In recent decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s. Long-term concerns include ageing of the population, pressure on infrastructure, and environmental issues such as frequent droughts. – CIA factbook
90% of population lives in cities
Primary Products=STM= Simply transformed manufacturesETM= Elaborately transformed manufacturesExports: mostly China, Japan and Rep of KoreaAustralia's abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron ore, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia also has a large services sector and is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy, and food.The GILLARD government is focused on raising Australia's economic productivity to ensure the sustainability of growth, and continues to manage the symbiotic, but sometimes tense, economic relationship with China. Australia is engaged in the Trans-Pacific Partnership talks and ongoing free trade agreement negotiations with China, Japan, and Korea.
Institutions for collaboration
Just another form of power generation?
Current investment mostly in solar...
the levelised cost of energy for most RE technologies has declined over the past 30 years and additional expected technical advances would result in further cost reductions.Th graph suggests Concentrated solar, biomass, steam geothermal and wind have reached panicle of cost efficiency… investment now
The Role of Renewables in the Australian Power Industry Past, Present and Future
The Role of Renewables inthe Australian PowerIndustry: Past, Present andFutureJoanne Patroni
Australia: Key Country data Population 22 million GDP (PPP) per capita $US 40,234 (2011), ranked 14th Predicted to be the best performing economy in the world over the next two years (IMF, April 2012) Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast Environmental issues: soil salinity and poor farming practices soil erosion from overgrazing, desertification limited natural freshwater resources urbanizationSource: CIA World Fact Book
Percentage of electricity generation fromrenewables by energy source (2010)Source: Clean Energy Council: Clean Energy Australia 2010
Distribution of current Australian Renewable generation plants Source: Australian Government Department of Resources, Energy andTourism 2008 report
Government Policies in place tostimulate demand for renewableenergyAdoption of Kyoto Protocol Commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60% of 2000 levels by 2050National Greenhouse Accounts System for tracking emissions reductions Self-imposed target of 108% of 1990 levels over the period 2008-2012Mandatory Renewable Energy Target Target of 20% of all consumption by 2020 (9500GwH by 2010, 45000 GwH by 2020) Establishment of Office Renewable Energy Regulator to ensure compliancePhotovoltaic Rebate Program Grants of $4 per watt installed 5.7MW installed since 2000Solar Cities $75M public-private pilot project to demonstrate effectiveness of solar-based energy solutions in urban areasCarbon Pricing legislation to price carbon of Dec 2011 tax at $23/tonne/year carbon dioxide emission due in July 2012.Source: Australian Government. Department of Climate Change. InternationalEnergy Agency – Global Renewable Energy Policy and Measures Database.
Local Opinion on the future ofrenewables “Australia must substantially and relatively quickly change the nature of its electricity supply. The Commonwealth’s goal is to reduce Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 2000 levels by 2050. Much of this reduction will need to come from changes in electricity production, while keeping energy secure and affordable for Australians.” GRATTAN Institute, 2012“As a nation better endowed with renewable energy resources than most, and at the same time theOECD’s biggest per capita emitter of greenhouse gases, it behoves Australia to act promptly, and perhapslead the world to a zero emissions economy based on renewable energy.”General Peter Gration, AC, OB E, FT SEFormer Australian Chief of Defence
Current Investment toward future capacity Source: Who’s winning the clean energy race? 2011
Potential for Renewable investmentSource: Australian Academy of Science 2009
Which way to Australia’s Energy future? Wind Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Solar PV Nuclear Concentrating Solar Power Bioenergy Geothermal …All face obstacles to achieving their full potential.Source: OECD Working Paper
Cost as a barrier Total Capital Cost ($/kW) for a range of alternative energy technologies in the US in the period 1995-2020(estimated) Solar PV *not considering Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) $85/tCO2e Concentrated Solar Geothermal Hot Rock Biomass Geothermal other WindSource: U.S. EIA (2010)
Contribution of renewables in Australia’s future electricity mixSource: CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship, 2009
Conclusion Country with high renewable potential and positive economic outlook No significant increase in renewables (as proportion) in last 10 years Current investment mostly in Solar PVRecommendations Increase Federal funding for R&D to establish commercial viability and reliability Focus future investment in geothermal, biomass and wind carbon sequestration cheapest energy source coal would become "cleaner"