Journalism history


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  • • Mercantile press: emphasizes trade and commerce (similar to WSJ today)
    • Pennsylvania Evening Post and Daily Advertiser -- first daily in 1783. Proves taht newspapers could come out daily and that a business press was marketable.
    • Focus of paper was tight at first, then moved to include things that affected business, such as politics.
    • Attracted advertising -- much of it runs on the front page
    • First time papers have become economically viable (making profits) without being underwritten.
    • Beginnings of complex news organizations
    • Noah Webster of dictionary fame
    • Minerva = Roman name for goddess of knowledge (it’s Athena in Greek)
    • Literary flavor, appealed to broader audience
    • Facts begin to be separated from opinion. Minerva even has a “baby” editorial page....that is pieces labeled as opinion.
  • • Specifically started to cover congress in a factual manner
    • Sat in galleries and recorded verbatim the debates -- not summaries.
    • Meant for the nation, but sold mostly in Washington, D.C.
    • The notion comes about that there can be a “newspaper of record.”
  • • Newspapers circulated by stagecoach
    • Freidrich Koenig designed a two-cylinder press (two-sided paper) in London, idea is copied in America.
    • Topliff’s idea of rowing out to ships in harbor to retrieve news and sell it to newspapers - the beginning of news services.
  • Journalism history

    1. 1. Journalism History
    2. 2. Community discussion • Communication between tribes, societies • Editors took stories from London papers, recounted what people said at the local pub.
    3. 3. The invention of news, 1690-1850 Assortment of local advertising small paragraphs of local adversting Large chunks of European and economic intelligence lifted from London papers 18th Century printers avoided controversy, printing largely foreign news because there was no ground for local leader grumbling
    4. 4. First Amendment to Constitution • 1791.. Only aimed at federal government, not state government
    5. 5. The Sedition Act of 1798 • Forbade criticism of the government, making it a criminal offense
    6. 6. Early newspapers •
    7. 7. 1800-1890 • Correspondents, not occupation • 1820s, newspapers began sending out reporters to ship • Between 1833-1835 entrepreneurs developed penny press. • Sought out local news • Began competition for local news
    8. 8. Partisan Press Federalists Commerce, banking, manufacturing Alexander Hamilton Anti-Federalists Farmers, wage earners, intellectuals Thomas Jefferson Gazette of the United States National Gazette John Fenno Philip Freneau
    9. 9. Development of daily newspaper • Transition from partisan to mercantile press • Pennsylvania Evening Post & Advertiser • First daily newspaper • American Minerva • Noah Webster, editor, is college educated (not just a printer) • Paper has wider appeal (beyond N.Y.C.)
    10. 10. Development of daily newspaper • Separation of fact and opinion • National Intelligencer begins in 1800 • Covers Congress – verbatim • Idea of a newspaper of record • Forerunner of the Congressional Record
    11. 11. Development of daily newspaper • Better presses, cheaper paper • Idea emerges that news is new • Reporters appear • Foreign news still important • Competition appears
    12. 12. Great Newspaper Editors Benjamin Day New York Sun Henry Raymond New-York Times James Gordon Bennett New York Herald Horace Greeley New York Tribune Journalism History
    13. 13. The first published newspaper interview Horace Greeley and Brigham Young
    14. 14. The first recorded newspaper interview H.G. — Am I to regard Mormonism (so-called) as a new religion, or as simply a new development of Christianity? B.Y. — We hold that there can be no true Christian Church without a priesthood directly commissioned by and in immediate communication with the Son of God and Savior of mankind. Such a church is that of the Latter-Day Saints, called by their enemies Mormons; we know no other that even pretends to have present and direct revelations of God's will. H.G. — Then I am to understand that you regard all other churches professing to be Christian as The Church of Rome regards all churches not in communion with itself — as schismatic, heretical, and out of the way of salvation? B. Y. — Yes, substantially. H.G. — Apart from this, in what respect do your doctrines differ from those of our Orthodox Protestant Churches — the Baptist or Methodist, for example? B.Y. — We hold the doctrines of Christianity, as revealed in the Old and New Testaments — also in the Book of Mormon, which teaches the same cardinal truths, and those only. H.G. — Do you believe in the doctrine of the Trinity? B. Y. — We do; but not exactly as it is held by other churches. We believe in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, as equal, but not identical — not as one person [being]. We believe in all the Bible teaches on this subject. H.G. — Do you believe in a personal devil — a distinct, conscious, spiritual being, whose nature and acts are essentially malignant and evil? B.Y. — We do. H.G. — Do you hold the doctrine of Eternal Punishment? B.Y. — We do; though perhaps not exactly as other churches do. We believe it as the Bible teaches it. H.G. — I understand that you regard Baptism by Immersion as essential. B.Y. — We do. H.G. — Do you practice Infant Baptism? B.Y. — No. H.G. — Do you make removal to these valleys obligatory on your converts? B.Y. — They would consider themselves greatly aggrieved if they were not invited hither. We hold to such a gathering together of God's People as the Bible foretells, and that this is the place and now is the time appointed for its consummation.
    15. 15. Pulitzer Hearst
    16. 16. Yellow Journalism
    17. 17. Famous journalists • Ida Tarbell • Investigated trusts like Standard Oil • • Nellie Bly Investigated abuse of mental institutions
    18. 18. Photojournalism • Photographers no longer need permission or cooperation of subjects • Photographs more candid, intimate, immediate, episodic • Considered “objective” documents • News content in their own right, not just illustrations ancillary to the text
    19. 19. Milestones Leica: mass produced in 1924 • Half-tone photographic printing • Gelatin-based film • Flashbulbs • Smaller, mass-produced cameras
    20. 20. LIFE Magazine • Founded in 1936 • Instant success • Two million circulation by 1938 • 22 million readers by 1944
    21. 21. Voice by wire Alexander Graham Bell — 1876
    22. 22. Wireless James Clerk Maxwell Electromagnetic radiation theorized 1864 • Heinrich Hertz Transmission of radio waves 1887 • Guglielmo Marconi First wireless transmission 1895 Transatlantic wireless transmission 1901 • •
    23. 23. Broadcasting Reginald Fessenden Wireless voice transmission 1906 • Lee deForest Audion Tube 1864 Broadcasts from Eiffel Tower 1908 • • Edwin Howard Armstrong Regenerative Circuit 1913 •
    24. 24. Radio Networks US Congress Establishes the Federal Radio Commission 1927 • David Sarnoff Suggests Radio Music Box 1916 Establishes NBC 1926 • • William Paley Columbia Broadcast System 1928 •
    25. 25. Radio-Press War • • 1922 - A.P. says copy is not for radio 1933 - “Biltmore Agreement” • • UPI “clacker” • Two, five-minute newscasts per day (after 9:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.) Networks respond with commentary 1939 - A.P. lifts ban
    26. 26. Broadcast Commentators Floyd Gibbons Walter Winchell Lowell Thomas
    27. 27. Radio-Press War • 1922 - A.P. says copy is not for radio • 1933 - “Biltmore Agreement” • Two, five-minute newscasts per day (after 9:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.) • UPI “clacker” • Networks respond with commentary 1939 - A.P. lifts ban
    28. 28. Mechanical Television John Logie Baird
    29. 29. Philo T. Farnsworth • Born in Beaver, Utah (1906) • Raised in Idaho • Attended BYU (1923-1924) • Invented first all-electronic television (1926)
    30. 30. RCA Vladimir Zworykin David Sarnoff
    31. 31. Edward R. Murrow
    32. 32. 30 Minutes • CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite September 3, 1963 • NBC News “Huntley-Brinkley Report” September 9, 1963 • ABC News with Peter Jennings - January 1965
    33. 33. Pentagon Papers • MacNamara orders a history of U.S. involvement in Indochina • Leaked by Daniel Ellsberg • Published in June 1971 by New York Times • Government sues for prior restraint • Other papers, including Washington Post, also publish
    34. 34. Watergate Break-in • June 17, 1972: Democratic National Committee in the Watergate complex • Five “plumbers” planting Watergate complex – Washington, D.C. listening devices are caught by Washington, D.C. police • Operation financed by illegal contributions to CREEP
    35. 35. Watergate Break-in • Taping system reveals president participated in coverup
    36. 36. Woodward & Bernstein
    37. 37. • 1900-1945 Commercialization of news • 1950s limited objectivity • Adversarial press, 1970s • 1980s-2000, technology and consolidation • 2000, communications revolution