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  1. 1. Behaviorism Review of Behaviorism and its applications to student behavior
  2. 2. A. Classical Behaviorism 1. Behaviorists believe that we should examine only what can be directly observed and measured (Santrock, 2004). 2. Traditional behaviorist view: child is passive being whom adults can model by carefully controlling stimulus-response associations: development is continuous process, consisting of gradual increase with age in number and strength of associations
  3. 3. A. Classical Behaviorism 1. Watson: concluded that environment is supreme force in development 2. Skinner (1904-1990): rejected Hull‟s idea; child's desirable behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers; can be decreased through punishment.
  4. 4. A. Classical Behaviorism 3. Two versions of the behavioral approach that are prominent today re the view of B.F. Skinner and social learning theory. 4. Skinner (1904-1990): behaviorism emphasizes the scientific study of observable responses and their environmental determinants (Santrock, 2004).
  5. 5. A. Classical Behaviorism As a result of Skinner‟s work, operant conditioning became a broadly applied learning principle in child psychology. * Brainstorm examples of classical behaviorism in your classroom and school today.
  6. 6. Four Techniques in Behaviorism  Negative reinforcement  Positive reinforcement  Response cost (reinforcement removal)  Punishment
  7. 7. Positive Reinforcement  Positive Reinforcement--the term reinforcement always indicates a process that strengthens a behavior; the word positive has two cues associated with it. First, a positive or pleasant stimulus is used in the process, and second, the reinforcer is added (i.e., "positive" as in + sign for addition).
  8. 8. Positive Reinforcement  R + (+S) + h R  In positive reinforcement, a positive reinforcer is added after a response and increases the frequency of the response.
  9. 9. Negative Reinforcement  Negative Reinforcement-- the term reinforcement always indicates a process that strengthens a behavior; the word negative has two cues associated with it. First, a negative or aversive stimulus is used in the process, and second, the reinforcer is subtracted (i.e., "negative" as in a "-" sign for subtraction).  R – (-S) + h R
  10. 10. Negative Reinforcement  In negative reinforcement, after the response the negative reinforcer is removed which increases the frequency of the response. (Note: There are two types of negative reinforcement: escape and avoidance. In general, the learner must first learn to escape before he or she learns to avoid.)
  11. 11. Response Cost  Response Cost--if positive reinforcement strengthens a response by adding a positive stimulus, then response cost has to weaken a behavior by subtracting a positive stimulus. After the response the positive reinforcer is removed which weakens the frequency of the response.  R – (+S) = i R
  12. 12. Punishment  Punishment--if negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by subtracting a negative stimulus, than punishment has to weaken a behavior by adding a negative stimulus. After a response a negative or aversive stimulus is added which weakens the frequency of the response  R + (- S) = i R
  13. 13. B. Social Learning Theory  Built on the principles of conditioning and reinforcement offering expanded views of how children and adults acquire new responses.  1950‟s: social learning theory became a major force in child development research
  14. 14. B. Social Learning Theory  Bandura demonstrated that modeling, otherwise known as imitation or observational learning is basis for wide variety of children‟s behaviors; children acquire many favorable and unfavorable responses by watching and listening to people around them.
  15. 15. B. Social Learning Theory  Most recent revision of Bandura‟s theory places so much emphasis on how children think about themselves and other people that he calls it social- cognitive theory, rather than social learning theory.
  16. 16. C. Contributions of behaviorism  “applied behavior analysis” refers to procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors that increase socially acceptable responses.  (aggression, language difficulties and extreme fears)
  17. 17. D. Criticisms of behaviorism  Behaviorism and social learning theory have been criticized for underestimating children‟s role in their own development.
  18. 18. E. Applications of behaviorism 1. Language 2. Foundations of morality 3. Aggression 4. Role of punishment 5. Gender development
  19. 19. E. Applications of Behaviorism  1. Language  Acquired through operant conditioning  Imitation explains how children rapidly acquire complex utterances
  20. 20. E. Applications of Behaviorism 2. Foundations of Morality  Operant conditioning is regarded as important way in which children pick up new responses  OC is not enough  Social learning: children largely learn to act morally through modeling  Once moral response is acquired, reinforcement in form of praise increases its frequency
  21. 21. E. Applications of Behaviorism 3. Aggression  Studies of aggression and its relationship to viewing violence
  22. 22. E. Applications of Behaviorism 4. Role of punishment: promotes only momentary compliance, not lasting changed in child‟s behavior If used, can increase effectiveness by: 1. Consistency 2. Warm adult-child relationship 3. explanations
  23. 23. E. Applications of Behaviorism 5. Gender development 1. Both social learning theory (modeling and reinforcement) and cognitive- development theory (children as active thinkers) offer approaches to explaining children‟ gender typing 2. Emergence of gender schema theory
  24. 24. Behaviorism  Grading student work and behavior  What products do you grade?  What work habits do you look for?  What is problem solving behavior?
  25. 25. Social learning theory  In 1997 work, Bandura outlines important aspects of developing self- efficacy in children & adolescents.  Self-efficacy: the expectation that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes
  26. 26. Acquiring Self - Efficacy  Bandura (1982, 1997) suggested four principal sources by which people gain information to influence their self- efficacy beliefs.
  27. 27. Enactive Mastery  “a learner‟s own previous success at a task.”  Driscoll, M. P. (2007) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 318
  28. 28. Vicarious Experiences  “the learner‟s observation of a role model attaining success at a task.”  Driscoll, M. P. (2007) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 318
  29. 29. Verbal persuasion  “others persuading a learner that he or she is capable of succeeding at a particular task.”  Driscoll, M. P. (2007) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 318
  30. 30. Physiological States  “their „gut feeling‟ convinces them of probably success for failure”  Driscoll, M. P. (2007) Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 318
  31. 31. Infants  Infants need a stimulating environment that encourages them to sense that their actions produce outcomes.
  32. 32. Self efficacy in young children  Young children are developing self- efficacy  Young children‟s requirements for extensive monitoring by competent adults
  33. 33. Parental role in self-efficacy  Over-protective parents constrain children‟s master capabilities.  Secure parents are more likely to encourage children‟s exploratory efforts and give them an opportunity to experience a feeling of mastery.
  34. 34. The school‟s role in developing self-efficacy  A basic goal of education is to equip children with the self-control that enables children to educate themselves;  as children master cognitive skills they develop a growing sense of intellectual self-efficacy
  35. 35. Self-efficacy in adolescence  As children move into adolescence, they have to assume increasing responsibility for their behavior.  The way in which adolescents develop and exercise their self-efficacy can be critical in setting the courses that their life paths take.
  36. 36. Self-efficacy, in summary  When children have high self- efficacy, they are more likely to do well in school and be more competent in a number of areas of life than when they have low self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997, 1998)
  37. 37. References  Berk, L. (1999). Infants, and children: Infancy through middle childhood. Boston: Allyn & Bacon  Kail, R. (1998). Children and their development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.  Santrock, J. (2000). Children (6th ed.). McGraw Hill.