Cold war 2 - 1949-1968


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Cold war, Hungarian uprising, Korean War, Khrushchev, Berlin Wall, for Cambridge IGCSE History

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Cold war 2 - 1949-1968

  1. 1. Mao Zedong had massive support from all walks of life in China.
  2. 2. In 1954, the American President Eisenhower put forward the Domino Theory. 1. Changes in the US and USSR leadership
  3. 3. Domino Theory  the fall of a non-Communist state to Communism would lead to the fall of other neighbouring non- Communist states to Communism
  4. 4. USSR's first atomic bomb... USSR exploded its first nuclear weapon in Kazakhstan. Many considered the test the beginning of the nuclear arms race. - aka "First Lightning" and "Joe-1“, it had roughly the equivalent in yield to the bomb USA had dropped on Nagasaki. The successful Soviet test came as a profound shock to the West.
  5. 5. Stalin's death in 1953 10:39
  6. 6. In 1953, Stalin died and Khrushchev became the Soviet leader. He believed in peaceful co- existence, but communism could win at last.
  7. 7. De-Stalinization! - Denounced Stalin in his secret speech - Denounced Stalin's cult of personality - lessened censorship?
  8. 8. However...
  9. 9. One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich by Solzhenitsyn Doctor Zhivago by Pasternak
  10. 10. Space Race continued... Sputnik (1957)
  11. 11. p.402 (a) Describe the events in Hungary in 1956. [5] (b) Why was there hope that Hungarians could gain freedom from USSR in 1956? [7]
  13. 13. THE HUNGARIAN UPRISING the Hungarian people rose up in revolt in 1956 Led by Nagy, the liberal Communist leader of Hungary, the people demanded free elections and the end of Soviet domination The Soviets responded to the Hungarian revolt with tanks The Soviets’ response was swift and brutal – 1000s of Hungarians were killed (including Nagy) as the Soviets reasserted control
  14. 14. Implications of the Hungarian Uprising 1956? Who won? Who's being discredited? What do we learn about Khrushchev? Implications for other Soviet satellites? "Let's Go Wash our Hands in the Canal...""
  15. 15. THE COLD WAR TAKES TO THE SKIES The Space Race was initially dominated by the Soviets On October 4, 1957, they launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite Sputnik traveled around earth at 18,000 miles an hour, circling the globe every 96 minutes
  16. 16. 1. Nuclear Race Remember atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki? The destruction was massive!!
  17. 17. The number of nuclear weapons of the two powers
  18. 18. The two countries had many nuclear tests during the Cold War… Th
  19. 19. The American Nuclear Test America conducted many tests during the Cold War. One bomb was called the Castle Bravo:
  20. 20. The Soviet Nuclear Test One of the Soviet bombs was called Tsar y1qr8&feature=related Effects of a test: Y_qF4&feature=related
  21. 21. 1956 - Khrushchev's 'secret speech'  He condemned the policies of Stalin.  He disagreed with Lenin’s idea of war and calls for "peaceful coexistence"
  22. 22. Space War  On October 4, the Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth.  In 1958, the U.S. creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the space race is in full gear.
  23. 23. In 1961, East Germany started to build the Berlin Wall to stop East Germans from escaping to West Germany. East Germans escaping to West Berlin 2. The building of the Berlin Wall (1961)
  24. 24. 1961 - Berlin Wall  On August 15, communist authorities begin construction on the Berlin Wall to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin.
  25. 25. building of the Berlin Wall
  26. 26. The Berlin Wall divided Berlin into two West Berlin East Berlin
  27. 27. (a) Describe how the Berlin Wall affected the people living in Berlin. - a physical barrier that split Berlin into two. There was only one crossing point: Checkpoint Charlie - West Berlin was cut off from East Berlin. Families were divided. Some people were put in communist held area and others in capitalist area. - It stopped the movement of people. 100+ East Berliners who tried to cross were shot. - It took no account of roads and buildings.
  28. 28. Why was the Berlin Wall built? - The Soviets built it to maintain the east-west split and control the people within its sphere and east European satellites. - The west enjoyed a higher standard of living. Intellectuals and skilled people left East Germany for the West. This loss of citizens was humiliating for communism. The wall was to prevent refugees escaping to the west. - Berlin was a focus of Cold War tensions with Khrushchev trying to force the west out of Berlin. - The East German authorities said it was to keep spies from the west out of East Berlin.
  29. 29. Kennedy’s visit to Berlin in 1963 Kennedy opposed the building of the Berlin Wall and sent more US troops to help defend West Germany.
  30. 30. A cartoon about the worsening Soviet- American relations. The Berlin problem was a test of the nerves between two countries.
  31. 31. Rise & Fall of the Berlin Wall MwNmE Intro → 9:00- → 19:19-23:20 → 50:25:28
  32. 32. 1968 - Prague Spring  On January 5, reformer Alexander Dubcek came to power as general secretary of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia, pledging reforms and democratization  The Prague Spring movement swept across the country.  Soviet and Warsaw Pact leaders sent 650,000 troops in August.  Dubcek arrested and hard-liners restored to power.
  33. 33. 1975 - Cambodia  Communist Khmer Rouge took power in Cambodia, April 16 1975.  Cambodia's educated and urban population forced into the countryside as part of a state experiment in agrarian communism.  Under the regime of Pol Pot, as many as 3 million Cambodians died from 1975 to 1979.
  34. 34. 1979 - Afghanistan  December 25, 100,000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan as communist Babrak Karmal seized control of the government.  U.S.-backed Muslim guerrilla fighters waged a costly war against the Soviets for nearly a decade before Soviet troops withdraw in 1988.  Afghanistan—the Soviet “Vietnam”
  35. 35. 1983 - Star Wars  March 23, Reagan outlined his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars," a space-based defensive shield that would use lasers and other advanced technology to destroy attacking missiles far above the Earth's surface.  Soviets accuse the U.S of violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty.  Soviets forced to spend heavily to match the program causing near economic collapse.
  36. 36. Improved Sino-American relations! Ping-pong diplomacy (1971)!