Marzo

183 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
183
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
16
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Marzo

  1. 1. 18/03/2014 What is Grammar? Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes describe grammar as the "rules" of a language; but in fact no language has rules*. If we use the word "rules", we suggest that somebody created the rules first and then spoke the language, like a new game. But languages did not start like that. Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into words, phrases and sentences. No commonly- spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call "grammar" is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time. Do we need to study grammar to learn a language? The short answer is "no". Very many people in the world speak their own, native language without having studied its grammar. Children start to speak before they even know the word "grammar". But if you are serious about learning a foreign language, the long answer is "yes, grammar can help you to learn a language more quickly and more efficiently." It's important to think of grammar as something that can help you, like a friend. When you understand the grammar (or system) of a language, you can understand many things yourself, without having to ask a teacher or look in a book.
  2. 2. 19/03/2014 5 Most Common Grammatical Errors Error #1: Run-on Sentence or Comma Splice A run-on sentence is a sentence that joins two independent clauses without punctuation or the appropriate conjunction. A comma splice is similar to a run-on sentence, but it uses a comma to join two clauses that have no appropriate conjunction. Fixing a run-on sentence or a comma splice can be accomplished in one of five different ways:  Separate the clauses into two sentences.  Replace the comma with a semi-colon.  Replace the comma with a coordinating conjunction--and, but, for, yet, nor, so.  Replace the comma with a subordinating conjunction-- after, although, before, unless, as, because, even though, if, since, until, when, while.  Replace the comma with a semi-colon and transitional word--however, moreover, on the other hand, nevertheless, instead, also, therefore, consequently, otherwise, as a result. For example:  Incorrect: Rachel is very smart, she began reading when she was three years old.  Correct: Rachel is very smart. She began reading when she was three years old.  Correct: Rachel is very smart; she began reading when she was three years old.  Correct: Rachel is very smart, and she began reading when she was three years old.
  3. 3.  Correct: Because Rachel is very smart, she began reading when she was three years old.  Correct: Rachel is very smart; as a result, she began reading when she was three years old.  Error #2: Pronoun Errors Pronoun errors occur when pronouns do not agree in number with the nouns to which they refer. If the noun is singular, the pronoun must be singular. If the noun is plural, however, the pronoun must be plural as well. For example:  Incorrect: Everybody must bring their own lunch.  Correct: Everybody must bring his or her own lunch. Many people believe that pronoun errors are the result of writers who are trying to avoid the implication of sexist language. Although this is an admirable goal, correct grammar is still important. Error #3: Mistakes in Apostrophe Usage Apostrophes are used to show possession. However, you do not use an apostrophe after a possessive pronoun such as my, mine, our, ours, his, hers, its, their, or theirs. For example:  Incorrect: My mothers cabin is next to his' cabin.  Correct: My mother's cabin is next to his cabin. In the case of it's, the apostrophe is used to indicate a contraction for it is. For example:  Incorrect: Its a cold day in October.  Correct: It's a cold day in October. Error #4: Lack of Subject/Verb Agreement When speaking or writing in the present tense, a sentence must have subjects and verbs that agree in number. If the
  4. 4. subject is singular, the verb must be singular. If the subject is plural, the verb must be plural as well. For example:  Incorrect: The recipes is good for beginning chefs.  Correct: The recipes are good for beginning chefs.  Error #5: Misplaced Modifiers To communicate your ideas clearly, you must place a modifier directly next to the word it is supposed to modify. The modifier should clearly refer to a specific word in the sentence. For example:  Incorrect: At eight years old, my father gave me a pony for Christmas.  Correct: When I was eight years old, my father gave me a pony for Christmas.
  5. 5. 19/03/2014 What is Structural Grammar? Structural grammar is a means of analyzing written and spoken language. It is concerned with how elements of a sentence such as morphemes, phonemes, phrases, clauses and parts of speech are put together. Under this form of linguistic analysis, it is how these elements work together that is most important, as the relationships between the elements typically have a greater meaning than any of the single elements. The study of this method therefore is an important tool for improving clarity in communication. History The study of the selection and arrangement of sentence elements is relatively new in comparison to other language study. It developed in the early 20th century, particularly from 1930 to 1950. Linguists generally consider Ferdinand de Saussure to be the father of the analysis. He believed that individual units within spoken and written communication were largely arbitrary, such as the same item having many different titles under different languages. His concept therefore was that the best way to study language was to look at its systematic structure, which was really the link between thought and sound. Key Principles Structural grammar operates under the assumption that what is seen on the surface is also the straightforward meaning behind the words of a sentence. Everything is accepted literally and at face value, and no attempt to identify implied meanings is made. The fact that the choice and arrangement of sentence elements creates absolute meaning makes
  6. 6. structural grammar a foundation for being understood. Once a person has the absolute meaning, he can look beyond it to implied meaning if desired. Experts accept that the way to change what is communicated is to alter the elements and their arrangement in the sentence. They stress that proper sentence structure makes it possible to communicate without confusion and to conform to community norms. In this sense, structural grammar can be seen as a major tool for bringing and holding people together. Acquisition People begin to learn how to choose and arrange sentence elements extremely early in life. As babies, people learn how to make the basic sounds of their language, which enables them to express rudimentary needs and wants. This expands into entire words, and finally, children master the basics of sentence construction and learn how to use specific words in a particular fashion. The more sounds and words a child learns, and the better he gets at putting them together, the more complex ideas he can convey. Most individuals naturally employ their language’s rules by adulthood. They easily understand collections of sounds and words. Adults become pickier about how they put sentences together, as they want to be efficient, appear intelligent and avoid misunderstandings and hurt feelings. They think ahead and often avoid sounds, words or placement of words that could be misconstrued or seen as politically incorrect within the current social context. Linguists have recognized the sequence of language structure acquisition for many years. They still are not quite sure exactly how a person’s brain acquires language and gains absolute
  7. 7. meaning from it, however. Research in this area is still ongoing in hopes of improving language development. Applications Some language professionals look at how sentences are put together in linguistic research, as they can garner some clues about how a person is learning a language according to the sounds and arrangements he selects. This type of research provides vital information on what a person can and cannot understand at different age levels. It can alter how an individual communicates based on his audience and has a strong link to both education and marketing. Those who are studying a second language also find analysis of sentence construction useful. They use it in a method called comparative analysis, in which they see how the elements and structures of the two languages are the same or different. It is important because a person sometimes has to abandon the engrained structural rules of his native language to properly employ the second language. In English, for example, adjectives precede the words they modify. In French, they generally follow the modified words. Using the proper words but under the wrong arrangement is a telltale sign that someone is not a native speaker. Teachers also use structural grammar in language and composition classes. In the past, educators taught people how to improve sentences and communication through techniques such as sentence diagramming. Academic professionals still employ these methods. The trend, however, is for teachers to combine structural and transformational grammar and to teach language with other techniques, such as having students rephrase given sentences.
  8. 8. Comparisons People often confuse the study of sentence elements and arrangement with transitional and transformational grammar. The transitional method does look at the arrangement of sentence elements, but it is concerned primarily with moving from one idea or phrase to another in a logical, clear way. The transformational approach looks beneath the surface of the words used in the sentence. It seeks to identify any implied as well as expressed meanings in the arrangement of the words. This approach also usually considered to be the logical progression in comprehension of the written and spoken word, taking the process of analysis one step beyond the boundaries of structural grammar.
  9. 9. 20/03/2014 Simple Present Simple Present is the most basic verb tense in English. It is also the most common. It has many uses. Read the lesson below to learn more about the simple present. STRUCTURE Subject + Base Verb + Object Examples:  I like pizza.  She lives in Toronto.  We have a dog.  They go to school. For "he", "she", and "it" use the third-person verb. 1. Base Verb -------- play, live, run 2. 3rd Person Verb -------- plays, lives, runs This table shows the difference between the third person pronouns. Notice the "s" on the end of the word. Here are all the pronouns with the verbs in simple present:  I like pizza.  You like pizza.  He likes pizza.
  10. 10.  She likes pizza.  It likes pizza.  We like pizza.  They like pizza. Negatives Negatives in simple present use do not or does not. They also use be + not. Do Not/Does Not Subject + Do/Does +not + base verb Examples:  I do not like pizza.  She does not play baseball. After do not or does not the verb is always in the base form.  He likes soccer.  He does not like soccer.  She studies English.  She does not study English.
  11. 11. 21/03/2014 Simple Present Tense English Grammar Rules The simple present tense in English is used to describe an action that is regular, true or normal. We use the present tense: 1. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period.  I take the train to the office.  The train to Berlin leaves every hour.  John sleeps eight hours every night during the week. 2. For facts.  The President of The USA lives in The White House.  A dog has four legs.  We come from Switzerland. 3. For habits.  I get up early every day.  Carol brushes her teeth twice a day.  They travel to their country house every weekend. 4. For things that are always / generally true.  It rains a lot in winter.  The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace.  They speak English at work.
  12. 12. 24/03/2014 Verb Conjugation & Spelling We form the presenttense using the base form of the infinitive (without the TO). In general, in the third personwe add 'S' in the third person. Subject Verb The Rest of the sentence I / you / we / they speak / learn English at home he / she / it speaks / learns English at home The spelling for the verb in the third person differs depending on the ending of that verb: 1. For verbs that end in -O, -CH, -SH, -SS, -X, or -Z we add -ES in the third person.  go – goes  catch – catches  wash – washes  kiss – kisses  fix – fixes  buzz – buzzes 2. For verbs that end in a consonant + Y, we remove the Y and add -IES.  marry – marries  study – studies  carry – carries  worry – worries NOTE: For verbs that end in a vowel + Y, we just add -S.  play – plays  enjoy – enjoys  say – says
  13. 13. 25/03/2014 Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense To make a negative sentence in English we normally use Don't or Doesn't with all verbs EXCEPT To Beand Modalverbs(can, might, should etc.).  Affirmative: You speak French. Negative: You don'tspeak French. You will see that we add don'tbetweenthe subjectand the verb. We use Don'twhen the subject is I, you,we or they.  Affirmative: He speaks German. Negative: He doesn't speakGerman. When the subjectis he, she or it, we add doesn'tbetweenthe subject and the verb to make a negative sentence.Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below. Negative Contractions Don't= Do not Doesn't = Does not I don'tlike meat = I do not like meat. There is no difference in meaning though we normally use contractions in spokenEnglish. Word Order of Negative Sentences The following is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English in the Present Tense using Don'tor Doesn't.
  14. 14. Subject don't/doesn't Verb* The Rest of the sentence I / you / we / they don't have / buy eat / like etc. cereal for breakfast he / she / it doesn't * Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = The infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To have it is just the have part. Rememberthat the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO.For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc. Examplesof Negative Sentences with Don't and Doesn't:  You don'tspeak Arabic.  John doesn'tspeak Italian.  We don'thave time for a rest.  It doesn't move.  They don'twant to go to the party.  She doesn't like fish.
  15. 15. 26/03/2014 Questions in the Simple Present Tense To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does.It has no translation in Spanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.  Affirmative: You speak English. Question: Do you speak English? You will see that we add DO at the beginning of the affirmative sentence to make it a question. We use Dowhen the subject is I, you, we or they.  Affirmative: He speaks French. Question: Does he speak French? When the subjectis he, she or it, we add DOES at the beginning to make the affirmative sentence a question. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the question. We will see the reason why below. We DON'T use Do or Does in questions that have the verb To Be or ModalVerbs(can, must, might, should etc.) Word Order of Questions with Do and Does The following is the word order to construct a basic questionin English using Do or Does. Do/Does Subject Verb* The Rest of the sentence Do I / you / we / they have / need want etc. a new bike? Does he / she / it *Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = The infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To have it is just the have part.
  16. 16. Rememberthat the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO.For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc. Examplesof Questions with Do and Does:  Do you need a dictionary?  Does Mary need a dictionary?  Do we have a meeting now?  Does it rain a lot in winter?  Do they want to go to the party?  Short Answers with Do and Does In questions that use do/doesit is possible to give short answers to direct questions as follows: Sample Questions ShortAnswer (Affirmative) ShortAnswer (Negative) Do you like chocolate? Yes, I do. No, I don't. Do I need a pencil? Yes, you do. No, you don't. Do you both like chocolate? Yes, we do. No, we don't. Do they like chocolate? Yes, they do. No, they don't. Does he like chocolate? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't. Does she like chocolate? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't. Does it have four wheels? Yes, it does. No, it doesn't. However, if a question word such as who, when,where,why,which or how is used in the question, you can not use the short answers above to respond to the question.
  17. 17. 27/03/2014 Simple Past Form of Simple Past Positive Negative Question no differences I spoke. I did not speak. Did I speak? For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”. Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’ Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example after a final e only add d love – loved final consonant after a short, stressed vowel or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled admit – admitted travel – travelled final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried Use of Simple Past  action in the past taking place once, never or several times Example: He visitedhis parents every weekend.  actions in the past taking place one after the other Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.  action in the past taking place in the middle of another action Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.
  18. 18.  if sentences type II (If I talked, …) Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.
  19. 19. 28/03/2014 Use for Past Tense 1) action finished in the past I visited Berlin last week. 2) series of completed actions in the past First I got up, then I had breakfast 3) together with the Past Progressive/Continuous - The Simple Past interrupted an action which was in progress in the past. They were playing cards when the telephone rang. Signal words yesterday, last week, a month ago, in 2002 Form - with regular verbs: infinitive + -ed - with irregular verbs: 2nd column of the table of the irregular verbs Examples Affirmative sentences: regular verbs irregular verbs I played football. I went to the cinema.
  20. 20. We visited Alaska last year. We were in Rome yesterday. Negative sentences: You must not negate a full verb in English. Always use the auxiliary did (Simple Past of to do) for negations. I played football. I didn't play football. He didn't play football. Questions: Use the auxiliary did (Simple Past of to do). Did you play football? Did he play football?
  21. 21. 31/03/2014 Special verbs in the Simple Past Many frequently used verbs are irregular. You find these words in the appendix of a dictionary or in your English book. You must learn these words by heart. Have a look at the following lists which can be downloaded and printed. (*.pdf files) 1) have as a full verb affirmative sentence negative sentence question every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they): I had a book. I did not have a book. Did I have a book? 2) be as a full verb affirmative sentence negative sentence question I, he, she, it: I was in Rome. I was not in Rome. Was I in Rome? we, you, they: We were in Rome. We were not in Rome. Were we in Rome? 3) do as a full verb affirmative sentence negative sentence question every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they):
  22. 22. I did an exercise. I did not do an exercise. Did I do an exercise?

×