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Vaginal ca

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Vaginal ca

  1. 1. VAGINAL CANCER Presented by: Joel P. Dante RN
  2. 2. OVERVIEW Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer that occurs in your vagina — the muscular tube that connects your uterus with your outer genitals. Vaginal cancer most commonly occurs in the cells that line the surface of your vagina, which is sometimes called the birth canal. While several types of cancer can spread to your vagina from other places in your body, cancer that begins in your vagina (primary vaginal cancer) is rare. A diagnosis of early-stage vaginal cancer has the best chance for a cure. Vaginal cancer that spreads beyond the vagina is much more difficult to treat.
  3. 3. ANATOMY
  4. 4. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Unusual vaginal bleeding, for example, after intercourse or after menopause.
  5. 5. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Watery vaginal discharge
  6. 6. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS A lump or mass in your vagina
  7. 7. Painful urination SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  8. 8. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Frequent urination
  9. 9. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Constipation
  10. 10. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Pelvic pain
  11. 11. WHEN TO SEE A DOCTOR See your doctor if you have any signs and symptoms related to vaginal cancer, such as abnormal vaginal bleeding. Since vaginal cancer doesn't always cause signs and symptoms, follow your doctor's recommendations about when you should have routine pelvic exams.
  12. 12. CAUSES It's not clear what causes vaginal cancer. In general, cancer begins when healthy cells acquire a genetic mutation that turns normal cells into abnormal cells. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, eventually dying at a set time. Cancer cells grow and multiply out of control, and they don't die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can break off from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (metastasize).
  13. 13. TYPES OF VAGINAL CANCER Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma which begins in the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that line the surface of the vagina, and is the most common type.
  14. 14. TYPES OF VAGINAL CANCER Vaginal adenocarcinoma which begins in the glandular cells on the surface of your vagina.
  15. 15. TYPES OF VAGINAL CANCER Vaginal melanoma which develops in the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) of your vagina
  16. 16. TYPES OF VAGINAL CANCER Vaginal sarcoma which develops in the connective tissue cells or muscles cells in the walls of your vagina
  17. 17. RISK FACTORS Increasing age. Your risk of vaginal cancer increases as you age. Most people who are diagnosed with vaginal cancer are older than 60.
  18. 18. RISK FACTORS Atypical cells in the vagina called vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Being diagnosed with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) increases your risk of vaginal cancer.
  19. 19. RISK FACTORS Drugs Exposure to miscarriage prevention drug. If your mother took a drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant in the 1950s you may have an increased risk of a certain type of vaginal cancer.
  20. 20. RISK FACTORS Early age to sexual intercourse.
  21. 21. RISK FACTORS Multiple sexual partners
  22. 22. RISK FACTORS smoking
  23. 23. RISK FACTORS HIV / aids infection
  24. 24. COMPLICATIONS Vaginal cancer may spread (metastasize) to distant areas of your body, such as your lungs, liver and bones.
  25. 25. SCREENING for VAGINAL CANCER Vaginal cancer is sometimes found during a routine pelvic exam before signs and symptoms become evident. Pap tests are usually used to screen for cervical cancer, but sometimes vaginal cancer cells can be detected on a Pap test. How often you undergo these screenings depends on your risk factors for cancer and whether you've had abnormal Pap tests in the past. Talk to your doctor about how often you should have these health screenings
  28. 28. STAGING OF CANCER Once your doctor diagnoses vaginal cancer, steps will be taken to determine the extent of the cancer — a process called staging. The stage of your cancer helps your doctor decide what treatments are appropriate for you. In order to determine the stage of your cancer, your doctor may use:
  29. 29. STAGES Stage I. Cancer is limited to the vaginal wall. Stage II. Cancer has spread to tissue next to your vagina. Stage III. Cancer has spread further into the pelvis. Stage IVA. Cancer has spread to nearby areas, such as your bladder or rectum. Stage IVB. Cancer has spread to areas away from your vagina, such as your liver.
  30. 30. RESOURCES 1. 2.