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Psyschodynamic model of abnormality AS


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Psyschodynamic model of abnormality AS

  1. 1. The Psychodynamic Approach to Explaining Abnormality Unconscious unresolved conflicts from childhood
  2. 2. Freud's psychodynamic approach to abnormality is know as ‘The psychoanalytic approach’
  3. 3. Assumptions of the psychodynamic approach • Much of our behaviour is driven by unconscious motives • Childhood is a critical period in development • Mental disorders arise from unresolved, unconscious conflicts originating in childhood • Resolution occurs through accessing and coming to terms with repressed ideas and conflicts
  4. 4. Freud’s consulting room
  5. 5. • XPs
  6. 6. The psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud The tripartite structure of human personality Tripartite means - in three parts
  7. 7. Id: Pleasure principle Superego: Morality principle Ego: Reality principle Conscious: The part of the mind we are aware of – everyday thoughts and feelings Preconscious: Thoughts and memories not accessible at all times, but easily recalled Unconscious: The deep dark part! Repressed thoughts, memories and feelings. Freud’s tripartite model of personality
  8. 8. Are we born with an ego? • Id is present at birth – a newborn baby is completely selfish • Ego develops by the age of three – child becomes aware that other people will get cross it can’t always have it’s own way • Superego appears around age five – sense of morality (conscience) passed on by parents – child internalises this
  9. 9. • According to Freud, the id is the personality construct that we are born with. • Its energy is called the “libido”. • It operates on the pleasure principle. • What does this mean? • How will the id inform behaviour? The Id Need food... need drink... need comfort... need burping... need sleep... need it NOW!
  10. 10. • The superego is the 'ideal' force, the civilised, socially acceptable figure the person strives to be. • It includes our understanding of right and wrong. • It opposes the id and is essentially an internalisation of rules passed down from our parents. The Superego
  11. 11. • The ego is the reality principle. • It must balance the drives of the id and the control of the superego. The ego
  12. 12. • The strength of each individual force is a factor in personality – • If a person's superego is too strong, they are seen as rigid, anxious or self righteous. • If a person's id is too strong, they are seen as delinquent, antisocial or self centred. A balancing act
  13. 13. The tripartite structure of personality • jCo&feature=related
  14. 14. Structure Of Personality ID EGO SUPEREGO UNCONCIOUS, insatiable instincts which people are born with. Pleasure orientated and selfish CONCIOUS: Rational, driven by the ‘reality principle’ balances demands of Id and Superego Last part of personality to develop. Concerned with morals, right and wrong. Develops through socialisation.
  16. 16. Summarise in your notes: • Describe each part of the personality – remember the characters we designed earlier represent each of the parts • Selfish id • Controlling superego • Reasonable ego • What do you think might happen if each part is too strong or weak? • Which mental conditions might this lead to?
  17. 17. Link to abnormality • Ego too weak – allows id and superego to dominate, • Id too strong – selfish, out of control, could become psychopathic- destructive tendencies & uninhibited sexual behaviour • Superego too strong – strict, anxious, obsessive – depression, anxiety, OCD
  18. 18. What happens if there is a conflict between the id, ego & superego? • ANXIETY • The ego tries to avoid anxiety & uses ego defence mechanisms to maintain a balance in relation to the id & superego 18
  19. 19. Defence mechanisms • The constant disagreements between the id, the ego and the superego can lead to a lot of anxiety • E.g. You want that bar of chocolate but you know you’re meant to be on a diet – you feel guilty if you have it but unsatisfied if you don’t – anxiety either way! • So the mind develops various methods of defending itself – for example you tell yourself that it’s ok to eat the chocolate because it’s good for you (rationalisation)
  20. 20. EGO DEFENCE MECHANISMS The Ego needs to protect itself against intra- psychic conflict between the id and the superego. It does this in ways which are known as DEFENCE MECHANISMS.
  21. 21. • Denial: You completely reject the thought or feeling My Ashley would never cheat on me…
  22. 22. • Projection: You attribute your own socially unacceptable thought or feeling to someone else I can’t believe what Ryan Giggs has been up to… what a cheating liar! How could he do that to his beautiful wife?
  23. 23. • Reaction formation: You turn the feeling into its opposite I’m not at all upset or humiliated. In fact, I’m the happiest I’ve ever been.
  24. 24. • Regression: You revert to an old, usually immature, behaviour I’m going home to me Mam, so she can cook me beans on toast, and stroke me hair and tell me that everything is going to be alright.
  25. 25. • Displacement: you redirect your feelings to another target It’s not my fault my marriage is over. It’s the newspapers’. And those women for selling their stories… And Cheryl’s for not being there enough… And my mum’s for not breastfeeding me. I hate them all!
  26. 26. • Sublimation: You redirect the feeling into a socially productive activity e.g. art, poetry, sport I’m going to make another album, and learn how to tap dance, and take up scuba diving!
  27. 27. • We all use defence mechanisms on a daily basis • They are unconscious – we aren’t aware of what we’re doing • But… if we over use them they can lead to mental abnormalities.
  28. 28. Proof of the unconscious? • ‘Freudian slips’ • “A Freudian slip is saying one thing and meaning your mother”
  29. 29. The Psychosexual stages: • Describe the 5 psychosexual stages of development, including the Oedipus/Electra Complex • Explain how fixation at each stage may lead to abnormality • Evaluate the psychodynamic approach to psychopathology
  30. 30. Psychosexual stages • There are a number of stages of childhood, during which the child seeks pleasure from a different ‘object’ • To be psychologically healthy, we must successfully complete each stage • Mental abnormality can occur if a stage is not completed successfully – the person becomes ‘fixated’ • Freud believed that children are born with a libido – a sensual (pleasure) urge
  31. 31. The FIVE psychosexual stages • The Oral (Birth - 1 year) • The Anal (1 - 3 years) • The Phallic (3 - 5/6 years) • The Latency (6 - puberty) • The Genital (adulthood)
  32. 32. Stage 1 - the ORAL stage • Mouth (sucking) is the source of pleasure • The ID is in control • Successful completion of this stage is demonstrated by weaning – eating independently
  33. 33. In the ORAL stage ……. • Fixation caused by • Oral receptive (not allowed to suck freely) – passive, needy, sensitive to rejection – overeats and drinks, bite nails, may smoke • Oral aggressive (allowed to suck too often/too long) – hostile and verbally abusive, sarcastic
  34. 34. Stage 2 - the ANAL Stage • Elimination of faeces is the source of pleasure • 18 months to 3 years • Defecation is main source of pleasure • Successful completion marked by potty training
  35. 35. In the ANAL stage …. • Fixation (a) Anal expulsive: symptoms: giving to charity, potters, gardeners, (sublimating the wish to smear), disorganised. • Fixation (b) Anal retentive symptoms: miserly, thrifty, orderly, obstinate, tidy, stubborn, obs essive.
  36. 36. Stage 3 : The PHALLIC stage • The Superego develops • The Oedipus conflict (boys) • The Electra conflict (girls)
  37. 37. The Oedipus complex • Occurs during the phallic stage • Around age 3-5 • Boy wants his mother as his ‘primary love object’ • Wants his father out of the way • Fears that his father knows this and will castrate him as punishment • Identifies with father to stop castration anxiety
  38. 38. The Electra (female Oedipus) complex • A girl has a strong affection for her father. • She realises she doesn’t have a penis like her father! • Becomes hostile towards her mother because she believes her mother has castrated her • Develops attraction to father instead because she believes he can give her a baby, which will act as a penis substitute • Eventually resolves feelings towards mother and identifies with her – doesn’t want to lose her mother’s love
  39. 39. In the PHALLIC stage…. • Fixation caused by failure to resolve the Oedipus / Electra conflict • Symptoms include: homosexuality, exhibitionism, vanity. – Writer of pornography may be sublimating sexual preoccupations
  40. 40. The latency stage • Age 6 to puberty approximately • Sexual urges sublimated into sports and other hobbies • Focus on developing same sex friendships • No particular requirements for successful completion • Lull before the storm of puberty!
  41. 41. The genital stage • Puberty into adulthood • Focus on genitals but not to same extent as phallic stage • Task is to develop healthy adult relationships • This should happen if earlier stages have been negotiated successfully
  42. 42. • Old Age Pensioners Love Guinness! • Oral stage • Anal stage • Phallic stage • Latent stage • Genital stage Now use your textbook to help you complete page 23 of your workbook (yellow cover)
  43. 43. Little Hans • Freud believed that the case study of Little Hans supported his theory of psychosexual stages and the Oedipus complex in particular • U_subTrM/1
  44. 44. • Enormous explanatory power for both normal and abnormal behaviour. • Practical applications: huge impact on the world of counselling, psychotherapy and psychiatry. • Face validity. • It treats the whole person, the cause, not just the symptoms. • Recognises the importance of childhood. Strengths of the Psychodynamic Perspective
  45. 45. • Difficult to test the theory of unconscious motivation – whatever is not remembered can be said to be repressed. • The case study method is unrepresentative and therefore there are concerns about generalisability • Criticised for too much emphasis on SEX. Weaknesses of the Psychodynamic Perspective