Organization Culture[1]

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Organization Culture[1]

  1. 1. Organization Culture – The Clash of the Personal and the Professional Theory and Practice of Supervision University of Cincinnati School of Social Work
  2. 2. Organization Culture <ul><li>“… the set of key values, beliefs, </li></ul><ul><li>understandings and norms that </li></ul><ul><li>members of an organization share…” </li></ul><ul><li>Ashman and Hull 2006 </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Cultural Pyramid Interaction with Community Interaction with Supervisor Views on Autonomy and Independence Language and Diversity Personal Values and Religion Procedures and Policies That Dictate Behavior
  4. 4. Theresa Yost Interaction with Community Interaction with Supervisor Views on Autonomy and Independence Language and Diversity Personal Values and Religion Procedures and Policies That Dictate Behavior
  5. 5. The Organization <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul>What’s the Difference? Dictating Behavior
  6. 6. Intra-Agency Conflict vs. Intra-Agency Cooperation <ul><li>The standardization of language shared by other workers in the agency </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus of values </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformity of perspectives </li></ul>
  7. 7. Jason Noel Interaction with Community Interaction with Supervisor Views on Autonomy and Independence Language and Diversity Personal Values and Religion Procedures and Policies That Dictate Behavior
  8. 8. Employee as Valuable Asset with Unique Needs <ul><li>How to Treat Hardworking People – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each worker is unique and at the top priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively create great work environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer a quality of work life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional personal days to accommodate religion/culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Melymuka 2000] </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Where Companies Place Values <ul><li>Nancy Gray and the HSN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How we treat hard working people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs to value differences brought to the table </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Welcome each new employee </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility can be seen by employees with their managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important aspect of managing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Melymuka 2000] </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. “ Our first task in approaching another people, another culture, another religion, is to take off our shoes and walk gently, for the place we are approaching is holy. Else we may find ourselves treading on another’s dream. More serious still, we may forget... that God was there before our arrival.” Author Unknown
  11. 11. “ Living Together with Differences” <ul><ul><li>Quebec’s New Ethics and Religious Culture Program Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First: Have them look at (a) themselves, (b) actions, (c) opinions and (d) values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second: Personal, cultural and social identity – Autonomy/ self-sufficiency of the individual to the community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging students to take a stand on major social issues and to reflect on moral/spiritual tenets of their community </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. “ Living Together with Differences” <ul><li>Third: Student Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give young people power over their lives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Reaction = the majority believes it is beneficial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps live with differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to distinguish between different moral systems expressed in both religious/secular traditions and goals of ethic education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Bouchard 2009] </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Religion and the Workplace <ul><li>Author Douglas Hicks – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respectful pluralism model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders in corporate America skills to establish a respectful/ diverse working environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embraces diverse religious traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Wiles 2005] </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Essential Components – Religion and the Workplace <ul><ul><li>Tolerance, respect, and acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralistic, non-coercive, non-degrading work environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and spiritual harmony in the workplace take priority over conflict and divisiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Wiles 2005] </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Religion and the Workplace <ul><li>Criteria to help leader develop respectful pluralism in the workplace – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect for diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote values and a common language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respectful/diverse workplace </li></ul></ul>Religion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, and Leadership. By Douglas A. Hicks. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003. $24.99
  16. 16. Religion and the Workplace <ul><ul><li>India and Singapore… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great examples of religious pluralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation of both countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have overcome minor problems and have established effective policies in promoting religious/spiritual diversity in workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Wiles 2005] </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Annie Davis Interaction with Community Interaction with Supervisor Views on Autonomy and Independence Language and Diversity Personal Values and Religion Procedures and Policies That Dictate Behavior
  18. 18. The Stress & The Challenge <ul><li>Supervisors may fear correcting a supervisee from a marginalized ethnicity or gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because they may become labeled a sexist or racist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… therefore they may not evaluate diversity or differing genders the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find a balance between honoring and educating self and team about diverse supervisees without going overboard </li></ul><ul><li>[Kadushin & Harkness 2002] </li></ul><ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>The Solution </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Ultimate Goal <ul><li>According the research, the most </li></ul><ul><li>powerful predictor of satisfaction with supervision received by a supervisee was </li></ul><ul><li>whether their supervisor liked them or not, regardless of race or gender </li></ul><ul><li>Such positive supervisor qualities are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to discuss differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[Kadushin & Harkness 2002] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Definition of Language … within organizational culture, it can be as simple as a gesture, or as complex as incorporating cultural norms into business protocol… “ what you do speaks so loud, others can hardly hear you…” [Thiederman 2003]
  21. 21. Six Steps to Better Communication <ul><li>In order to be heard, lower your voice </li></ul><ul><li>In order to overstate your point underemphasize it </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid dogmatic language </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a high standard </li></ul><ul><li>Strive for creative communication </li></ul><ul><li>Really listen </li></ul><ul><li>[Thiederman 2003] </li></ul>
  22. 22. Use of Cross-Functional Diverse Groups <ul><li>… is a way to develop negotiation skills to improve team dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>… it will incorporate problem solving and use the diversity to capture resources that contribute to the overall success of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>[Northcraft, Polzer, Neale & Kramer 1996] </li></ul>
  23. 23. Elyse Burk Interaction with Community Interaction with Supervisor Views on Autonomy and Independence Language and Diversity Personal Values and Religion Procedures and Policies That Dictate Behavior
  24. 24. Kadushin and Autonomy <ul><li>The culture of human service organizations constrain an individuals options in the workplace because values determine parameters on behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>[Kadushin & Harkness 2002] </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conflict in Organizations <ul><li>Functional Conflict  systems within the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preserving character against the norms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Roles and Functions  job description/rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Allow appropriate discretion in roles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel voice between the streams of regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Even though there is a precise job description, there should be maximum freedom to execute work </li></ul><ul><li>[Pillari and Newsome 1998] </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>The Resolution </li></ul>
  26. 26. NASW Survey <ul><li>68% of social workers indicated they </li></ul><ul><li>had a considerable amount of autonomy in their work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) relatively high degree of discretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) relative autonomy from organizational authority </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. NASW Code of Ethics … asserts that professional employees generally should adhere to commitments made to employees and employing organizations (3.09) <ul><ul><li>Autonomy = an ethical standard found in the NASW Code of Ethics which encourages social workers to promote the right of clients to self-determine (to identify/clarify their own goals) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. “ The critical point is not whether you happen to be struggling with personal questions, but how you are struggling with them. Do you recognize and try to deal with those issues, or do you invest energy in denying their existence? In short, can you do in your life what you might challenge your clients to do? Corey, Corey & Callanan 2007
  29. 29. Korie Frost Interaction with Community Interaction with Supervisor Views on Autonomy and Independence Language and Diversity Personal Values and Religion Procedures and Policies That Dictate Behavior
  30. 30. Interaction with Supervisor <ul><li>The importance of policies in the work place </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding supervisee’s noncompliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What to do when personal values conflict with the agency’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer Group Supervision </li></ul>
  31. 31. Policies and Procedures <ul><li>Rules are necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Can be and should be used as a guide </li></ul><ul><li>General thoughts concerning policies and/or procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Why they are viewed unfavorably </li></ul><ul><li>[Kadushin & Harkness 2002] </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Attitudes </li></ul>
  32. 32. Non-Compliance and Disciplinary Actions <ul><li>Different reasons for non-compliance </li></ul><ul><li>When rules clash with personal beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. receiving gifts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation between worker’s beliefs and agency’s policies </li></ul><ul><li>[Kadushin & Harkness 2002] </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors need to be understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to supervisee’s explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use it as a learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on change for betterment of agency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealing with Non-Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplinary Actions </li></ul>
  33. 33. Peer Group Supervision <ul><li>Benefits of this method for learning – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for personal development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants gain new knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves function within organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Tietze 2008] </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Jawanza Salih Interaction with Community Interaction with Supervisor Views on Autonomy and Independence Language and Diversity Personal Values and Religion Procedures and Policies That Dictate Behavior
  35. 35. Overall Social Work Mission <ul><li>To improve the lives of people, groups, and society by – </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance human wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>Help meet the basic human needs of all people </li></ul><ul><li>Promote social justice and social change </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing Oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>End Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.naswdc.org/pubs/code/code.asp </li></ul>
  36. 36. Broader Responsibility to Community <ul><li>Social Welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Public Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Public Emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Political Action </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.naswdc.org/pubs/code/code.asp </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Cultural Pyramid Interaction with Community Interaction with Supervisor Views on Autonomy and Independence Language and Diversity Personal Values and Religion Procedures and Policies That Dictate Behavior
  38. 38. “ The centrality of themes in social work such as self-determination and empowerment, respect for the needs and interest of others, openness and mutuality… It prescribes how human beings should interact with one another…” Holloway and Brager 1989
  39. 39. References Bouchard, N. (2009). Living Together with Differences: Quebec’s New Ethics and Religious Culture Program. Education Canada, 49(1), 60-62. Retrieved February 18, 2009 From Research Library Database. Corey, G., Corey, M. & Callanan, P. (2007). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Gotsis, G &  Kortezi, Z. (2008). Philosophical Foundations of Workplace Spirituality: A Critical Approach.  Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 575-600.  Retrieved February 18, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. Holloway, S. & Brager, G. (1989). Supervising in the Human Services: The Politics of Practice. New York: Free Press. Kadushin, A. & Harkness, D. (2002). Supervision in Social Work (4 th Ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Kirst-Ashman, K. & Hull Jr., G. (2006). Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities (3 rd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
  40. 40. References (cont) Melymuka, K. (June 19, 2000).  Indulging our Differences; Whether Successful Diversity is the Goal of a Great Work Environment or Merely a By-product, the Action Plan is the Same -- recognize each employee as a valuable asset with unique needs. Computerworld, pg. 56(1). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from Expanded Academic ASAP. National Association of Social Workers (2009). Code of Ethics. Retrieved on March 1, 2009 from http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp Northcraft, Gregory B., Polzer, Jeffrey T., Neale, Margaret A., and Kramer, Roderick M. (1996). Diversity, Social identity, and Performance: Emergent Social Dynamics in Cross functional teams. Pillari, V. & Newsome Jr., M. (1998). Human Behavior in the Social Environment – Families, Groups, Organizations and Communities. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Spilerman, S. (2009). How Globalization Has Impacted Labour: A Review Essay. European Sociological Review , 25 (1), 73. Retrieved February 20 2009, from Ohio LINK Electronic Journal Center.
  41. 41. References (cont) Thiederman, Sondra B. (2003). Making Diversity Work – Chapter 13: Verbal Skills for Diversity Dialog. Chicago IL: Dearborn Trade. Wiles, B.  (2005). Religion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality and Leadership. Review of medium_being_reviewed title_of_work_reviewed_in_italics. J ournal of Interdisciplinary Studies , 17(1/2), 195-196.  Retrieved February 27, 2009, from Research Library Database.

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