Mao Zedong had
from all walks of life
In 1954, the
1. Changes in the US
and USSR leadership
the fall of a non-Communist state to Communism
would lead to the fall of other neighbouring non-
Communist states to Communism
USSR's first atomic bomb...
USSR exploded its first nuclear
weapon in Kazakhstan. Many
considered the test the beginning
of the nuclear arms race.
- aka "First Lightning" and "Joe-1“, it
had roughly the equivalent in yield
to the bomb USA had dropped on
Nagasaki. The successful Soviet
test came as a profound shock to
Stalin's death in
In 1953, Stalin
He believed in
could win at
- Denounced Stalin in his secret speech
- Denounced Stalin's cult of personality
- lessened censorship?
the Hungarian people rose up in
revolt in 1956
Led by Nagy, the liberal Communist
leader of Hungary, the people
demanded free elections and the end
of Soviet domination
The Soviets responded to the Hungarian
revolt with tanks
The Soviets’ response
was swift and brutal
– 1000s of
Nagy) as the Soviets
Implications of the Hungarian
Who's being discredited?
What do we learn about Khrushchev?
Implications for other Soviet satellites?
"Let's Go Wash our
Hands in the Canal...""
THE COLD WAR TAKES
TO THE SKIES
The Space Race was
initially dominated by
On October 4, 1957,
they launched Sputnik,
the world’s first
around earth at 18,000
miles an hour, circling
the globe every 96
1. Nuclear Race
The destruction was
The number of nuclear weapons
of the two powers
The two countries had many nuclear tests during the Cold War…
The American Nuclear Test
America conducted many tests during the
Cold War. One bomb was called the
The Soviet Nuclear Test
One of the Soviet bombs was called Tsar
Effects of a test:
1956 - Khrushchev's
He condemned the
policies of Stalin.
He disagreed with
Lenin’s idea of war
and calls for
On October 4, the Soviet
Union launches Sputnik,
the first man-made
satellite to orbit the Earth.
In 1958, the U.S. creates
the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration,
and the space race is in
In 1961, East Germany started to build the
Berlin Wall to stop East Germans from
escaping to West Germany.
2. The building of the Berlin Wall (1961)
1961 - Berlin Wall
On August 15,
the Berlin Wall to
fleeing to West
The Berlin Wall divided Berlin into two
(a) Describe how the Berlin Wall
affected the people living in Berlin.
- a physical barrier that split Berlin into two. There was
only one crossing point: Checkpoint Charlie
- West Berlin was cut off from East Berlin. Families
were divided. Some people were put in communist held
area and others in capitalist area.
- It stopped the movement of people. 100+ East
Berliners who tried to cross were shot.
- It took no account of roads and buildings.
Why was the Berlin Wall built?
- The Soviets built it to maintain the east-west
split and control the people within its sphere
and east European satellites.
- The west enjoyed a higher standard of living.
Intellectuals and skilled people left East
Germany for the West. This loss of citizens
was humiliating for communism. The wall was
to prevent refugees escaping to the west.
- Berlin was a focus of Cold War tensions with
Khrushchev trying to force the west out of
- The East German authorities said it was to
keep spies from the west out of East Berlin.
Kennedy’s visit to
Berlin in 1963
Kennedy opposed the building of the Berlin
Wall and sent more US troops to help defend
A cartoon about the
The Berlin problem
was a test of the
nerves between two
Rise & Fall of the Berlin Wall
Intro → 9:00-
1968 - Prague Spring
On January 5, reformer
Alexander Dubcek came to
power as general secretary
of the Communist Party in
The Prague Spring
movement swept across
Soviet and Warsaw Pact
leaders sent 650,000
troops in August.
Dubcek arrested and
hard-liners restored to
Communist Khmer Rouge
took power in Cambodia,
April 16 1975.
Cambodia's educated and
urban population forced into
the countryside as part of a
state experiment in agrarian
Under the regime of Pol Pot,
as many as 3 million
Cambodians died from 1975
1979 - Afghanistan
December 25, 100,000 Soviet troops
invaded Afghanistan as communist Babrak
Karmal seized control of the government.
U.S.-backed Muslim guerrilla fighters
waged a costly war against the Soviets for
nearly a decade before Soviet troops
withdraw in 1988.
Afghanistan—the Soviet “Vietnam”
1983 - Star Wars
March 23, Reagan outlined his Strategic
Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars," a
space-based defensive shield that would
use lasers and other advanced technology
to destroy attacking missiles far above
the Earth's surface.
Soviets accuse the U.S of violating the
1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty.
Soviets forced to spend heavily to match
the program causing near economic