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Come up with thehighest scoringsingle (real!) wordrelating to:
Behaviourist
Approach
S
T
A
R
T
E
R
Lesson Objectives:
AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning.
AO2 – To analyse the research surrounding Operant...
Operant Conditioning
(Skinner)
Classical Conditioning
(Pavlov)
Operant Conditioning
AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning.
How does reinforcement effect our
behaviour?
B.F Skinner studied how animals can learn from the
consequences of their acti...
Positive Reinforcement
Receiving a reward when a certain behaviour
is performed to make the behaviour happen
again - to be...
Negative Reinforcement
Occurs when someone avoids something
unpleasant - something undesirable is
removed when the desirab...
Punishment
This is when something undesirable is
received after a behaviour to make it stop -
Punishment is used in an att...
Positive Reinforcement
AO3 – To analyse the research surrounding Operant Conditioning.
B.F. Skinner claimed that
all behaviour is learnt as a
result of consequences in
our environment – operant
conditioning
...
Operant Conditioning
11/09/15
 Operant conditioning is
concerned with the use of
consequences, such as
gaining rewards or...
Operant Conditioning
 He trained rats to press a lever using both types of reinforcement.
 He used positive reinforcemen...
Positive Reinforcement
 Increases the likelihood of a response occurring because
it involves a reward for the behaviour
C...
Negative Reinforcement
 Increases the likelihood of a response
occurring because it involves the
removal of, or escaping ...
Operant Conditioning
11/09/15
 It important to note however that the associations between responses and
consequences have...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cl7jr9EVcjI
You Tube Clip of Skinner Box
Skinner’s Box
 http://www.resourcd.com/@psychexchange/video/show/36
What do you think of
Punishment?
AO1 – To discuss punishment within the Behaviourist Approach.
Examples of Positive Punishment
 The consequence is receiving something
unpleasant which decreases the
probability of the...
Examples of negative punishment
 The consequence is removing
something desirable and decreases
probability of the behavio...
 B.F. Skinner’s views on Punishment:
 Tells us what NOT to do…
doesn’t tell us what to do
 Teaches us avoidance
 May c...
INSTEAD:
 Emphasize reinforcement
 Catch us doing something right and affirm it
AO1 – To discuss punishment within the B...
Supernanny activity
Behaviourist Perspective Case Study:
Derek - Operant Conditioning
Derek is 45 years old and attends a Day Centre for
adult...
Remember the terms?
 Positive Reinforcement: involves a reward
 Negative Reinforcement: involves the removal of, or esca...
Before we start...
With the people around you, can you think of some
strengths and weaknesses of the behaviourist
approach...
Lesson Objectives:
AO1 – To discuss punishment within the Behaviourist
Approach.
AO1/3 – To examine the Behaviourist Appro...
Strengths of approach
 Behaviourism is very scientific. Theories are testable and
supported by rigorous experimental rese...
Limitations of approach
11/09/15 29
• Many forms of learning cannot be satisfactorily explained
by classical and operant c...
Evaluation Time
Using the information in front of you and page 107 of the
text book.
Fill in your tables with the strength...
Can you?
1. Explain what is meant by classical and operant
conditioning (2 marks each)
2. Outline the main findings of Pav...
The Behaviourist Approach
Outline and evaluate the
behaviourist approach in psychology
(12 marks – AS, 16 marks – A level)...
Homework
Ensure you have written up your class notes to include the following:
The assumptions of the behaviourist approa...
Mini Quiz
Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or
punishment?
In 4 teams:
•Buzz when you know the answer.
•First...
Operant Conditioning
Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or
punishment?
A child gets £5 for washing the car.
Po...
Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or
punishment?
A parent shouts at a child for crossing the street
without l...
Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or
punishment?
A salesman stops hassling his customer when he
agrees to buy...
Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or
punishment?
Your teacher phones home when you don’t complete
two pieces ...
Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or
punishment?
Your teacher asks your parents to nag you until you
complete...
Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or
punishment?
You receive a prize for finishing 2nd
in a race.
Positive Re...
TABOO
You have each been given a card
with a word from the Behaviourist
Approach on it.
You can not use the word or any of...
P
L
E
N
A
R
Y
Answer the questions on page 107 of the text
book:
1.Explain ONE assumption of the behaviourist
approach.
(3...
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Behaviourist oprant conditioning

  1. 1. Come up with thehighest scoringsingle (real!) wordrelating to: Behaviourist Approach S T A R T E R
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives: AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning. AO2 – To analyse the research surrounding Operant Conditioning. AO2 – To evaluate Operant Conditioning. O B J E C T I V E S
  3. 3. Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
  4. 4. Operant Conditioning AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning.
  5. 5. How does reinforcement effect our behaviour? B.F Skinner studied how animals can learn from the consequences of their actions. He specifically focused on Reinforcement. Reinforcement strengthens the likelihood of behaviour re-occurring. AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning.
  6. 6. Positive Reinforcement Receiving a reward when a certain behaviour is performed to make the behaviour happen again - to behave the same way again in order to receive the reward. AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning.
  7. 7. Negative Reinforcement Occurs when someone avoids something unpleasant - something undesirable is removed when the desirable behaviour happens. AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning.
  8. 8. Punishment This is when something undesirable is received after a behaviour to make it stop - Punishment is used in an attempt to decrease a behavior. AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning.
  9. 9. Positive Reinforcement AO3 – To analyse the research surrounding Operant Conditioning.
  10. 10. B.F. Skinner claimed that all behaviour is learnt as a result of consequences in our environment – operant conditioning This involves learning through the consequences (positive and negative) of behavioural responses. 11/09/15 10 Operant Conditioning
  11. 11. Operant Conditioning 11/09/15  Operant conditioning is concerned with the use of consequences, such as gaining rewards or receiving punishments, in order to modify and shape behaviour.  Skinner, like Pavlov, tested this learning process on animals Skinner box 11
  12. 12. Operant Conditioning  He trained rats to press a lever using both types of reinforcement.  He used positive reinforcement to train the rat, by giving the rat a pellet of food each time it pressed the lever.  This caused the rat to learn that the lever = food, so it continued to press the lever.  He used negative reinforcement to train the rat, by running an electric current through the floor of the cage.  When the rat pressed the lever, the electric shock would stop.  This taught the rat that lever = getting rid of something bad. AO3 – To analyse the research surrounding Operant Conditioning.
  13. 13. Positive Reinforcement  Increases the likelihood of a response occurring because it involves a reward for the behaviour Can you think of any examples?  The worker gets paid a bonus for working hard.  The dog gets a treat for returning when called.  The child gets dessert for eating her vegetables (bribery!)  Reward points are given for good work.  Positive reinforcement 11/09/15 13
  14. 14. Negative Reinforcement  Increases the likelihood of a response occurring because it involves the removal of, or escaping from, unpleasant consequences (e.g. it leads to stopping or avoiding an electric shock) Can you think of any examples?  The choke collar is loosened when the dog moves closer to the trainer.  The reins are loosened when the horse slows down.  The car buzzer turns off when you put on your seatbelt.  The torture is stopped when the victim confesses. 11/09/15 14
  15. 15. Operant Conditioning 11/09/15  It important to note however that the associations between responses and consequences have to be made close together in time for learning to occur.  Operant conditioning has been applied to the treatment of behaviour (e.g. behaviour shaping)  Examples included social skills training for offenders, and token economy systems used in institutions whereby tokens are given as a secondary reinforcement for good behaviour. 15
  16. 16. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cl7jr9EVcjI You Tube Clip of Skinner Box
  17. 17. Skinner’s Box  http://www.resourcd.com/@psychexchange/video/show/36
  18. 18. What do you think of Punishment? AO1 – To discuss punishment within the Behaviourist Approach.
  19. 19. Examples of Positive Punishment  The consequence is receiving something unpleasant which decreases the probability of the behaviour being repeated (e.g. the behaviour leads to an electric shock or a smack) Can you think of any examples?  The peeing on the rug (by a puppy) is punished with a swat of the newspaper.  The driver's speeding results in a ticket and a fine.  The baby's hand is burned when she touches the hot stove.  Walking straight through low doorways is punished with a bonk on the head.11/09/15 19
  20. 20. Examples of negative punishment  The consequence is removing something desirable and decreases probability of the behaviour being repeated Can you think of any examples of this?  Toys being taken away from a child when they are throwing a tantrum  The child has his crayons taken away for fighting with his sister.  The teenager is grounded for misbehaviour (loses their social life)  Child banned from playing computer games for swearing 11/09/15 20
  21. 21.  B.F. Skinner’s views on Punishment:  Tells us what NOT to do… doesn’t tell us what to do  Teaches us avoidance  May cause undesirable side effects: Fear Aggression If punishment is unpredictable and unavoidable, we develop sense that events are beyond our control Leads to:AO1 – To discuss punishment within the Behaviourist Approach.
  22. 22. INSTEAD:  Emphasize reinforcement  Catch us doing something right and affirm it AO1 – To discuss punishment within the Behaviourist Approach.
  23. 23. Supernanny activity
  24. 24. Behaviourist Perspective Case Study: Derek - Operant Conditioning Derek is 45 years old and attends a Day Centre for adults with learning difficulties. The staff at the centre find his behaviour challenging and unacceptable. Derek often shouts out and demands attention and he refuses to comply with the simplest of instructions that all clients are expected to follow. Describe how the staff at the Day Centre could use operant conditioning to modify and change Derek’s behaviour. Consider the positives and negatives of Operant Conditioning. A C T I V I T Y AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning. AO3 – To evaluate Operant Conditioning.
  25. 25. Remember the terms?  Positive Reinforcement: involves a reward  Negative Reinforcement: involves the removal of, or escaping from, unpleasant consequences  Positive Punishment: receiving something unpleasant  Negative punishment: removing something desirable 11/09/15 25
  26. 26. Before we start... With the people around you, can you think of some strengths and weaknesses of the behaviourist approach? Make notes of them and be prepared to share. A C T I V I T Y AO3 – To examine the Behaviourist Approach as a whole. AO2 – To evaluate and justify the Behaviourist Approach as a whole.
  27. 27. Lesson Objectives: AO1 – To discuss punishment within the Behaviourist Approach. AO1/3 – To examine the Behaviourist Approach as a whole. AO3 – To evaluate and justify the Behaviourist Approach as a whole. O B J E C T I V E S
  28. 28. Strengths of approach  Behaviourism is very scientific. Theories are testable and supported by rigorous experimental research – Uses the experimental method  helps to establish cause and effect, objective  Replicable  can be repeated due to high control so has reliability  Mainly quantitative data  easy to analyse  Behaviourist explanations can be applied to the real world to explain everyday behaviour such as phobias and has produced many practical applications  Useful applications to education, child rearing (i.e. super nanny)  It provides strong counter-arguments to the nature side of the ‘nature-nurture’ debate 11/09/15 28
  29. 29. Limitations of approach 11/09/15 29 • Many forms of learning cannot be satisfactorily explained by classical and operant conditioning e.g. insight learning • Approach ignores important mental processes involved in learning  Over simplified  only takes into account nurture, rules out any influence of anything else  Lack of ecological validity due to highly controlled experiments  issues with generalisability  Lack of qualitative data  no thoughts or feelings known  Much data has been obtained from species such as rats, dogs and pigeons but the relevance of these findings to human behaviour is dubious. Can we extrapolate?
  30. 30. Evaluation Time Using the information in front of you and page 107 of the text book. Fill in your tables with the strengths and weaknesses of the Behaviourist Approach. Make sure to bullet point and shorten your answers. A C T I V I T Y AO3 – To examine the Behaviourist Approach as a whole. AO2 – To evaluate and justify the Behaviourist Approach as a whole.
  31. 31. Can you? 1. Explain what is meant by classical and operant conditioning (2 marks each) 2. Outline the main findings of Pavlov’s research 3. Explain what is meant by positive and negative reinforcement in operant conditioning (2 marks each) 4. Outline the main findings of Skinner’s research (4 marks) 5. Outline one strength and one limitation of the behaviourist approach in psychology  Answer the ‘Check it’ questions on page 107
  32. 32. The Behaviourist Approach Outline and evaluate the behaviourist approach in psychology (12 marks – AS, 16 marks – A level) 11/09/15 32
  33. 33. Homework Ensure you have written up your class notes to include the following: The assumptions of the behaviourist approach Classical conditioning and Pavlov’s research Operant conditioning and Skinner’s research Types of reinforcement The strengths and weaknesses of the approach
  34. 34. Mini Quiz Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or punishment? In 4 teams: •Buzz when you know the answer. •First team to Buzz answers the question. There are 6 questions. The team with the most points wins! P L E N A R Y AO1 - To explore and understand Operant Conditioning.
  35. 35. Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or punishment? A child gets £5 for washing the car. Positive Reinforcement
  36. 36. Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or punishment? A parent shouts at a child for crossing the street without looking. Punishment Operant Conditioning
  37. 37. Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or punishment? A salesman stops hassling his customer when he agrees to buy upgrades to a product. Negative reinforcement Operant Conditioning
  38. 38. Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or punishment? Your teacher phones home when you don’t complete two pieces of homework. Punishment Operant Conditioning
  39. 39. Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or punishment? Your teacher asks your parents to nag you until you complete your homework. Negative reinforcement Operant Conditioning
  40. 40. Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement or punishment? You receive a prize for finishing 2nd in a race. Positive Reinforcement Operant Conditioning
  41. 41. TABOO You have each been given a card with a word from the Behaviourist Approach on it. You can not use the word or any of the words on the card to explain it. Task: See how many words we can do in ONE minute. S T A R T E R End123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960
  42. 42. P L E N A R Y Answer the questions on page 107 of the text book: 1.Explain ONE assumption of the behaviourist approach. (3 Marks) 2. Outline TWO types of reinforcement as suggested by the behaviourist approach. (4 marks) 3. Outline and evaluate the behaviourist approach in psychology. (12 marks) Hand them into me afterwards.AO3 – To examine the Behaviourist Approach as a whole. AO2 – To evaluate and justify the Behaviourist Approach as a whole.
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