Hate, a complex subject, divides into two general categories: rational and irrational. Unjust acts inspire rational hate. Hatred of a person based on race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, or national origin constitutes irrational hate. Both rational and irrational hate mask personal insecurities. Everyone experiences personal insecurities in varying degrees throughout their lives. The more insecure a person feels, the larger the hate mask. Most people concentrate on the important issues in life, such as earning a living, rearing a family, and achieving personal goals. These pursuits give meaning and value to life. Nonetheless, irrational hate bleeds through day-to-day activities in the form of racial barbs and ethnic humor. Not all insecure people are haters, but all haters are insecure people.In the same way, irrational hate elevates the hater above the hated. Many insecure people feel a sense of self-worth by relegating a person or group ofpeople to a lower status.
Any written, verbal or electronic material that advocates or promotes genocideSymbolism against any identifiable group or makes statements that are likely to promote hate against any identifiable group because of colour, race, religion, ethnic origin, and sexual orientation.Determining if a hate crime has occurred:Comments, gestures expressed during and afterSymbols of hate on body or clothingOffensive symbols or graffiti at sceneBe aware of calendars (religions, anniversaries)A combination of cumulative information is required to determine if a hate crime has occurred. It is not enough to determine that the suspect was bias against the victim, but rather the motivation for the commission of the criminal act was hate or bias
Victims of hate crime:Primary victim impactStronger emotional trauma because the victim was selected due to an unchangable core characteristicExtra dimension of fearVulnerable to repeat attacks Loses trust for any member of suspect groupAssumptions about life may be shatteredLikelihood of serious or lethal injuries Secondary victim impactRefers to the victim's perception of a lack of expected support from the community/justice systemVictim trauma maybe increased by the insensitivity of othersVictim may feel betrayed/hopeless when the y confront what they believe to be discriminationCommunity impactVictimization projected outward to members of the victim's wider communityMembers of other commonly targeted groups are reminded of their vulnerabilityThe community is polarized into an usvs them mentality; impedes community spiritIncreases security concerns at schools, churches, business and private homes
1) Peer evaluation bolsters a sense of self-worth and, at the same time, prevents introspection, which reveals personal insecurities. Further, individuals otherwise ineffective become empowered when they join groups, which also provide anonymity and diminished accountability.2) Group-specificsymbols or clothing often differentiatehate groups. Group rituals,such as hand signals and secretgreetings, further fortify members.Hate groups, especially skinheadgroups, usually incorporate someform of self-sacrifice, which allowshaters to willingly jeopardize theirwell-being for the greater good ofthe cause.3) By verbally debasing theobject of their hate, haters enhancetheir self-image, as well as theirgroup status. In skinhead groups,racist song lyrics and hate literatureprovide an environment whereinhate flourishes. Researchers have found that the moreoften a person thinks about aggression,the greater the chance for aggressivebehavior to occur.4) To avoid introspection, hatersuse ever-increasing degrees ofrhetoric and violence to maintainhigh levels of agitation. In this stage, skinheads typicallyshout racial slurs from movingcars or from afar. Nazi salutes andother hand signals often accompanyracial epithets. Racist graffiti alsobegins to appear in areas whereskinheads loiter.5) This stage is critical because itdifferentiates vocally abusive hatersfrom physically abusive ones. Inthis stage, hate groups become moreaggressive, prowling their turf seekingvulnerable targets. Violencecoalesces hate groups and furtherisolates them from mainstream society.the element of thrill seekingis introduced in Stage 5. Two expertsfound that 60 percent of hateoffenders were “thrill seekers.”17The adrenaline “high” intoxicatesthe attackers. The initial adrenalinesurge lasts for several minutes;however, the effects of adrenalinekeep the body in a state of heightenedalert for up to several days.18Each successive anger-provokingthought or action builds on residualadrenaline and triggers a more violentresponse than the one that originallyinitiated the sequence. Anger builds on Anger.6) These types of weaponsrequire the attacker to be closeto the victim, which further demonstratesthe depth of personal anger7) Mastery over life and death imbuesthe hater with godlike power andomnipotence, which, in turn, facilitatefurther acts of violence. Withthis power comes a great sense ofself-worth and value, the very qualitieshaters lack. However, in reality,hate physically and psychologicallydestroys both the hater and thehated.
LeftRadicalsAnti DemocracyPro-revolutionSocialistsOverthrow existing governmentOppose government andlaw enforcement They claim to respect law enforcement and the courts system, however as stated on the Anti-Racism Action website:Our goals remain direct but far from simple. We want an end to racism, sexism, homophobia, fascism, and the status quo. The state, the police, the church, and the bosses won't do it for us. We have to take the fight to those that would push the boot of oppression upon our friends, our family, our communities, and us.Marxist/Leninist orientation Social Marxism is the main focus behind communism. Karl Marx looked at society as a separation of the classes, where those in power wished to stay in power by oppressing individuals in the lower classes. Obviously, those in power made the laws, controlled the businesses and ran the government, thus the laws were also seen as a means to oppress the poor and further the interests of the upper class.Right Groups such as the Klu Klux Klan, Aryan Nation, etc.Status Quo or Days of oldAnti-communistRestore old ways/institutions/organizationsMay align with some law enforcement as "good ol' boys“ The ideologies associated with the far right are fascism, Nazism, racial supremacists (especially neo-fascists and neo-Nazis group), religious extremists, and other ultra-nationalist or reactionary ideologies and movements. The terms are often used to imply that someone is an extremist.
Anti-Racism Action: The Anti-Racist Action Network (ARA) is a decentralized network of anti-fascist and anti-racists in North America. ARA activists organize actions to disrupt neo-Nazi and white supremacist groups, and help organize activities against fascist and racist ideologies. ARA groups also oppose sexism, homophobia, heterosexism, anti-Semitism, and the pro-life movement. ARA originated from the skinhead and punksubcultures.We don't rely on the cops or courts to do our work for us: This doesn't mean we never go to court. But we must rely on ourselves to protect ourselves and stop the fascists.
While Malcolm X was a member of the Nation of Islam, he preached that black people were genetically superior to white people but were dominated by a system of white supremacy.
Malcolm X stated this…
KKK Relies upon its own interpretation of biblical texts to justify its white nativist political philosophy There was a shift in Klan discourse to emphasize Christian Identity anti-Semitism is likely a result of greater cooperation among other hate groups, a cooperation that has been fostered by individuals as well as the accessibility of the internet. Links from the homepages allow you to access pages of other groups i.e. Links from the KKK may grant you access to Neo-Nazi group pagesSegregation into a “New White City” where whites could live “without the influences, disturbances and Lunacy of the Depraved World of the Mongoloid, Negroid and ZOG (Zionist Occupational Government) controls imposed by their imcompetent rule.Northwest Territorial Imperitiveencouragees the migration of white christian patriots to the northwest five states (Idaho, Oregon, Washington State, Montana, Wyoming) in order to establish a regional power base. NOIThe time is at hand for the separation of the races by dividing America and by “black people” taking their own names, thereby fully severying any ties between the “Former slave masters” and the “freed slaves”Only when the “so called Negroes” are separate from the “so-called White Americans” to form their own nation will they obtain true freedom, justice and equality.Symbolic cues include “God’s chosen people”, the righteous, freedom, equality and justice._____________________________National Alliance:Blackpride is said to be a wonderful and worthy thing , but anything that could be construed as an expression of white pride is a form of hatred.
The US military's 'don't ask, don't tell' policy, signed by former president Bill Clinton in 1993, policy prohibits anyone who "demonstrate(s) a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts" from serving in the armed forces because "it would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion that are the essence of military capability." According to Servicemember's Legal Defense Network, an advocacy organization for LGBT military personnel, over 12,500 service members have been discharged from the U.S. military since the "don't ask, don't tell" policy was signed into law (1993) and enacted in 1994. The Washington Post reports Pentagon data stating that on average, more than 1,000 service members were discharged each year from 1997 to 2001, but numbers have slowed in the past five years to an average below 730. ________________________________________________________The dehumanization process begins when the recruit joins the armed forces and reports to boot camp. The Military begins to break the individual down to their roots as a human being, and build them up as a war machine. The military does so because they need individuals who can kill the enemy as needed in the daily operations of their mission. The dehumanization effect also is because they need the regiment to fight as a whole, instead of having the soldiers fighting as individuals. The dehumanization process is not only a verbal/psychological process – uniforms. Used for dehumanization and deindividualization of soldiers for both sides – enemy and fellow soldiers.
The “other” and the concomitant institutionalization of bias against the targeted group or groups. Groups which have a history of marginalization but who now have attained a certain measure of success and assimilation within the broader culture are more likely at risk during times of crisis. - Looking at genocides in the past 50 years, Jewish, Tutsis and Armenians have all been targets of genocide in their respective cultures.According to the Southern Poverty Law Centre:Since 2000, the number of hate groups has increased by 54 percent. This surge has been fueled by fears of Latino immigration and, more recently, by the election of the country’s first African-American president and the economic crisis. In times of crises, many individuals are drawn to religious groups, political groups, cults, hate groups and so on. These organizations can give framework for security, provide a sense of belonging and identity andrestore a sense of balance to someone in a time of need.Unfortunately, many of these groups may have at their base a fundamentally destructive ideology, which gives little incentive for providing members with non-violent problem solving strategies and may instead provide justification for violent behaviour. ___________________________________________The influence of leaders can be used to transform or magnify existing components within a society into what has been described as a monolithic culture. Such cultures often have a strong history of obedience to the state and authoritarian rulers as well as a lack of tolerance for diversity.Early on, leaders may work to develop a military or quasi-military structure. Uniforms and clearly identifiable proscribed rules for behaviour can facilitate the willingness of individuals to commit acts of state ordered violence by enhancing individualization, conformity and diffusion of responsibility. According toLifton (1989), the development of jargon associated solely with the group facilities, group membership and identification, conformity and isoloationism. The use of euphemistic language can aide the escalation of violence and moral seclusion. (i.e. Jewish ‘prisoners’ in WWII were being transported by train to the east, rather than saying that they were being transported to death camps)
The manner by which individuals think about themselves and those around themCan influence the likelihood of mass violence and genocide. There tends to be a set up of “us” vs “them” or in-groups and out-groups.The in-group we identify with is an important component in our social identity. It is important to us to belong to groups that are held in high esteem so that our social identity can be seen in a positive light.___________________________________________People go to great lengths to ensure that their in-group is highly valued and distinct from other groups – known as the in-group bias. One potential consequence of in-group bias is prejudice, discrimination and in some cases, violence. Negative consequences only occur when people are in an extremely positive view of themselves, and by extension, their in group, with a very negative view of the out-group. ___________________________________________________Humans tend to use shortcuts or heuristics when processing information about the world around them. People tend to avoid thinking deeply about issues unless it directly impacts their lives. People tend to seek information that confirms their beliefs rather than material that disconfirms their views of reality – commonly referred to as confirmation bias. Unfortunately, since our beliefs are formed, we are extremely reluctant to modify them. This phenomenon is referred to as belief perseverance, and can account for the tenacity with which cultural groups hold onto their beliefs, however illogical they may seem to the outside observer._______________________________________________Fundamental attribution error focuses on the tendency for individuals to attribute behaviour to internal or dispositional causes, thus ignoring situational explanations. When trying to explain genocide, focus goes solely to the genocidal leaders or to the notion that it is an age-old conflict, rather than the factors leading up to the genocide i.e. Rwanada
Secondary justification placesthe skinheads in a victim status andrationalizes continued violence. Tofurther illustrate this principle, askinhead, with a swastika tattooedon his cheek, walked into a jewelrystore to buy a ring for his girlfriend.The skinhead became incensedwhen the Jewish clerk treated himpoorly. The skinhead later commentedthat if Jews treated him withmore respect he would not hatethem so much. The skinhead clearlysaw himself as a victim, although heopenly displayed a provocativesymbol of hate on his face.
Streaming images of flaming skulls at hate rock sites, for example associate the sites with the illicit which can be persuasive for rebellious teens. _________________________Research suggests that story evidence is more persuasive than statistical evidence, however other studies have suggested just the opposite. persuasive effects of the narrative appear to be dependant on the context: a) vividness of story telling evidence makes the persuasive messages more memorable and compelling (sleeper effect) b) narratives are superiour at helping message recipients judge casual relevance c) individuals are insnsitive to the small sample of stories, believing in the law of “small numbers” d) story structure facilitates memory e) story compents serve as simple cues, where stats are often more difficult to understand, necessitating the comprehension of complex issues such as sampling and representativenessConversely, stats are more persuasive among individuals who are personally involved or who’s values are consistent with the message.
Soviet propaganda poster "Freedom, American style", 1950, by NikolayDolgorukov and Boris Efimov. Freedom of the press is depicted as William Randolph Hearst spreading lies; Freedom of thought is depicted as judge giving a verdict for communist beliefs; Personal freedom is depicted as the lynching of an African American by members of the Ku Klux Klan; Freedom of assembly is depicted as Riot control. A policeman (looking like a caricature of J. Edgar Hoover) stands on the shoulders of the Statue of Liberty wielding a billy-club and holding handcuffs. Liberty's lips are sealed with a padlock labeled "$".
The label was founded in Windsor, Ontario in December 1993 by then-white supremacist George Burdi. George Burdi went by the name "George Eric Hawthorne" at that time. In January 1994 this music label was also incorporated in Detroit, Michigan. With the launch of a new music label came the new magazine Resistance. The magazine boasted a circulation of over 13,000 in 1995. This magazine is still published and distributed by the National Alliance. Among the acts signed to Resistance was Burdi's own RAHOWA (short for "Racial Holy War"), which disbanded after Burdi renounced neo-Nazism. The label's best-selling CDs have been by Bound for Glory and Angry Aryans.Pierce believes hate music – with its racist, anti-Semitic and anti-government messages – can be used simply and effectively to attract troubled youths. His stated goal is to fill the ranks of the National Alliance with a new generation of haters. Resistance Records may serve as the linchpin of that plan.
The Turner Diaries depicts a violent revolution in the United States which leads to the overthrow of the United States federal government, nuclear war, and, ultimately, to a race war leading to the extermination of all Jews and non-whites.The novel has been associated with a number of real-life violent crimes. Most notably, some have suggested that a scene depicting preparation for the bombing of the J. Edgar Hoover Building, the FBI national headquarters, served as the inspiration for the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 by Timothy McVeigh, who had promoted the book.The book was called "explicitly racist and anti-Semitic" by the New York Times and has been labeled the "bible of the racist right" by the FBI. According to the Anti Defamation League, it is "probably the most widely read book among far-right extremists; many have cited it as the inspiration behind their terrorist organizing and activity.“Hunter portrays the actions of Oscar Yeager (anglicization of JÃ¤ger, German for hunter), a Vietnam veteran F-4 Phantom pilot and Washington, D.C.-area Defense Department consultant who embarks on a plan of targeted assassinations of interracial couples and public figures advocating racial civil rights in the D.C. area. Yeager's activities quickly lead to broad national repercussions and draw him into the plans of both a "white nationalist" group and an ambitious FBI official to take advantage of the turmoil he has helped to start.Hunter shares with The Turner Diaries Pierce's depiction of the United States as overrun by liberalism and covertly dominated by Jews. His depictions of, and the attitudes of the protagonists towards Jews, African-Americans, Latinos, and Asians mirror Pierce's and the National Alliance's ideology. Hunter reveals more didactically and directly this ideology than did The Turner Diaries. At the novel's beginning, the protagonist is a nonideological racist unattached to antisemitism. He gradually develops his ideology and perspectives during his campaign and through contact with the allies that he meets. Much of the story's dialogue consists of discussion and debate on the "Jewish question."How does Pierce try to recruit or attract new supporters?New World Order Comix is a comic book published by National Vanguard Books. Aimed at whiteteenagers, the goal of the comic is to recruit young people to the National Alliance neo-Nazi cause. Thebook is replete with racist and anti-Semitic sentiments. For example, "New World Order Comix #1" issubtitled "The Saga of... White Will," the name of the young "hero" of the story, who has conflicts with theblacks and Jews in his class and is eventually turned on to the National Alliance by the father of a friend.The National Alliance also maintains a site on the World Wide Web of the Internet, where computer userscan download written materials, and request information about the organization.
The Waco Siege began on February 28, 1993 when the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) attempted to execute a search warrant at the Branch Davidian ranch at Mount Carmel, a property located nine miles (14 km) east-northeast of Waco, Texas. An exchange of gunfire resulted in the deaths of four agents and six followers of David Koresh. A subsequent 51-day siege by the Federal Bureau of Investigation ended on April 19 when fire destroyed the compound. Seventy-six people (24 of them British nationals) died in the fire, including more than 20 children, two pregnant women, and Koresh himself.Ruby Ridge – Aryan Nations member, Randy Weaver is taken down by FBI swat teams, in a cabin in the woods, where him and his family had been hiding from civilization. There had been several instances where Weaver had been charged on a Failure to Appear in court, thus a US Marshall warrant was issued to arrest the fugitive. The FBI’s fatal use of force in this incident was questioned, where they had issued the “shoot on sight” orders to sniper members, ultimately leading to the death of his wife and son.McVeigh focused on the federal building because it housed at least 2 of 3 of the main organizations (ATF, FBI, DEA) as well as US Marshalls and secret service were a bonus.
In McVeigh’s car was a copy of the Turner Diaries, which it is also noted that he had promoted the book for a few years before the bombing.McVeigh was wearing a T-shirt at that time with a picture of Abraham Lincoln and the motto: sic semper tyrannis ('Thus, always, to tyrants'), the state motto of Virginia and also the words shouted by John Wilkes Booth after he shot Lincoln. On the back, it had a tree with a picture of three blood droplets and the Thomas Jefferson quote, "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants."
The internet’s interactivity, anonymity and perceived credibility combine to create a powerful tool for persuasion. Groups are able to package their message into a visually persuasive manner and in the interactive environment of the medium, the reciepient of the persuasive message may become desensitized and more accepting of the message. These methods of communication demanded a great deal of time and expense, and were highly inefficient: Face to face communication and brochures reached only a limited audience rallies drew opponents, as well as potential supportersBy contrast the internet is able to facilitate the learning of racist messages and attract individuals who desire a sense of community and idenity but also on a more basic level, the internet allows groups to reach a wide audience and mobilize supporters with realitve ease.In 1985, one group set up a Commodore 64 with a single telephone modem so that callers could download messages from an electronic bulletin board, allowing various groups to communicate with members and potential members across the country.In 1995, Klansman Don Black put up the first Neo-Nazi webpage. By November 1998, the number of hate websites was more than 200. The internet, generally is available to the middle and upper-middle classes, especially teenagers who have computers in their bedroom, away from supervising eyes who may otherwise object to their offspring reading into their ideologies. Internet viewers are freed from the moral dictates of the physical community that might otherwise constrain their actions.These sites do expose individuals to messages that they might otherwise not see and hence make them more sympathetic to such arguments and perhaps more likely to act on such messages on their own.
Symbolic interaction within groups (stories termed fantasy themes) are developed by careful and rigerous methods. Restatements, metaphors, inside/symbolic cues and jokes flowing from different communicators may be taken as evidence that a fantasy has chained and people have converged symbolically to a shared realityFantasy themes provide a important ingrediant in persuasion where fantasy themes are not entirely different from reasoned discourse,“the force of fantasy not only accounts for the irrational and non-rational aspects of persuasion, but that it provides the ground for the rational elements as well”Symbolic reality can organize meaning, stir emotions and motivate people to act.___________________________________________________Through the central route, individuals are motivated and typically have the ability to process substantive information cognitively. Individuals scrutinize messages to assess the merits of the avoated positions and integrate the information with other cognitionsThrough the peripheral route, individuals do not scrutinize them, and are not motivated to attend to the issues or contents of the messages. involves more superficial, less cognizant and more impressionistic processing of messages, with more attention paid to the incidential features of the message than the quality of the arguments presented. One of the most important factors is the personal involvement or relevance of the topic to the reciever. The greater the importance, the greater the motivation to examine the messageThe least effort principle assumes that people process information superficially and minimially unless they are motivated to do otherwiseWhen elaboration likelihood is high, it is more likely to be processed via the central routeWhen elaboration likelihood is low, it is more likely to be processed via the perhiperhal route and credibility, attractiveness and the recipient’s mood affects the persuasion.
In 2006, Canadian police services, covering 87% of the population, reported 892 hate-motivatedcrimes. These accounted for less than 1% of all incidents reported to police and represented a rateof 3.1 incidents per 100,000 population. According to the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS), which collects self-reported data onindividuals’ perceptions of crime, 3% of all incidents were believed by victims to have beenmotivated by hate
This table represents the Police reported hate crime by type of motivation and crime category for Canada in the year 2006.IF you look closely at the main figures which stand out: Under the race category, the Black individuals suffered 90 occurances out of a total of 193. In the religion category, the Jewish community was targeted 32 times out of a total of 58.
When focused on police-reported hate crime by most serious violation, Assaults made up 208 of 327 of all hate motivated crimes. Uttering threats to a person occurred in 75 occurances. Mischief made up 421 of a total of 460 property crimes.
Now, those who have brown hair, how do you guys feel? Angry? Discriminated against? Like your 'lower' than those with blonde hair?Now I know that some of you may be angry, frustrated right now. And for that I personally apologize. However, if you do feel this way, then the experiment has done its job. I segregated you folks based on hair colour. Which when you stand back and look at it, it seems ridiculous. But as many of you can appreciate, discrimination based on something so arbitrary, something so involuntary is ridiculous. Skin colour is no different. These personal biases destroy individuals, families, and communities on a daily basis. Throughout the world, there is an "Us versus Them" mentality. The thing is that those who preach the hate, their rhetoric is all the same. It is not a black, white, brown, etc issue. These issues and this mentality are global. Anyone is capable of hate. Everyone has their biases. When beliefs are put into action is when the issues begin. Everyone is entitled to their own free speech and their freedom to do what they wish unless it discriminates or goes against other people based on factors that are apart of who they are. Sexual Orientation, Gender, Race, Religion, Nationality are all things that are apart of who the individual is. These five categories are identified by the Canadian Criminal Code as being covered under the Hate Crime Legislation for Canada. Section 318, 319 and 718.2 all focus on these 5 categories, and make acts against an individual that are motivated by these factors a criminal offence. One major complication and issue surrounding hate crimes on a international scale is that there is no international mandate that focuses on this issue. The United Nations has looked at Racism and hate crimes, however it can only do so much, as it needs the support of the nations involved in order to operate. Another factor is that those who are enforcing the laws need to enforce them on a consistant basis. They cannot be selective of which laws to enforce and which ones not to (can be based on personal bias).
the exercise Elliott developed for her third grade class in Riceville, Iowa was a result of Martin Luther King’s assassination. According to one biographer, on the evening of April 4, 1968, Jane Elliott turned on her television to find out about the assassination.Whether she planned the exercise previous to April 5, 1968 or not, on that day she implemented the exercise (also called an “experiment”) for the first time. Steven Armstrong was the first child to arrive to Elliott’s classroom on that day, asking why "a King" (referring to Martin Luther King Jr.) was murdered the day before. After the rest of the class arrived, Elliott asked them what others said about Negros. The children responded with various racial stereotypes such as Negros were dumb or could not hold jobs. She then asked these children if they would like to find out what it was like to be a Negro child and they agreed.
Persuasion of Hate
Brown Hair/Blonde Hair…<br />Objectives:<br /><ul><li>Show how easily dehumanization can take effect
Show what happens when individuals are set up to fail.</li></li></ul><li>In Order For This To Work…<br />You have to assist me in pointing out what they’re doing wrong, when I call upon you.<br />Put laptops away. <br />Ensure that all cell phones are off or at least on silent.<br />When I call upon you to answer questions, answer them with the information on the handout. The people with brown hair will have different hand outs.<br />
People with brown hair will..<br />Put bags at front of the room<br />People with brown hair are violent and may be carrying a weapon<br />
Good Listeners Are…<br /><ul><li>Quiet Hands, feet, mouth
“There was no end to what could be learned from the enemy by a man who kept his eyes open.”<br />- Adolf Hitler, 1924.<br />
Hate/Bias Groups and Crimes.<br />The Persuasion Surrounding<br /> the Hatred..<br />
Objectives:<br />Define Hate Crimes<br />Laws<br />Define Hate Groups<br />Us vs Them<br />Different ‘Focuses’, Same Rhetoric<br />Methods Used To Persuade<br />ELM<br />Propaganda<br />Hate Online<br />Rallies/Phamphlets /In person<br />Dehumnaization<br />Institutionalized Hate<br />US Army<br />Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell<br />Dehumnaization<br />Enemy<br />Recruits<br />
Before We Begin..<br />Note that although this presentation and the information presented in the media may portray specific stereotypes in regards to racist/radical groups, and individuals who commit hate crimes, you must remember:<br />ANYONE CAN BE THE VICTIM OF A HATE CRIME<br />ANYONE CAN BE TARGETED FOR HATE RELATED MEANS. <br />ANYONE CAN COMMIT A HATE CRIME.<br />
DEFINITION OF HATE<br />Hate, a complex subject, divides into two general categories:<br />rational and irrational.<br />
Hate Crimes:<br />Criminal offence committed against a person or property that is motivated by the victim's race, national or ethnic origin, language, colour, religion, sex, age, mental or physical disability, sexual orientation or similar factor.<br />Several academic authorities on hate crimes in America identified three types of bias crime offenders: the thrill seeker, the reactive offender, and the hard-core offender<br />FBI Bulletin, 2003<br />
Canadian Hate Crime Legislation<br />Advocating genocide<br />318. (1) Every one who advocates or promotes genocide is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.<br />319. (1) Every one who, by communicating statements in any public place, incites hatred against any identifiable group where such incitement is likely to lead to a breach of the peace is guilty of<br />(a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or<br />(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.<br />Wilful promotion of hatred<br />(2) Every one who, by communicating statements, other than in private conversation, wilfully promotes hatred against any identifiable group is guilty of<br />(a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or<br />(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.<br />
Canadian Hate Crime Legislation<br />Other sentencing principles<br />718.2 A court that imposes a sentence shall also take into consideration the following principles:<br />(a) a sentence should be increased or reduced to account for any relevant aggravating or mitigating circumstances relating to the offence or the offender, and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing,<br />(i) evidence that the offence was motivated by bias, prejudice or hate based on race, national or ethnic origin, language, colour, religion, sex, age, mental or physical disability, sexual orientation, or any other similar factor,<br />
Why is it a Communal Concern?<br />Victims of Hate Crime:<br />Primary Victim Impact<br />Secondary Victim Impact<br />Community Impact<br />
Dangers of Hate Groups (7 Stages)<br />Irrational haters seldom hate alone. They feel compelled, almost to entreat others to hate as they do<br />Hate groups form identities through symbols, rituals, and mythologies, which enhance the members’ status and, at the same time, degrade the object of their hate<br />
Hate Groups<br />Groups can come from both sides of the political spectrum:<br />Left<br />Radicals<br />Anti Democracy<br />Pro-revolution<br />Socialists<br />Overthrow existing <br /> government<br />Oppose government and <br />law enforcement<br />Marxist/Leninist orientation<br />Right<br /><ul><li>Status Quo or Days of old
May align with some law enforcement as "good ol' boys"</li></li></ul><li>An overview of a few of the groups…<br />
Anti-Racism Action (ARA) <br />a decentralized network of anti-fascist and anti-racists in North America<br />Also oppose sexism, homophobia, heterosexism, anti-Semitism, and the pro-life movement<br />
Klu Klux Klan (KKK)<br />avowed purpose is to protect the rights and further the interests of White Americans of Protestant faith by violence and intimidation.<br />
Nation of Islam (NOI)<br /> teaches that the Black man is the original man, and from him came all brown, yellow, and white people. <br />Does not believe that whites are worthy to be evangelized, and thus does not accept them into the NOI.<br />
Anyone who has studied the genetic phase of biology knows that white is considered recessive and black is considered dominant. ..The entire American economy is based on white supremacy. Even the religious philosophies, in essence, white supremacy. A white Jesus. A white Virgin. White angels. White everything. But a black Devil, of course. The "Uncle Sam" political foundation is based on white supremacy, relegating non-whites to second−class citizenship. It goes without saying that the social philosophy is strictly white supremacist. And the educational system perpetuates white supremacy<br />
Common Rhetoric:<br />KKK<br />Christian Organization<br />God’s chosen people<br />Shift to promote ideals prominent in other hate groups<br />Segregation into a “New White City”/ Northwest Territorial Imperative<br />NOI<br />Islamic Organization<br />God’s chosen people<br />Separate state provided as fair compensation<br />National Alliance <br />Double standard:<br />Black Pride vs White Pride<br />
Institutionalized Hate:<br />United States Armed Forces<br />Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy<br />Dehumanization<br />Recruits<br />Enemy <br />So Long as your not one of ‘them’.…<br />
All great, world-shaking events have been brought about… by the spoken word.<br />Adolf Hitler, 1924<br />
Methods to Persuade<br />Ideology of Supremacy<br />Dehumanization<br />Authoritarian Leaders<br />May attempt to develop a military or quasi-military structure<br />Language<br />Promotion of destructive ideologies<br />
Social Cognition<br />In-group vs Out-group…<br />In-group bias. <br />Confirmation bias<br />Illusory Correlations <br />Fundamental Attribution Error<br />
“We the victims…”<br />History is being repeated <br />“our land is once again being destroyed by the same treason” that is now “affecting America as a whole”<br />A separate state provided as fair compensation…<br />Peace by segregation<br />
Propaganda’s task is not to make an objective study of the truth; its task is to serve our own right, always and unflinchingly<br />Adolf Hitler, 1924<br />
Propaganda<br />Symbolism<br />Persuasive story telling vs Statistics<br />
William Luther Pierce (Pen Name: Andrew Macdonald)<br />Leader of the white separatistNational Alliance organization, and a principal ideologue of the white nationalist movement.<br />He is also the founder of "Cosmotheism", a religion based on White Racialism, pantheism, eugenics, and National Socialism.<br />In 1998, he bought partial ownership of Resistance Records.<br />
William Luther Pierce (Pen Name: Andrew Macdonald)<br />Turner Diaries (1978)<br />Depicts a violent revolution in the United States which leads to the overthrow of the United States federal government<br />Hunter (1989)<br />Main character embarks on a plan of targeted assassinations of interracial couples and public figures advocating racial civil rights in the D.C. area.<br />Prequel to Turner Diaries<br />
Timothy McVeigh<br />Motivated by the federal government's handling of the Waco Siege (1993) and the Ruby Ridge incident (1992) <br />McVeigh's attack was timed to coincide with the second anniversary of the Waco Siege<br />Carried out on the date of Hitler's birthday<br />
Timothy McVeigh<br />Shortly after the bombing, McVeigh was stopped by Oklahoma State Trooper<br />Hanger had passed McVeigh's yellow 1977 Mercury Marquis and noticed that it had no license plate. <br />McVeigh admitted to the police officer (who noticed a bulge under his jacket) that he had a gun and McVeigh was subsequently arrested for having driven without plates and illegal firearm possession; <br />McVeigh's concealed weapon permit was not legal in Oklahoma. <br />
The Internet and Communication of Hate.<br />In the past, hate groups had to rely upon:<br />Face to face communication<br />Public rallies<br />Brochures<br />In modern times…<br />FBI state that 60% of hate crimes are committed by youth, most of whom are not formal members of a hate group (1993 statistic)<br />
Theories<br />Symbolic Convergence Theory<br />Through stories and rituals, members of a group create a common consciousness<br />Elaboration Likelihood Model<br />Attitude change depends on the level of mental effort<br />Persuasion occurs through either the central or peripheral route<br />Least effort principle<br />
In 2006, Canadian police services, covering 87% of the population, reported 892 hate-motivated crimes. <br />According to the 2004 General Social Survey (GSS), which collects self-reported data on individuals’ perceptions of crime, 3% of all incidents were believed by victims to have been motivated by hate<br />
<ul><li>In 2006, about 6 in 10 police-reported hate crimes were motivated by race/ethnicity (including colour and nationality).
Among the 502 incidents motivated by race/ethnicity in 2006, half (48%) were targeted at Blacks.</li></ul>(Stats Can, 2008)<br />
<ul><li>Among the 220 hate crimes reported by police to be motivated by religion, offences against the Jewish faith were the most common, accounting for almost two-thirds (63%) of religion-based incidents.
Another 21% were against Muslims (Islam) and 6% were against Catholics. Incidents targeting other religions (e.g. Sikh, Eastern Orthodox) made up the remaining 9% of these types of incidents.</li></li></ul><li>(Stats Can, 2008)<br />
Among census metropolitan areas, the highest rates of police-reported hate crime were in Calgary (9.1), Kingston (8.5), Ottawa (6.6), London (5.9) and Toronto (5.5). <br />There were no hate crimes reported in Saguenay, Sherbrooke, St.Catharines-Niagara and Saskatoon.<br />
Toronto, 2008…<br />17.7% increase in Hate/Bias Crimes from 2007 to 2008.<br />130 crimes in 2007 vs. 153 in 2008.<br />From 1992 to 2008, there is an average of 202 occurrences per year.<br />
Arrests:<br />Total individuals arrested was approximately the same as in 2007.<br />Most common crimes were committed without victims or witnesses present – little or no suspect descriptions <br />25 people arrested, 40 charges laid. <br />
Who?<br />Hate crimes are most likely to involve young people, both as victims and accused persons.<br />Most violent hate crimes are committed by strangers rather than persons known to victims. In 2006, over three quarters of victims of police-reported violent hate crime did not know their perpetrator compared to a third of victims of other violent crimes.<br />
Those Affected..<br />Most affected by Hate/Bias crimes within Toronto:<br />LGBT Community<br />Jewish Community<br />Black Community<br />
Strategies to Combat…<br />Training of frontline officers:<br />Identification<br />Recording<br />Investigating <br />Educate the community<br />TPS initiative RHVP (Reduce Homophobic Violence Period)<br />Doubled the reports of LGBT Hate/Bias crimes from 2007 (17) to 2008 (34).<br />
Strategies…<br />Media Outreach <br />Sharing of information between not only Police Divisions, but communities, police services and intelligence agencies.<br />
Limitations of Data…<br />Information reported to police services, and thus Stats Canada, maybe limited…<br />Most of the data presented is all in how it is interpreted…<br />
South Pacific (Musical)“You’ve Got to be Taught”<br />You've got to be taughtTo hate and fear,You've got to be taughtFrom year to year,It's got to be drummedIn your dear little earYou've got to be carefully taught.You've got to be taught to be afraidOf people whose eyes are oddly made,And people whose skin is a diff'rent shade,You've got to be carefully taught.You've got to be taught before it's too late,Before you are six or seven or eight,To hate all the people your relatives hate,You've got to be carefully taught!<br />
Discussion…<br />Those who have brown hair, how do you guys feel?<br />
Jane Elliot<br />Americanteacher and anti-racismactivist. With no formal training in psychology, she created the famous “blue-eyed/brown-eyed” exercise, first done with grade school children in the 1960s, and which later became the basis for her career in diversity training.<br />
Prejudice is an emotional commitment to ignorance. <br />Nathan Rubsteen<br />