Sex Trafficking Issues December 2011 giving circle pppresentation
An intergenerational network of Vermont women with thecommon goal of supporting sustainable change in the livesof women and children around the world. We are poolingour resources to leverage the power of our donations, tofund existing non-profits whose programs and servicesaddress the issues of human rights, safety, health andeducation for those in need.
SEX TRAFFICKING http://video.nytimes.com/video/2009/01/03/opinion 1194837193498/the-face-of-slavery.html
DEFINITIONS Prostitution: One who solicits and accepts payment for sex acts. Human Trafficking or Trafficking in persons are umbrella terms for activities when someone obtains or holds a person in compelled service. Forms of human trafficking include: Forced Labor Bonded Labor Debt Bondage Among Migrant Laborers Involuntary Domestic Servitude Forced Child Labor Child Soldiers Sex Trafficking
Human Trafficking Trafficking of persons divided into 2 distinct types Labor trafficking Sex trafficking Distinction exists to separate labor violations from violations that are more akin to forcible sexual assault. Sexual Trafficking is the recruitment, transportation (within national or across international borders), transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Sexual trafficking is accomplished by means of fraud, deception, threat of or use of force, abuse of a position of vulnerability, and other forms of coercion.
Sex Trafficking Sex Trafficking also occurs within debt bondage and also occurs in domestic servitude as these are “informal locations”. A person’s initial consent to participate in prostitution is not legally determinative. If held in service through psychological manipulation or physical force, they are trafficking victims. Use of children in the commercial sex trade is prohibited under both US law and Palermo Protocol and legislation around the world.
U.N. Definition "Trafficking in persons" shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery of practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
Early History of Sex Trafficking The sex trade can be traced back to the Sumerians and Babylonians. Regulations against the sex trade increased across Europe after the outbreak of syphilis in Naples during the fifteenth century. Sex trafficking increased across the world in the 19th century. This practice, going on throughout the centuries, finally became a political issue in the early 1900s.
20th Century In 1902, the International Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic was drafted. This eventually led to the United States passing the Mann Act of 1910 which "forbids transporting a person across state or international lines for prostitution or other immoral purposes”. 1949 Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others. Ratified by forty-nine countries around the world.
20th Century 1999 The ILO (International Labor Organization of the U.N) passes the Convention against the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Established widely recognized international standards protecting children against forced or indentured labor, child prostitution/pornography, use of children in drug trafficking and other work harmful to the health, safety and morals of children.
Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000 enactment by the United Nations General Assembly of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. (International) Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) made sex trafficking a serious violation of US Federal law. (United States) Annual Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report used as diplomatic tool in engaging foreign governments.
Today 45 states, including D.C., now have sex trafficking criminal statutes, and forty-eight states have labor trafficking criminal statutes. 9 Lag Behind: Lowest rank Massachusetts, West Virginia, and Wyoming. Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Montana, South Carolina, and South Dakota have laws that only meet 0 to 2 conditions tracked by the ratings. Other states that also improved include Virginia, Hawaii, and Ohio – all three moved up from the bottom tier. Vermont made significant progress from last year’s 2010 ratings. July 2011. Vermont Act. No. 55(H.153)
The Statistics Human trafficking is the second largest global organized crime today. Specifically, trafficking for sexual exploitation generates 27.8 billion dollars a year. Human trafficking is an organized criminal industry that affects every nation. 161 countries have been identified as being affected by human trafficking, including 127 countries of origin, 98 transit countries, 137 destination countries. More than 600,000 people are bought and sold across international borders each year. Approximately 80% of human trafficking victims are women and girls and up to 50% are minors. Approximately 80% of trafficking involves sexual exploitation, with the victims forced into the sex trade. http://vimeo.com/8166121
The Statistics The Children Child trafficking is one of the fastest growing crimes in the world. There are 1 - 2.5 million children exploited by the international sex trade, some as young as 4 and 5. This year alone, more than 1 million children worldwide will become victims of child trafficking. The global market of child trafficking is over $12 billion a year.
The Statistics Sex Trafficking of Minors in the U.S. 100,000 underage girls are being sold for sex in America. The average age of entry into prostitution is 12-14 years old. Each minor victim is sold for sex on an average of 10-15 times a day, 6 days a week. 1 out of every 3 teens on the street will be lured toward prostitution within 48 hours of running away from home.
Defining the Problem The Vulnerable Women, men, girls, and children as young as 5 years old Lives made vulnerable by poverty. Lack of education. Members of marginalized groups, and from impoverished regions. Children who are runaways from physically, emotionally, or sexually abusive homes. Orphans. Residents of conflict, war-torn areas.
The Problem How Victims are Lured The promise of a good job. A false marriage proposal that will actually be bondage. By being sold into the sex trade by parents, husbands, boyfriends. By being kidnapped by traffickers.
The Problem The Life of a Sex Trafficking Victim Hell on Earth A world without rights, laws, or compassion. A day-to- day routine that includes: Rape Beatings and constant threats Being forced to service 10 to 100 customers in one day Unsanitary living conditions Malnutrition Sleep Deprivation Emotional abuse Physical injuries (broken bones, concussions, burns, vaginal and anal tearing; traumatic brain injury) Contraction of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B and C, Gonorrhea Drug and alcohol addiction Forced or coerced abortions Miscarriages Sterility
The Problem How are Victims Exploited? FRAUD False offers and ads promising jobs as waitresses, maids, and dancers in other countries, or in a nearby city. FORCE “Seasoning” by starvation, confinement, beatings, physical abuse, rape, gang rape, electric shock, threats of violence to the victims and their families, psychological manipulation, forced drug use, and threatening to reveal their activities to their family and their families’ friends. COERCION Physical restraint, including chains and locked rooms. Told that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm. Debt-bondage, to “pay off” living expenses and initial transportation fees to the destination country. Victims are told they must pledge their personal services to repay the debt. Continued threats of injury or death to the victim or their families back home. Theft of their travel documents to make escape more difficult. Fines for not meeting daily quotas of service or for “bad” behavior Fear for their lives if they attempt to flee. It’s difficult for victims to find help because of language, social, and physical barriers that keep them from obtaining assistance.
The Problem WHO are the Exploiters? Pimps and brothel madams Every man who pay to have sex with children and women Sex tourists Travel agencies that handle sex tourism Families who sell their daughters into sex slavery Corrupt police departments and corrupt local, state, and federal governments Pornographers who exploit women, and the people who view porn The 3 billion dollar/year child pornography industry (100,000 websites)… 50% of internet child pornography comes from the U.S.http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25852001/ns/dateline_nbc-the_hansen_files_with_chris_hansen/t/update-child-victims- sex-trade-cambodia/#.TtwCYnPK2Ih
What Can Be Done? Reduce/eliminate gender inequality Create employment opportunities to combat driving force of poverty Work to alleviate all conditions that allow for trafficking to occur Education and protection programs in vulnerable areas Educate general population about issue Work to combat societal acceptance of sex trade Greater protection of women’s rights
What Can Be Done? Intervention at the borders Rescue: Non-profit organizations working to identify and rescue victims Greater investigation, prosecution, and punishment of those involved in sex trafficking Rehabilitation and Reintegration programs Adequate remedies for the human rights violations suffered by the victims, including compensation Agreements and enforcement between countries to combat trafficking
FRIENDS OF MAITI NEPAL Friends of Maiti Nepal established 2001 as official US representative 501 (c) 3 organization whose purpose is to raise funds and awareness of Maiti Nepal. Maiti Nepal Vision: a society free of the sexual and other forms of exploitation of children and women. Mission: To combat exploitation, violence and trafficking of children and women through comprehensive prevention and rehabilitation programs promoting education, empowerment, health and social inclusion.
HOW CAN THEY ACCOMPLISH THIS? Prevention Operate 3 Prevention Homes which provide shelter, life and income generating skills and formal and informal education and awareness about trafficking Safe Migration Program Mass Awareness Campaigns/Resource Center Youth Partnership Project Rescue 9 Transit Homes Year 2010: 2478 Interceptions achieved http://friendsofmaitinepal.org/intervention.php
Maiti Nepal Rehabilitation Two Rehabilitation homes Kathmandu and Itahari served 255 children, girls and women Half Way House: Kathmandu provides shelter to girls under age 18. Legal Aid: provided to 3369 people in 2010 Medical services: 38 bed Clinic and 2 Hospices Teresa Academy: founded in 1998. 400 students
Maiti Nepal What our donation can buy $50 Vocational education: $50 investment supplies one month of vocational education; $600 pays for a full course (one year of training). $300 Plain Sponsorship Includes annual school admission fee, monthly school fees, books and other materials, school uniform. $750 Comprehensive Sponsorship for 1 year: Meals, lodging, medicine, clothing, annual school admission fee, monthly school fees, books and other materials and school uniform.
TRANSITIONS GLOBAL PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIATransitions Global provides shelter, counseling, rehabilitation, education, vocational training, job placements, and reintegration services to survivors of sex trafficking in Southeast Asia.They empower survivors of sex trafficking with the opportunity to heal from the past and obtain the most basic of human rights - freedom and hope.Their program is based on a trauma recovery and empowerment model that holistically assists survivors in successfully re-entering society. http://vimeo.com/7358340
TRANSITIONS GLOBAL PROGRAMS Transitional Living Center This core program is in Phnom Penh, and serves twenty Cambodian and Vietnamese girls each year with comprehensive aftercare services. S.T.A.R. House (Secondary Transitional Apartment Residence) This is the next step in the girls’ reintegration, with a capacity for eight girls. This transitional house gives the girls a chance to practice their newly developed life skills and learn to live independently under limited supervision. For girls who are ready for independence early, or for girls who have a viable family option, they provide long-term reintegration support and re- entry services.
TRANSITIONS GLOBAL What our donation can buy $80 Supplies a girls bike to get back and forth to school and work. $150 Covers the cost of a week of aftercare for a girl. $350 Pays for a girls wardrobe – new outfits, workout clothes, shoes, professional clothing. $525 Covers the cost of a girls attendance in a private high school – tuition, uniforms, and books. $1,000 Funds the annual cost of a girls high-quality vocational training in the job field of her choice. $8,950 Pays for the annual cost for a girl – from rescue to reintegration.
TRANSITIONS GLOBAL FINANCIALS (2010)REVENUE: $367,543 Contributions and Grants $19,000 Consulting FeesEXPENSES: $100,697 Salaries $255,421 Operating Expenses $1,233 Fundraising ExpensesDONORS: $40-$60,000/year The Boca Restaurant Group, Cincinnati $35,000 Singapore donor $25,000 Arthur B. Schultz Foundation
Future Meeting DatesThe first Wednesdays of each month January 4, 2012 February 1, 2012 March 7, 2012 April 4, 2012 May 2, 2012 June 6, 2012 http://vimeo.com/11075084