Power Training for Athletics


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Lecture on Power Training for atheltes. Given by Joel Smith for HPE 345, Wilmingto

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Power Training for Athletics

  1. 1. Power TrainingOlympic and Shock Training Techniques
  2. 2. Olympic Lifts Categorized as “special strength”exercises. They play a very large role in mostmodern strength training programs forsport in the western world
  3. 3. Original Olympic Lifts Clean and Jerk
  4. 4. Olympic Lifts Snatch
  5. 5. Pro‟s of Olympic Lifts Good for teaching triple extension inhips, knees, and ankles. Aggressive full body lifts that teach thebody how to produce high amounts offorce in sequence Lots of variations are available High CNS output exercise They are fun for athletes to perform
  6. 6. Con‟s of Olympic Lifts Can cause injury if not performedcorrectly or with injury prone athletes When working with athletes for limitedperiods of time, it might not be worththe effort of teaching these lifts Other, simpler methods of explosivepower development are available suchas jump squats, box squats andplyometrics.
  7. 7. Classifying Olympic Lifts Pushes◦ Power Jerk (catch with legs together)◦ Split Jerk (catch with legs apart) Pulls◦ Power Clean◦ Full Clean◦ Power Snatch◦ Full Snatch All of the above can be done from the hang orthe floor
  8. 8. Olympic lifts done from the hang In “hang” position olympic lifts, the baris only brought down to the “power”position, and in some cases either alittle above or a little below thisposition. This position is a good place to startfor teaching athletes the olympic liftsrather than starting from the floor
  9. 9. Hang Clean Power position
  10. 10. Olympic lifts done from the floor In this position the bar is actually liftedoff of the floor for each rep
  11. 11. Power Clean Bar is caught with 90 degrees of kneebend or less
  12. 12. Full Clean Bar is caught around the parallelposition
  13. 13. Split Catch As opposed to standard catch Normally, the catch will not be as extreme asshown above. The above could be classified asa “full split catch” which nobody uses anymore.
  14. 14. Plyometrics and ShockThe bridge between strength and speed
  15. 15. Theory of plyometrics Plyometrics were developed in the1960‟s by Russian sport scientists inorder to improve the explosive power oftheir athletes, particularly high jumpers. Russian sport scientist, YuriVerkhoshanski, is considered the “fatherof plyometrics” Plyometrics were originally called shocktraining. The word plyometrics is derivedfrom latin, plio and metric, which meanmeasureable increases.
  16. 16. Base definition of a “plyometric”exercise There are different ways of definingplyometrics, but basically a plyometricexercise is one that trains theeffectiveness of the stretch shorteningcycle (SSC)
  17. 17. Phases of Plyometrics According to Dr. Yuri Verkhoshanki, 5phases of plyometrics exist◦ Initial momentum phase◦ Electromechanical delay phase◦ Amortisation phase◦ Rebound phase◦ Final momentum phase
  18. 18. A Visual Example
  19. 19. Initial momentum phase This is the part of the exercise wherekinetic energy is accumulated. Thiscould be either the body falling from aplatform or a medicine ball beingthrown through the air.
  20. 20. Electromechanical delay phase The electromechanical delay phase issimply the time that elapses betweenthe contact of the surface or object,and the onset of actual muscularcontraction
  21. 21. Amortisation Phase Key Term The amortisation phase is when theproprioceptors come into play. This is whenthe myotatic stretch reflex will occur. Muscle spindles will detect a rapid stretch onthe muscles and cause a powerful reversal(explosive isometric and concentriccontraction) The amount of time that elapses between theeccentric and concentric phase of plyometricsis known as the “coupling time”.
  22. 22. Rebound Phase The rebound phase involves therelease of elastic energy from theseries elastic component (SEC) aswell as energy produced in the musclefibers via the involuntary myotaticstretch reflex. So basically: The rubber band snapsback.
  23. 23. Final Momentum Phase This occurs after the concentriccontraction is complete, and the bodyor limb involved in the plyometricexercise continues to move. An example of this would be just afterthe point of toe-off in a depth jump.
  24. 24. The most basic plyometricexercise The simplest exercise that is used todefine “true” plyometrics is the depthjump. In a depth jump, an athlete will dropoff of a box, and immediately uponlanding, perform a maximal rebound ofa vertical or horizontal nature.
  25. 25. Overload in depth jumping Depth jumping is somewhat likeweightlifting in the sense that the dropfrom the elevated surface will increasethe force required for the jump
  26. 26. An example of overload If I am on the ground, standing on ascale, it will read 180 pounds.
  27. 27. An example of overload Now if I climb ona box, and jumpdown onto thatsame scale, thereading is goingto be MUCHhigher, perhapseven up to 1000pounds or moredepending on theheight of the box.
  28. 28. Depth Jumping This is a great specific exercise,because:◦ It involves the same muscle groups, jointmotions, muscle action and velocity ofnormal jumping, but with an overload thatis controllable by the height of the box◦ Higher boxes will cause the “scale” at thebottom of the jump to read higher.Intensity is controlled by the height of thebox.
  29. 29. Keys to plyometric performance The ground contact time must beminimized. This is the period of timethat the feet are in contact with theground. Typical ground contacts in depthjumps are around .2 to .5 seconds. Since plyometrics are designed toimprove rate of force development(RFD), the eccentric motion should bereversed as quickly as possible.
  30. 30. Keys to plyometric performanceLearning the landing When landing in plyometrics, theknees should be bent as little aspossible (but don‟t land withcompletely straight or hyperextendedknees) The landing should be QUIET andsmooth. Athletes with heavy landingsare not producing force in a smoothand effective manner.
  31. 31. Smooth Landings The best jumpers in any sport aretypically very smooth off the ground
  32. 32. Keys to plyometric performance Unlike some types of weightlifting, eachrep should be ALL OUT. Each repetitionshould try to be your best jump ever.You are trying to achieve maximal motorneuron recruitment, and this is not acasual endeavor. In order for this to happen, the athletemust be pretty well rested, trueplyometric workouts shouldn‟t be donemore than 2 and at the most 3 times aweek (only in experienced athletes).
  33. 33. Keys to plyometric performance Because of the high stress nature ofeach rep, and the fact that the athletemust be fresh for each rep, lots of restis taken between sets and reps.Usually around 10 seconds betweenreps, and 5-10 minutes between sets.
  34. 34. True plyometric sets and reps Unlike the recommendations ofsubmaximal plyometrics, which canreach into the 100‟s, only about 20-40total depth jumps should be done ineach training session. This isbecause of the high CNS stress of thistype of activity.
  35. 35. A note about plyometrics andCNS strain; An interesting thing about plyometrics,is that performing them is relativelyeasy compared to intense weightliftingor conditioning style workouts,however…◦ Plyometrics will cause more soreness andsluggishness than other types of training,and volume always needs to be carefullycontrolled.
  36. 36. How to determine depth jumpbox height? A classical method of determining theheight of the box that should be usedfor depth jumps is:◦ Measure standing vertical jump◦ Start from a 12” box and perform a depthjump and measure vertical◦ Keep increasing the box height in 6”increments until you can no longer hityour highest vertical jump.
  37. 37. For Example My standing vertical jump is 30”. My boxes and vertical reboundprogressions are as follows:◦ 12” Box: 30.5”◦ 18” Box: 30.5”◦ 24” Box: 32”◦ 30” Box: 30”◦ 36” Box: 29.5” (stop here and use 30” boxfor training)
  38. 38. Faults with this classical method Ground contact time is not reallyemphasized, and in order to reach maximalvertical, most people will spend too muchtime on the ground.◦ When performing the test, you might want to alsouse a contact mat. Box heights that elicit highGCT‟s might not be a good idea. You can alsovisually check the GCT if you don‟t have a mat,and are experienced at it. If you are dealing with athletes that need a lotof “reactive” strength, such as track and fieldjumpers, it can be good to use boxes evenhigher than after vertical drop-off happens.
  39. 39. Correcting ground contact time indepth jumping There are a couple ways that can beused to help decrease the groundcontact time in depth jumping It is important for quick reaction off theground. Research has shown that peakpower is greater when ground contacttime is lower. Also training studies haveshown that athletes who train with lowerground contact times (GCT) willexperience greater performance gainsthan athletes who don‟t think about GCT.
  40. 40. Ways to decrease GCT Use a barrier that has to be clearedsuch as a hurdle. Research (mine!)has shown that jumping over a hurdlewill decrease GCT over a standardjump. Use a contact mat, such as a “justjump” mat, and use feedback tocorrect long GCT‟s. In depth jumping,under .30 seconds is a good goal.
  41. 41. A typical depth jumping „nano-cycle‟ (training day) 20-35 minute warmup including mildaerobic work, and submaximal jumpingand running efforts. 4 sets of 10 depth jumps over a hurdlefrom a predetermined, individualized boxheight. 10 minutes between sets. 5 minutes of light skips and hops to cooldown the CNS. This workout is performed 2, andsometimes 3x a week in highly trainedathletes.
  42. 42. Types of projections in depthjumping (DJ variations) Vertical Projection◦ Double leg together◦ Single leg◦ Over barrier◦ Lunge jumps◦ Tuck/Pike jumps Horizontal Projection◦ Double leg together◦ Single leg bound type◦ Over barrier
  43. 43. Some depth jumping guidelinesfrom “Supertraining” Depth jumping requires a very goodtraining base. Beginning athletes shouldNOT do depth jumps. It takes severalmonths of weight and traditional jumpand sprint training to be ready for depthjumps. This is not only because of the physicalreadiness to do them and prevent injury,but also because work capacity needs tobe high to really benefit from them.
  44. 44. Guidelines The optimal dosage of maximal depthjumps shouldn‟t be over 40 total forexperienced athletes, and only 10-25reps for beginners Easy running and relaxation exercisesshould be done between sets Depth jumping in the max volume (40)shouldn‟t be done more than 2x a week.Well developed athletes can get awaywith doing 2x10 three times a week
  45. 45. Guidelines Depth jumps are CNS intensive andthey shouldn‟t be used in closeproximity with technique trainingsessions. The book recommends noless than 3-4 days, but I wouldpersonally say 72 hours is enough formost sports.
  46. 46. Guidelines For in-season training, depth jumpsshould be included every 10-14 daysbut probably not more frequently thanthis, and shouldn‟t be used less than10 days before an importantcompetition.
  47. 47. Guidelines For 2 leg depth jumps, the heel shouldnot be forced down to the ground,pressure should be on the ball of thefoot. For track and field jumpers, it isok if the heel comes down. For 1 leg depth jumps, the landingshould be on the flat of the foot.
  48. 48. Guidelines Just as in lifting, head posture isimportant. Athletes should not belooking at the floor when dropping offthe box or this will negatively affect thetakeoff sequence. When the athletes drops from the box,they should step off in a relaxed state,and not jump off the box.
  49. 49. Guidelines QUALITY is much more important thanquantity when it comes to plyometrics.Doing 10 sets of 10 depth jumpswouldn‟t be a good idea. Athletes should be proficient in regularjumping technique before they do depthjumps. Using olympic lifts can helpathletes learn proper triple extension andlumbo-pelvic rhythm. Various medicineball throws are also good for teachingpowerful hip extension.
  50. 50. Guidelines Single leg depth jumps are VERYdemanding, and should only be doneby athletes with excellent techniqueand preparation. Depth jumps should be performed ona soft surface, such as grass, a track,or a weight room floor. Hard-woodfloors and concrete are bad placesto do plyometrics because of thehigh stress.
  51. 51. Other good “true” plyometricexercises: Hurdle HopsHurdle hops are a great exercise fordeveloping power with short contacttimes.
  52. 52. Hurdle Height A balance must be struck in selectingthe height of the hurdles. The higher the hurdles, the higher theground contact time will be, but theforce will also be higher (rememberthe force/velocity relationship!) If low hurdles are used, athletes canwork harder on decreasing GCT, butprobably won‟t produce a lot of power.
  53. 53. Other good “true” plyometricexercises: Bounding Bounding is a great way to specificallytrain sprinters and single leg jumpers Bounding is basically exaggeratedsprinting GCT in bounding will usually be less than.20s
  54. 54. Bounding Bounding is usually performed foreither reps or distance, for example: 4sets of 10 bounds….or…..4 sets of 20meters of bounding. Bounding can be done with differenttypes of leg sequences◦ Single leg repeating◦ Alternating leg◦ Left-Left, Right, Right
  55. 55. Sport Specific Plyometrics Depth jumps can be coupled withsport specific activities such as:◦ Dropping off a box and dunking or layingup a basketball on the rebound◦ The same, but performing a volleyballblock◦ The same, but going into a boundingsequence◦ The same, but sprinting a direction uponlanding chosen by a coach/trainer