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Chapter 9 intercultural encounters by Hofstede & Hofstede


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Presentation on Intercultural Encounters, Prepared by: Jobayda Gulshan Ara, Public Administration, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh

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Chapter 9 intercultural encounters by Hofstede & Hofstede

  1. 1. Presentation on the Book Review on Chapter Name: Intercultural Encounters Chapter No. 09 Prepared by: Jobayda Gulshan Ara Book Name: Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind Author: Geert Hofstede & Gert Jan Hofstede
  2. 2. Intercultural Encounters  Intercultural encounter means an unexpected or hostile situation  An intercultural encounter can be an experience between people from different countries or it can be an experience between individuals from other cultural backgrounds in the same country
  3. 3.  Human history is composed of wars  Holy books of different religions genocide is considered as order of God  “what is different is dangerous” believed by many cultures.  war and peace represent intended conflicts.
  4. 4.  unintended conflicts that sometimes arise during intercultural encounters  Nobody wants unintended conflicts but all suffer from them  Avoiding unintended cultural conflicts - theme of this chapter  Countries & regions differ in more than their cultures
  5. 5. Figure: Sources of differences between countries and groups
  6. 6.  Hofstede was given a acculturation curve have four phases • Phase-1 : Euphoria • Phase-2 : the Period of Cultural Shock • Phase-3 : Acculturations • Phase-4 : the Stable State  Culture shocks are environment specific
  7. 7.  This psychological reactions have four phases:  Phase-1 Curiosity: as like euphoria on the side of visitors.  Phase-2 Ethnocentrism: hosts will evaluate the visitor by the standards of their culture.  Phase-3 Polycentrism: the recognition that different kinds of people should be measured by different standards  Phase-4 Xenophilia: believe of hosts people that in foreigner culture everything is better.  Ethnocentrism and xenophilia both are unhealthy for intercultural co operations.
  8. 8.  Language differences contribute to cultural misinterpretations  Language belongs to the 1. surface level of culture and 2. vehicle of cultural transfer
  9. 9. Language and Humor  One will miss a lot of subtleties of a culture if he/she have no knowledge about the language of the culture  One of this subtleties is Humor  In intercultural encounters the experienced travelers knows that jokes and irony are taboo until one is absolutely sure of the other culture’s conception that what represent humor.
  10. 10.  Popular media suggest that communication technologies will make the world global village  The software of the mechanism can be globalized but the software of the minds that use them not  Communication technology helps to increase the amount of information but does not increase the capacity to absorb this information  We process information according to our values
  11. 11.  Most intercultural encounters two types:  Between local teachers and foreign, migrant or refugee students and  Between expatriate teachers hired as foreign expert or send as missionaries and local students  Intercultural problems can be based on institutional differences
  12. 12.  Minorities depends on hard fact like: distribution of population, economic situation of population groups and the intensity of their interrelations.  It also depends on cultural values and cultural practices.  In nearly all cases of migrants and refuges moved from a more traditional collectivist to a more individualist society.  The refugees and migrants called marginal people. The level of marginality is different generations and genders.
  13. 13.  National culture will affect negotiation process by several ways  Power distance will affect the degree of centralization of the control and decision making structure and the importance of the negotiators.  Collectivist will affect the need for stable relationships between the negotiators.  Masculinity will affect the need for ego-boosting behavior and the sympathy for the strong on the part of negotiators and their superiors. They have a tendency to resolve conflicts by a show of force.  Feminine cultures are more likely resolve conflicts by compromise and to strive for consensus.
  14. 14.  Effective intercultural negotiations demand :  an insight into the range of cultural values to be expected among partners from another countries  Language and communication skills  Organization skills for planning and arranging meeting and facilities  Skills for handling external communications
  15. 15. Power distance(small) Acceptance of responsibility Power Distance(Large) Discipline Uncertainty Avoidance (weak) Basic Innovations Uncertainty avoidance(strong) Precision Collectivism Employee Commitment Individualism Management Mobility Femininity Personal Service Agriculture Food Masculinity Mass Production Heavy Industry Chemistry Short Term Orientation Fast adaptation Long-Term Orientation Developing New Markets
  16. 16.  The solution may be two types of structure:  Matrix structure: Here every business unit have two bosses.  One coordinate particular type of business across all countries.  Other coordinate all business units in the particular country.  Patchwork Structure: follow the needs of markets and business unit cultures.
  17. 17. International Expansion can be distinguished in five ways, in increasing order of cultural risk I. The Greenfield Start II. The International strategic Alliance III. The Joint venture with a Foreign Partner IV. The Foreign Acquisition V. The Cross National Merger
  18. 18.  Political processes and difference in Power Distance, Uncertainty avoidance, Individualism-collectivism and Masculinity- femininity:  Larger power distance: centralization, lack of cooperation between citizen and authorities and more political violence.  Strong Uncertainty avoidance: more rules and laws, more government intervention in economy.  Individualism: concern with human rights, market capitalism and political democracy.  Collectivism: group interests.  Masculinity: economic growth and competition and belief in technology.  Femininity: Country welfare and world development cooperation.
  19. 19.  Intercultural encounters in the context of development cooperation will be productive if there is a two way Flow of Know-How:  Technical know-how: from the donor to receiver.  Cultural know how : about the context in which the technical know how should be applied.
  20. 20.  The acquisition of intercultural communication abilities passes through three phases: a. Awareness: it is the recognition of one that, I carry a particular Mental Software because the way I was brought up and the other also carry a different one for equally good reasons. b. Knowledge: It should follow awareness. If we interact with particular culture we have to learn about these cultures symbols, heroes and rituals but never share their values. c. Skills: It is based on awareness and knowledge and also practice.  Intercultural communication training courses are two types: Expatriate briefings and awareness training.
  21. 21. Intercultural encounters is faced by both the visitors and host people. Visitors face cultural shock and host people face ethnocentrism and xenophilia. School teachers and students, minorities, migrants, intercultural organization face this encounters for intercultural co- operation. Economic development and politics and consumer behavior all are related to this experience. By awareness, knowledge and skills one may adopt other culture swiftly. The realization of our is, encounters are not actually an enormous problem because by the crisis situation one can learn better about a culture and made a way for cope with the encounters and interact with the culture effectively.