3 SuDS 1 - Dimension 3 (m) SuDS 2 - Dimension 1 (m) SuDS 2 - Dimension 1 (m) should be <= should be <= should be <= Heavy Metals Description of Optimisation Objective Positive if the performance is better than defined targets Surface Area Total Nitrogen WLC (CAPEX, OPEX and Land Value) Penalty as a results of contraints should be <= should be <= should be >= Total PhosphorusPollutant Concentration at Outlet (mg/L) Physical Restrictions Infiltration Use of infiltration at location 3 is TOTAL Penalty Cost: isUse of infiltration at location 2 should be <= should be <= should be <= SuDS 2 - Dimension 1 (m) SuDS 3 - Dimension 1 (m) SuDS 3 - Dimension 1 (m) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Flow(m3/s) Duration (Minutes) Flow Rate at Various Stages of SuDS TreatmentTrain Inflow (Connection1) Outflow (Connection 1) -> Inflow (SuDS 1) Outflow (SuDS1) -> Inflow (Connection 2) Outflow (Connection 2) -> Inflow (SuDS 2) Outflow (SuDS 2) -> Inflow (Connection 3) Outflow (Connection 3) -> Inflow (SuDS 3) Final Outflow at Outlet Peak Flow Constraint 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Volume(m3) Duration (Minutes) Storage Requiredat Various Stages of SuDS TreatmentTrain Storage (Connection 1) Storage (SuDS 1) Storage (Connection 2) Storage (SuDS 2) Storage (Connection 3) Storage (SuDS 3) Storage (TOTAL) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Total Suspended Solids Hydrocarbo ns Heavy Metals Pollutant Concentration (mg/L) Concentration (Inlet) Concentration (Regulation Targets) Concentration (Outlet) £0 £100,000 £200,000 £300,000 £400,000 £500,000 £600,000 SuDS1 SuDS2 SuDS3 Cost Summary CAPEX OPEX (over 50 years) Land Value Whole Life Cost (over 50 years) Prototyping using Spreadsheet Parameters Objectives Performance Measures Optimisation Constraints Graphical Outputs
  13. 13. Framework – Parameters jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (12/21) Choices of SuDS Techniques Sizing Parameters (e.g. Width, Length, Diameter, Depth etc) Infiltration Parameters (side and base)
  14. 14. Framework – Constraints jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (13/21) • Hydraulic Performance • Water Quality – Discharge Consent • Physical limitations • Infiltration suitability
  15. 15. Framework – Graphical Outputs jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (14/21) Final Outflow Storage Pollutant Concentration (Inlet, Discharge Consent, Final outlet) Costs
  16. 16. Optimisation Objective 1 – Performance jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (15/21) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Flow(m3/s) Duration (Minutes) Flow Rate at Various Stages of SuDS Treatment Train Inflow (Connection1) Outflow (Connection 1) -> Inflow (SuDS 1) Outflow (SuDS1) -> Inflow (Connection 2) Outflow (Connection 2) -> Inflow (SuDS 2) Outflow (SuDS 2) -> Inflow (Connection 3) Outflow (Connection 3) -> Inflow (SuDS 3) Final Outflow at Outlet Peak Flow Constraint 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Flow(m3/s) Duration (Minutes) Flow Rate at Various Stages of SuDS Treatment Train Target Delay (i.e. Constraint) Target Peak Outflow (m3/s) Maximise Minimise Optimise
  17. 17. Optimisation Objective 2 – Costs jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (16/21) £0 £100,000 £200,000 £300,000 £400,000 £500,000 £600,000 SuDS1 SuDS2 SuDS3 Cost Summary CAPEX OPEX (over 50 years) Land Value Whole Life Cost (over 50 years) CAPEX (Construction Cost) OPEX (Maintenance Cost over 50 years or 100 years) Land Value (unit cost x surface area) Whole Life Cost
  18. 18. GANetXL Video Demo Savić, D.A., Bicik J. and Morley M.S. (2011). GANetXL: A DSS generator for multiobjective optimisation of spreadsheet-based models, Environmental Modelling & Software, Vol. 26, 551-561. jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (17/21)
  19. 19. Exploring the Trade-off jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (18/21) Least cost solution which just satisfies the hydraulic performance requirements Solution with better hydraulic performance but a higher cost Most relevant for decision makers
  20. 20. Exploring the Trade-off jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (19/21) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Flow(m3/s) Duration (Minutes) Flow Rate at Various Stages of SuDS TreatmentTrain Inflow (Connection1) Outflow (Connection 1) -> Inflow (SuDS 1) Outflow (SuDS1) -> Inflow (Connection 2) Outflow (Connection 2) -> Inflow (SuDS 2) Outflow (SuDS 2) -> Inflow (Connection 3) Outflow (Connection 3) -> Inflow (SuDS 3) Final Outflow at Outlet Peak Flow Constraint 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Volume(m3) Duration (Minutes) Storage Requiredat Various Stages of SuDS TreatmentTrain Storage (Connection 1) Storage (SuDS 1) Storage (Connection 2) Storage (SuDS 2) Storage (Connection 3) Storage (SuDS 3) Storage (TOTAL) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Total Suspended Solids Hydrocarbo ns Heavy Metals Pollutant Concentration (mg/L) Concentration (Inlet) Concentration (Regulation Targets) Concentration (Outlet) £0 £100,000 £200,000 £300,000 £400,000 £500,000 £600,000 SuDS1 SuDS2 SuDS3 Cost Summary CAPEX OPEX (over 50 years) Land Value Whole Life Cost (over 50 years) Final Outflow Total Storage Final Pollutant Conc. Costs 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Flow(m3/s) Duration (Minutes) Flow Rate at Various Stages of SuDS TreatmentTrain Inflow (Connection1) Outflow (Connection 1) -> Inflow (SuDS 1) Outflow (SuDS1) -> Inflow (Connection 2) Outflow (Connection 2) -> Inflow (SuDS 2) Outflow (SuDS 2) -> Inflow (Connection 3) Outflow (Connection 3) -> Inflow (SuDS 3) Final Outflow at Outlet Peak Flow Constraint 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Volume(m3) Duration (Minutes) Storage Requiredat Various Stages of SuDS TreatmentTrain Storage (Connection 1) Storage (SuDS 1) Storage (Connection 2) Storage (SuDS 2) Storage (Connection 3) Storage (SuDS 3) Storage (TOTAL) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Total Suspended Solids Hydrocarbo ns Heavy Metals Pollutant Concentration (mg/L) Concentration (Inlet) Concentration (Regulation Targets) Concentration (Outlet) £0 £100,000 £200,000 £300,000 £400,000 £500,000 £600,000 SuDS1 SuDS2 SuDS3 Cost Summary CAPEX OPEX (over 50 years) Land Value Whole Life Cost (over 50 years) Final Outflow Total Storage Final Pollutant Conc. Costs 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Flow(m3/s) Duration (Minutes) Flow Rate at Various Stages of SuDS TreatmentTrain Inflow (Connection1) Outflow (Connection 1) -> Inflow (SuDS 1) Outflow (SuDS1) -> Inflow (Connection 2) Outflow (Connection 2) -> Inflow (SuDS 2) Outflow (SuDS 2) -> Inflow (Connection 3) Outflow (Connection 3) -> Inflow (SuDS 3) Final Outflow at Outlet Peak Flow Constraint 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Volume(m3) Duration (Minutes) Storage Requiredat Various Stages of SuDS TreatmentTrain Storage (Connection 1) Storage (SuDS 1) Storage (Connection 2) Storage (SuDS 2) Storage (Connection 3) Storage (SuDS 3) Storage (TOTAL) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Total Suspended Solids Hydrocarbo ns Heavy Metals Pollutant Concentration (mg/L) Concentration (Inlet) Concentration (Regulation Targets) Concentration (Outlet) £0 £100,000 £200,000 £300,000 £400,000 £500,000 £600,000 SuDS1 SuDS2 SuDS3 Cost Summary CAPEX OPEX (over 50 years) Land Value Whole Life Cost (over 50 years) Final Outflow Total Storage Final Pollutant Conc. Costs Least Cost Acceptable Performance Most expensive Best Performance
  21. 21. Exploring the Trade-off jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (20/21) • How about more objectives? – Parallel coordinates Cost Performance Social Impact Risk etc …
  22. 22. Summary & Future Works jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.ukSlide (21/21) • Future Works – More objectives and trade-off • Social Impact • Potential Flood Risk & Consequence • Carbon Cost – More real data – More discussion with practitioners – Integration with commercial software • Summary – Motivation • Better decision support for drainage design – Prototype DSS for SuDS selection – GANetXL Demo: • Trade-off between Hydraulic Performance and Whole Life Cost
  23. 23. The End jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.uk Danke! STREAM: www.stream-idc.net Twitter: @microdrainage Blog: pipedup.wordpress.com GANetXL: http://emps.exeter.ac.uk/engineering/research/cws/resourc es/ganetxl/
  24. 24. Supplementary Slides jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.uk • Percentage Removal Table (CIRIA) Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Pervious Pavements 60 95 70 90 50 80 65 80 60 95 Green Roofs 60 95 60 90 Bioretention 50 80 50 80 50 60 40 50 50 90 Sand and Organic Filters 80 90 50 80 50 80 25 40 40 50 50 80 Grassed Filter Strips 50 85 70 90 10 20 10 20 25 40 Grassed Swales (Dry) 70 90 70 90 30 80 50 90 80 90 Grassed Swales (Wet) 60 80 70 90 25 35 30 40 40 70 Infiltration Trench / Soakaway 70 80 60 80 25 60 60 90 60 90 Filter Drains 50 85 30 70 50 80 Infiltration Basin 45 75 60 70 55 60 85 90 Extended Detention Ponds 65 90 30 60 20 50 20 30 50 70 40 90 Wet Ponds 75 90 30 60 30 50 30 50 50 70 50 80 Stormwater Wetlands 80 90 50 80 30 40 30 60 50 70 50 60 On-/Off-line Storage 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Oil Separator 0 40 40 90 0 5 0 5 Others (Product-specific) SuDS Technique Percentage removal of pollutants of concern TSS Hydrocarbons Total Phosphorous Total Nitrogen Faecal coliforms Heavy Metals
  25. 25. Supplementary Slides jo-fai.chow@microdrainage.co.uk • Urban Stormwater Concentration

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