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Cognitive bias for Emotional Design

Cognitive psychology and design, they are two closely related fields. Cognitive bias should be a powerful tool in the designer’s belt. Because we can take advantage of it.

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Cognitive bias for Emotional Design

  1. 1. Cognitive Bias For Emotional Design B y J o a n a C e r e j o , 2 0 1 9
  2. 2. Today’s MENU 1. Define a Cognitive Bias 2. Describe a Design Implication of the Bias 3. Present a real example of this design implication at work
  3. 3. DESIGN EMOTIONS USER EXPERIENCE DESIGNERS (UXD) designs how a user interacts and responds to a service or product. THAT RESPONSE IS AN EMOTION. UXD not only strive to design usable, functional products but to also generate a certain emotional effect on their audience.
  4. 4. They are two closely related fields. Cognitive bias should be a powerful tool in the designer’s belt. Because we can take advantage of it. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY DESIGN
  5. 5. We are Programmed to Make Cognitive Shortcuts Users / Customers apply their cognitive functions during their interaction with the products and services we design.
  6. 6. WHAT IS A COGNITIVE BIAS? They are a series of mental shortcuts, distortions in our perception that make part of our cognitive activity. Often Bias are beneficial but sometimes they can hurt our designs.
  7. 7. IN OTHER WORDS… Cognitive Biases are the outcome of the brain’s attempt to simplify I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g .
  8. 8. Exploring Cognitive Bias help us, Designers, to predict HUMAN IRRATIONALITY.
  9. 9. WHY DESIGNERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF THESE? t Cognitive Biases are: Predi ct abl e (s ys tem a ti c ) Affect the way users think and feel about a product or service. Un co n t ro l l abl e (i nvo l unta ry)
  10. 10. DESIGN We can apply Cognitive Biases to IMPROVE or ENHANCE our Designs. But also to MANIPULATE our Designs. But just like in the case of dark patterns, it may result in some quick wins, but it has a negative impact in the long run.
  11. 11. USER EXPERIENCE By understanding the effects of the most relevant cognitive biases, we can improve UX not only by trying to avoid the possible negative consequences, but also by taking advantage of them!
  12. 12. > 1 7 5 COGNITIVE BIAS
  13. 13. BIAS ON DESIGNERS Another significant aspect is that we, designers, also have cognitive biases, so we need to pay attention to these during the research and design process. Blind Spot Bias
  14. 14. BIAS ON DESIGNERS There are design choices we can make that help keep harmful cognitive biases in check (or leverage the for good).
  15. 15. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later sheet-55a472476b18
  16. 16. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later Availability heuristic / Attentional bias / Illusory truth effect / Mere exposure effect / Context effect / Cue-dependent forgetting / Mood-congruent memory bias / Frequency illusion / Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon / Empathy gap / Bizarreness effect / Humor effect / Von Restorff effect / Negativity bias / Publication bias / Omission bias / Anchoring / Contrast effect / Focusing effect / Framing effect / Weber–Fechner law / Distinction bias / Confirmation bias / Congruence bias / Post- purchase rationalization / Choice-supportive bias / Selective perception / Observer- expectancy effect / Experimenter’s bias / Observer effect / Expectation bias / Ostrich effect / Subjective validation / Continued influence effect / Semmelweis reflex / Bucket error / Law of narrative gravity, / Bias blind spot / Naïve cynicism / Naïve realism
  17. 17. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later Confabulation / Clustering illusion / Insensitivity to sample size / Neglect of probability / Anecdotal fallacy / Illusion of validity / Masked man fallacy / Recency illusion / Gambler’s fallacy / Hot-hand fallacy / Illusory correlation / Pareidolia, Anthropomorphism / Group attribution error / Ultimate attribution error / Stereotyping / Essentialism / Functional fixedness / Moral credential effect / Just-world hypothesis / Argument from fallacy / Authority bias / Automation bias / Bandwagon effect / Placebo effect / Halo effect / In-group bias / Out-group homogeneity bias / Cross-race effect / Cheerleader effect / Well-traveled road effect / Not invented here / Reactive devaluation / Positivity effect / Mental accounting / Normalcy bias / Appeal to probability fallacy / Base rate fallacy / Murphy’s law / Hofstadter’s law / Subadditivity effect / Survivorship bias / Zero sum bias / Denomination effect / Magic number 7+-2 / Swimmer’s body illusion / Money illusion / Conservatism / Curse of knowledge / Illusion of transparency / Spotlight effect / Streetlight effect, / Illusion of external agency / Illusion of asymmetric insight / Extrinsic incentive error / Hindsight bias / Outcome bias / Moral luck / Declinism / Telescoping effect / Rosy retrospection / Impact bias / Pessimism bias / Planning fallacy / Time-saving bias / Pro-innovation bias / Projection bias / Restraint bias / Self-consistency bias
  18. 18. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later Overconfidence effect / Egocentric bias / Optimism bias / Social desirability bias / Third-person effect / Forer effect / Barnum effect / Illusion of control / False consensus effect / Dunning-Kruger effect / Hard-easy effect / Illusory superiority / Lake Wobegone effect / Self-serving bias / Actor-observer bias / Fundamental attribution error / Defensive attribution hypothesis / Trait ascription bias / Effort justification / Risk compensation / Peltzman effect / Armchair fallacy / Hyperbolic discounting / Appeal to novelty / Identifiable victim effect / Sunk cost fallacy / Irrational escalation / Escalation of commitment / Loss aversion / IKEA effect / Processing difficulty effect / Generation effect / Zero-risk bias / Disposition effect / Unit bias / Pseudocertainty effect / Endowment effect / Backfire effect / System justification / Reactance / Reverse psychology / Decoy effect / Social comparison bias / Status quo bias / Abilene paradox / Law of the instrument / Law of the hammer / Maslow’s hammer / Golden hammer / Chesterton’s fence / Hippo problem / Ambiguity bias / Information bias / Belief bias / Rhyme as reason effect / Bike-shedding effect / Law of Triviality / Delmore effect / Conjunction fallacy / Occam’s razor / Less-is-better effect / Sapir-Whorf-Korzybski hypothesis
  19. 19. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later Misattribution of memory / Source confusion / Cryptomnesia / False memory / Suggestibility / Spacing effect / Implicit associations / Implicit stereotypes / Stereotypical bias / Prejudice / Fading affect bias / Peak–end rule / Leveling and sharpening / Misinformation effect / Duration neglect / Serial recall effect / List-length effect / Modality effect / Memory inhibition / Part-list cueing effect / Primacy effect / Recency effect / Serial position effect / Suffix effect / Picture superiority effect / Levels of processing effect / Testing effect / Absent- mindedness / Next-in-line effect / Tip of the tongue phenomenon / Google effect / Self-relevance effect
  20. 20. There are a few Cognitive Biases that have successfully been changing human behavior and ultimately increase their user engagement and retention.
  21. 21. THE VARIABLE SCHEDULE OF REWARDS BIAS This Bias is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a steady, high rate of responding.
  22. 22. WHAT THIS MEANS? VARIABLE REWARDS engage more users than predictable rewards.
  23. 23. There's a lot of social pressure to keep up a Snapstreak.
  24. 24. Design for Evil Snapstreaks are a good example of what ex-google design ethicist Tristan Harris calls unethical design. Unethical designs, according to him, exploit psychological vulnerabilities to influence what users do without realizing it.
  25. 25. Duolingo, a platform to learn any language for free has employed a similar persuasion technique as Snapchat that ensures that users will keep working on their learning streak, which in turn engages and retains users.
  26. 26. THE CONTRAST EFFECT Contrast Bias is the tendency to promote or demote something when comparing it to a contrasting thing.
  27. 27. A Positive Contrast Effect would occur if something was perceived as better than it actually is, because it was compared to something worse. A Negative Contrast Effect would be when something was perceived as worse than it actually is, because it was compared to something better.
  28. 28. BARE IN MIND … Make your product stand out as much as possible. Using surprise, differentiation, and shock value, you can make your product more memorable, and therefore more likely for people to purchase.
  29. 29. THE NEGATIVE BIAS Negative Experiences have a bigger impact on our cognition than do Positive or Neutral ones.
  30. 30. We have a tendency to pay more attention and give more weight to negative than positive experiences or other kinds of information.
  31. 31. BARE IN MIND … Negative design / information will ring more attention than positive information. We can utilize this fact in our designs by paying great attention to what negative feedback is presented to the user. If we want users to pay attention to positive information, be careful not to let negative feedback outshine the positive.
  32. 32. HOW TO AVOID IT? • Follow design standards • Match user’s / costumer’s expectations • Anticipate user’s / costumer’s concerns and address them • If a digital product / service, write good error messages • Sprinkle delightful encounters • Test
  33. 33. THE IKEA EFFECT The tendency for people to place a disproportionately high value on products that they have partially created or completed it.
  34. 34. The effort creates an E M O TI O N A L bond. When someone uses their own hands to create something, they holder it in higher esteem, even if it was done poorly.
  35. 35. HOW TO USE IT? • Enable customizations if possible • Allowing users / customers to complete a task that brings the product or service to a complete state can trigger this effect. • This only works if the results are fruitful otherwise can convert into Negative Bias by raising the levels of frustrations.
  36. 36. HOW TO USE IT? 1. Let your users/customers take part in building and/or making your product(s) by investing their time and/or money.
  37. 37. HOW TO USE IT? 2. Give your users / customers the option to customize your product(s).
  38. 38. HOW TO USE IT?
  39. 39. BARE IN MIND … “Emotional design has risks. If emotional engagement compromises the functionality, reliability, or usability of an interface, the positive experience you wanted will mutate into a rant- inducing disaster for your users.” Aarron Walter. “Designing for Emotion.”
  40. 40. THE BABY FACE BIAS A tendency to see people and things with baby- faced features as more naïve, helpless, and honest than those with mature features.
  41. 41. HOW TO USE IT ? • The use of mascots to create connections with our audience
  42. 42. T H E E N D