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การบินวงจร

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ไฟล์ประกอบการบรรยายเรื่องการบินวงจร สำหรับผู้เข้าอบรมโครงการ Aero Camp ณ มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์

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การบินวงจร

  1. 2. Menu <ul><li>Applied your knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Left-hand pattern </li></ul><ul><li>THE LEGS !! </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s practice </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing – Departure Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing – Crosswind Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing – Downwind Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing – Base Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing – Final Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing – Landing </li></ul>
  2. 3. Menu <ul><li>What’s PAPI ? </li></ul><ul><li>Turn depend on your distance ! </li></ul><ul><li>And if we come too high ? </li></ul><ul><li>CHECKLIST </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITATION </li></ul><ul><li>VOCAB </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard Summary </li></ul>
  3. 4. Applied your knowledge <ul><li>Takeoff and Landing </li></ul><ul><li>Straight and Level Flight </li></ul><ul><li>Turns </li></ul><ul><li>Climbs and Descents </li></ul><ul><li>Slow flight </li></ul><ul><li>Reading instruments and understand it </li></ul>Back to Menu
  4. 5. Left-hand pattern Back to Menu
  5. 8. THE LEGS !! <ul><li>Departure Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Crosswind Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Downwind Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Base Leg </li></ul><ul><li>Final Leg </li></ul>Back to Menu
  6. 9. Pattern Concept Left Downwind Crosswind Departure Final Left Base Wind Direction 21 03 Right Downwind Right Base Crosswind (LEFT HAND PATTERN) (RIGHT HAND PATTERN) 21010KT
  7. 10. Runway Placing Concept 36 0 18 0 090 270 36 18
  8. 11. Runway Placing Concept 360 180 090 270 01 5 19 5 01 19
  9. 12. Runway Placing Concept 360 180 090 270 36 209 029 03 21
  10. 13. 27 09 26 08 25 07 24 06 23 05 22 04 21 03 20 02 19 01 RWY RWY 36 18 35 17 34 16 33 15 32 14 31 13 30 12 29 11 28 10 RWY RWY
  11. 14. Let’s practice <ul><li>Aircraft : Cessna C172 </li></ul><ul><li>Aerodrome : Don Mueang, Runway 21 Left (VTBD, 21L) </li></ul><ul><li>Weather : CAVOK </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Charts : none </li></ul>Back to Menu
  12. 15. Did you forgot these things ? Back to Menu
  13. 16. Instruments <ul><li>Airspeed Indicator </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude Indicator </li></ul><ul><li>Altitude Indicator </li></ul><ul><li>Turn Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Heading Indicator </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Speed Indicator </li></ul>Back to Menu
  14. 17. Propeller Indicator (Power) And this… Back to Menu
  15. 18. Briefing ! – Departure Leg <ul><li>When you ready for departure, apply flap 10 degree and add full throttle. </li></ul><ul><li>After IAS reached 55 knots, slightly pull flight control back and begin climbing to altitude 1500 feet with 10 degree pitch. Maintain runway heading (HDG 210) </li></ul><ul><li>Retract flap </li></ul><ul><li>Trim your aircraft. </li></ul>Back to Menu
  16. 19. Check IAS ! 10 degree pitch. Positive VVI Back to Menu
  17. 20. Maintain runway heading Check Altitude Back to Menu
  18. 21. Time for a Trim ? Airplanes are subject to an assortment of aerodynamic forces. Some try to pitch the nose up; others try to pitch it down. Engine power, weight placement, and lift are just a few of these forces. If the airplane wants to pitch forward, you CAN NOT sit there pulling back on joystick for the entire flight. Apply continuous pressure on the control wheel to maintain pitch attitude means your arms would tire quickly, airplane have something know as a &quot; trim tab &quot; to take the pressure off the control wheel.
  19. 22. How trim tab work ? <ul><li>A trim tab is a small, moveable surface attached to main surface you want to control (in this case, it's the elevator). </li></ul><ul><li>In the real airplane, the wheel usually located the two front seats or on the lower position of the instrument panel. </li></ul>
  20. 24. “ Trim” it in Flight Simulator Trim Tab Wheel
  21. 25. Briefing (Cont’d) – Crosswind Leg <ul><li>When passing altitude 1100 feet, turn left (with standard rate turn) heading 120 degree (This is CROSSWIND LEG). While continued climbing to altitude 1500 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>When reaching altitude 1500 feet, maintain altitude on heading 120 degree for 30 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Trim your aircraft. </li></ul>Back to Menu
  22. 26. Check Altitude Rotate HDG bug Check Bank, Standard Rate Turn Back to Menu
  23. 27. Briefing (Cont’d) – Downwind Leg <ul><li>Turn left heading 030 degree. Maintain altitude 1500 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust power 2400 RPM. & maintain IAS 100 knots </li></ul><ul><li>Trim your aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Now look out your left window, you’ll see runway 21L. (This is called “Left DOWNWIND LEG”) </li></ul>Back to Menu
  24. 28. HDG 030, ALT 1500 ft., Speed 100 KIAS Back to Menu
  25. 29. Power 2400 RPM Left Downwind RWY 21L Back to Menu
  26. 30. Briefing (Cont’d) – Base Leg <ul><li>When your aircraft abeam the end of runway 21L. Apply 10 degree of flap and adjust pitch control for holding altitude 1500 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>When the runway's threshold appears to be at a 45-degree angle to the left of the wing. Turn left on heading 300 degree (This is BASE LEG). </li></ul>Back to Menu
  27. 31. Abeam RWY 21L Threshold Back to Menu
  28. 32. Back to Menu
  29. 33. 45-degree from RWY 21L Threshold Back to Menu
  30. 34. HDG 300, Speed 100 KIAS, Descent on glide path Back to Menu
  31. 35. Turn depend on your distance ! Path 1 you'll flying less distance during descent. Path 2 distance will be longer than path 1. And path 3 is square turn onto final. (nice) Back to Menu
  32. 36. Briefing (Cont’d) – Final Leg <ul><li>Adjust power 1600 - 2000 RPM and IAS 70 knots </li></ul><ul><li>Look out your left window, and decide to turn left for establish runway heading (HDG 210) and 3-degree glide slope (see PAPI). </li></ul><ul><li>When established runway’s course, apply full flap and check your glide slope with PAPI. </li></ul>Back to Menu
  33. 37. Established final course, on glide path, adjust power, speed and flap Back to Menu
  34. 38. What’s PAPI ? <ul><li>P recision A pproach P ath I ndicator </li></ul>Back to Menu
  35. 39. Briefing (Cont’d) – Landing <ul><li>After passing altitude 100 feet. Set throttle to idle and adjust pitch for control vertical rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Flare the aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Touch down and rolling out. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to brake your aircraft !! </li></ul>Back to Menu
  36. 40. Make our aircraft stop on the runway ! Back to Menu
  37. 41. And if we come too high ? You can deliberately overshoot the turn onto final approach, you'll have more distance to cover during descent. Back to Menu
  38. 42. And if we come too high ? S-Turn on final is your options too. Back to Menu
  39. 43. VOCAB ! <ul><li>Full Stop Landing : Landing and vacate runway with no continued flying. </li></ul><ul><li>Go Around : While approach phase, pilot decided not to landing and keep aircraft flying in the air without touched-down the runway. </li></ul><ul><li>Touch and Go : Pilot made an aircraft touched down on runway and continue airborne without stop on the runway. </li></ul>Back to Menu
  40. 44. <ul><li>Stop and Go : Pilot made an aircraft touched down on runway stopped aircraft on the runway for a while, before takeoff aircraft again. </li></ul><ul><li>Low Pass : Pilot made aircraft flying low altitude, seems like landing, but landing didn’t touched runway. Then flying away from runway. </li></ul>Back to Menu
  41. 45. AGAIN ! – Departure Leg <ul><li>When you ready for departure, apply flap 10 degree and add full throttle. </li></ul><ul><li>After IAS reached 55 knots, slightly pull flight control back and begin climbing to altitude 1500 feet with 10 degree pitch. Maintain runway heading (HDG 210) </li></ul><ul><li>Retract flap </li></ul><ul><li>Trim your aircraft. </li></ul>
  42. 46. AGAIN ! – Crosswind Leg <ul><li>When passing altitude 1100 feet, turn left (with standard rate turn) heading 120 degree (This is CROSSWIND LEG). While continued climbing to altitude 1500 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>When reaching altitude 1500 feet, maintain altitude on heading 120 degree for 30 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Trim your aircraft. </li></ul>
  43. 47. AGAIN ! – Downwind Leg <ul><li>Turn left heading 030 degree. Maintain altitude 1500 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust power 2400 RPM. & maintain IAS 100 knots </li></ul><ul><li>Trim your aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Now look out your left window, you’ll see runway 21L. (This is called “Left DOWNWIND LEG”) </li></ul>
  44. 48. AGAIN ! – Base Leg <ul><li>When your aircraft abeam the end of runway 21L. Apply 10 degree of flap and adjust pitch control for holding altitude 1500 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>When the runway's threshold appears to be at a 45-degree angle to the left of the wing. Turn left on heading 300 degree (This is BASE LEG). </li></ul>
  45. 49. AGAIN ! – Final Leg <ul><li>Adjust power 1600 - 2000 RPM and IAS 70 knots </li></ul><ul><li>Look out your left window, and decide to turn left for establish runway heading (HDG 210) and 3-degree glide slope (see PAPI). </li></ul><ul><li>When established runway’s course, apply full flap and check your glide slope with PAPI. </li></ul>
  46. 50. AGAIN ! – Landing <ul><li>After passing altitude 100 feet. Set throttle to idle and adjust pitch for control vertical rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Flare the aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Touch down and rolling out. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to brake your aircraft !! </li></ul>
  47. 51. THE CHECKLIST AND LIMITATION. Back to Menu
  48. 52. Back to Menu
  49. 53. Back to Menu
  50. 54. Back to Menu
  51. 55. Back to Menu
  52. 56. Back to Menu
  53. 57. Back to Menu
  54. 58. Back to Menu
  55. 59. Back to Menu Read before die !
  56. 60. Keyboard Summary <ul><li>Pitch Up………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch Down…………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Roll Left………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Roll Right…………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Brake…………………………. “.” </li></ul><ul><li>Flap Extend………………….. “F7” </li></ul><ul><li>Flap Retract………………….. “F6” </li></ul>Back to Menu
  57. 61. Keyboard Summary <ul><li>Increase Throttle……………. “F3” </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease Throttle…………… “F2” </li></ul><ul><li>Full Throttle …………………. “F4” </li></ul><ul><li>Idle Throttle………………….. “F1” </li></ul><ul><li>Change View………………… “s” </li></ul><ul><li>Look out-side………………… “Numpad” </li></ul>Back to Menu
  58. 62. “ Good Approach ” will lead you to “ Good Landing ”
  59. 63. http://www.thaiflight.com
  60. 64. Q & A ? ? ? ? ?

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