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Born-Digital        An Archival Approach Jackie Dooley  Program Officer  OCLC Research             Digital Libraries Feder...
Heads up!!                       This project is a work in                               progress.                We’re ea...
Assumptions 1. The average research library has    made limited progress with born    digital materials beyond IRs. 2. Arc...
Project objectives          • Explore where “special collections and            archives” intersect with “born digital” an...
Taking Our Pulse: The OCLC Research   Survey of Special Collections and Archives         <http://www.oclc.org/research/pub...
Among our key findings …            “Your three most challenging issues”                  1. Space                  2. Bor...
Top education and training needs             1. Born-digital materials: 83%             1. Information technology: 65%    ...
Born-digital archival materials are …       Undercollected       Undercounted       Undermanaged       Unpreserved       I...
Key to percentages:                                Red = % of respondents                                Black = numerical...
Born-digital archival materials       • Digital materials currently held by: 79%       • Holdings reported by: 35%        ...
Born-digital archival materials         • Assignment of responsibility for born-digital           management made by: 55% ...
Born-digital: Assignment of responsibilityBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011   12
Born-digital: Materials already heldBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011   13
Born-digital: ImpedimentsBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011   14
Born-digital: Recommended actions         1. Define the characteristics of born-digital            materials that warrant ...
Our born-digital special collections projectBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011   16
Why this project?         1. Majority of research libraries have yet to take            even baby steps in born-digital ma...
Our target audiences             • Research library directors and higher               administration             • Archiv...
Born-digital archival materials are …       •   Audio       •   Databases       •   Email       •   Institutional records ...
There is no                 one-size-fits-allsolution             for all types of digital content.Born-Digital “Baby Step...
Archival skills and expertise                                                          • Intellectual property        • Ap...
Know your digital donors         •Primary/core                                      •Naming          identities?          ...
Know your digital donors                •Digital will                     • Which content?                     • Who shoul...
Advise your digital donors         The management of your digital materials can          be enhanced if you handle them in...
Identify digital personasBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011   25
Address fears                                                                Kirschenbaum& Nelson, RBS L-95Born-Digital “B...
Manage sensitive personal information                                                                Kirschenbaum& Nelson,...
Collections management baby steps             •Inventory what you have                   • Types of physical media?       ...
Technical baby steps   • LearnBASIC “do no     harm” file management         • Capture metadata         • Identify file fo...
Technical baby steps         • Photograph physical           media         • Transfer from physical           media to sec...
Ignore this (for now)!Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011   31
Ignore this (for now)!                                                                Kirschenbaum& Nelson, RBS L-95Born-D...
Organizational baby steps              •Make friends with IT              •Promote your skills              •Keep pursuing...
Identify your low-hanging fruit              •Contemporary physical media & file               formats              •Creat...
PDF those manuscripts                                                        Rorty Papers, Univ. of California, IrvineBorn...
Don’t go near these … yet               • Data curation               • Databases               • Email systems           ...
Reactions?                                    Questions?                                       Advice?                    ...
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Jd born digital to dlf 20111031

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OCLC Research project on archival approach to managing born-digital materials in research libraries, including how archivists' skills and knowledge can benefit broader digital library development.

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Jd born digital to dlf 20111031

  1. 1. Born-Digital An Archival Approach Jackie Dooley Program Officer OCLC Research Digital Libraries FederationBaltimore, 31 Oct 2011
  2. 2. Heads up!! This project is a work in progress. We’re eager for your feedback.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 2
  3. 3. Assumptions 1. The average research library has made limited progress with born digital materials beyond IRs. 2. Archivists can and should be major players in digital library development. 3. Archival approaches to date have focused on complex solutions. 4. Resources are very limited. 5. Most institutions need a “baby steps” approach to get started.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 3
  4. 4. Project objectives • Explore where “special collections and archives” intersect with “born digital” and “digital library” • Articulate the relevant skills and expertise held by archivists • Describe how these pertain to various types of born-digital materials • Outline “baby steps” to begin preserving physical mediaBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 4
  5. 5. Taking Our Pulse: The OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives <http://www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2010/2010-11.pdf>Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 5
  6. 6. Among our key findings … “Your three most challenging issues” 1. Space 2. Born-digital materials 3. Digitization Tough economy renders “business as usual” impossible; 75% of library budgets diminished Survey population: 275 research libraries in U.S. and CanadaBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 6
  7. 7. Top education and training needs 1. Born-digital materials: 83% 1. Information technology: 65% 2. Intellectual property: 56% 3. Cataloging and metadata: 51%Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 7
  8. 8. Born-digital archival materials are … Undercollected Undercounted Undermanaged Unpreserved Inaccessible American Heritage CenterBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 8
  9. 9. Key to percentages: Red = % of respondents Black = numerical dataBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 9
  10. 10. Born-digital archival materials • Digital materials currently held by: 79% • Holdings reported by: 35% • Percent held by top two libraries: 51% • Percent held by top 13 libraries: 93% • Gigabytes reported • Entire population: 85,000 GB • Mean: 1,465 GB • Median: 90 GBBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 10
  11. 11. Born-digital archival materials • Assignment of responsibility for born-digital management made by: 55% • Most see multiple fundamental impediments: 89% We conclude that … Management of born-digital materials in research libraries remains in its infancy. Collecting is generally reactive, sporadic, limited.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 11
  12. 12. Born-digital: Assignment of responsibilityBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 12
  13. 13. Born-digital: Materials already heldBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 13
  14. 14. Born-digital: ImpedimentsBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 14
  15. 15. Born-digital: Recommended actions 1. Define the characteristics of born-digital materials that warrant their management as “special collections.” 2. Define a reasonable set of basic steps for initiating a program for responsibly managing born-digital archival materials. 3. Develop use cases and cost models for selection, management, and preservation of born-digital archival materials.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 15
  16. 16. Our born-digital special collections projectBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 16
  17. 17. Why this project? 1. Majority of research libraries have yet to take even baby steps in born-digital management. 1. Majority of archivists have yet to take action because they think they don’t know enough, don’t have specialized resources, are generally intimidated, need guidance on how to conquer fear and take initial steps. 1. Research library directors often don’t know how/why archivists’ skills and expertise are broadly relevant tolibrarywide management of digital library content.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 17
  18. 18. Our target audiences • Research library directors and higher administration • Archivists and special collections librarians • Other research library specialists • Collection development • Digital library • Information technology • Institutional repository • Metadata • Scholarly communications • Web developmentBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 18
  19. 19. Born-digital archival materials are … • Audio • Databases • Email • Institutional records • Manuscripts • Moving images • Photographs • Publications • Social media • Static data sets • Textual documents • Video games • Websites • Works of art American Heritage Center … and moreBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 19
  20. 20. There is no one-size-fits-allsolution for all types of digital content.Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 20
  21. 21. Archival skills and expertise • Intellectual property • Appraisal • Legal issues • Authenticity • Preservation as • Collective metadata permanence • Collection development • Privacy and • Context confidentiality • Deeds of gift • Provenance • Donor relations … but we need new • Hierarchical skills too relationshipsBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 21
  22. 22. Know your digital donors •Primary/core •Naming identities? conventions? •Work products? •“Deleted” files? •Habits? •Cloud content? •Relationship between physical and digital content? •Equipment? •Storage locations? •Restricted information?Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 22
  23. 23. Know your digital donors •Digital will • Which content? • Who should have access? • Restrictions? •New deed of gift provisions • Copyright still applies • Sustained donor access • Right to duplicate files • Right to make web-accessibleBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 23
  24. 24. Advise your digital donors The management of your digital materials can be enhanced if you handle them in groups and organize them in a logical manner. This structure should be consistent with the organization of any paper records you have, or records in other media, so that all records related to the same activity or subject, or of the same type, can be identified as part of one conceptual grouping. --Author’s guidelines for digitalpreservation Yale UniversityBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 24
  25. 25. Identify digital personasBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 25
  26. 26. Address fears Kirschenbaum& Nelson, RBS L-95Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 26
  27. 27. Manage sensitive personal information Kirschenbaum& Nelson, RBS L-95Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 27
  28. 28. Collections management baby steps •Inventory what you have • Types of physical media? • Estimated number of gigabytes? • Maximum per physical object •Initial appraisal • What types of content? • Level of significance/uniqueness?Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 28
  29. 29. Technical baby steps • LearnBASIC “do no harm” file management • Capture metadata • Identify file formats • Virus scans • Bit imaging • Checksums • Document all actions • Who did what? • Source of metadata Stanley Fish Papers, Univ. of California, IrvineBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 29
  30. 30. Technical baby steps • Photograph physical media • Transfer from physical media to secure storage • Make copies; keep archival copy Smithsonian ArchivesBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 30
  31. 31. Ignore this (for now)!Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 31
  32. 32. Ignore this (for now)! Kirschenbaum& Nelson, RBS L-95Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 32
  33. 33. Organizational baby steps •Make friends with IT •Promote your skills •Keep pursuing educational opportunities … and learn by baby stepsBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 33
  34. 34. Identify your low-hanging fruit •Contemporary physical media & file formats •Creator-curated email: convert to PDF •Photographs: expose on Flickr •Text documents: convert to PDF •Web pages: select a harvester and go for it … what else?Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 34
  35. 35. PDF those manuscripts Rorty Papers, Univ. of California, IrvineBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 35
  36. 36. Don’t go near these … yet • Data curation • Databases • Email systems • Dynamic data • Information management systems • Obsolete physical media & file formats • Social media … what else??Born-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 36
  37. 37. Reactions? Questions? Advice? Jackie Dooley dooleyj@oclc.orgBorn-Digital “Baby Steps,” Digital Library Federation, 31 October 2011 37

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