– Any part of the crop from which a new crop will grow.(Agronomically)
– Seed is a fertilized ovule.(Botanically)
– Seed quality is estimated to account for 20-25% of productivity.
– World seed market is about Rs.2,20,000 Cr
– Indian seed market size is about Rs.9,000 Cr
– There is a mismatch between the seed multiplication ratio from breeder
seed to foundation seed and from foundation seed to certified seed.
– Comprehensive and authentic databases on seed production and trade
need to be built up.
– The seed chain and the norms for quality control to be followed without
any compromises or shortcuts.
– For horticulture crops which have a long gestation period , it is imperative
to ensure that only such varieties are imported that are suited to Indian
The way forward
– A genetically diverse portfolio of improved crop varieties
– Timely delivery to farmers of high-yielding varieties requires big
improvements in the system that connects plant germplasm
collections, plant breeding and seed delivery.
– Improving policies and legislation for variety development and
release as well as seed supply.
– Strengthening capacity by creating a new generation of skilled
practitioners to support enhanced breeding.
– Working with farmers to explore the ways in which crops and
varieties contribute to successful intensification
– Revitalizing the public sector and expanding its role in
developing new crop varieties.
– macronutrients (6): nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur,
calcium magnesium - present in plant tissue in quantities from 0.15%
to 6.0% of dry matter
– micronutrients (8) : Molybdenum, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Manganese,
Iron, Boron, chlorine - present in plant tissue on the order of parts per
million (ppm), ranging from 0.15 to 400 ppm DM, or less than 0.04%
– All nutrients fulfill specific functions in plants and cannot replace each
• All of them are equally important, regardless of the amount required
• Lack of any single nutrient will limit crop growth even if all the other
nutrients are fully available
• supply of all nutrients is essential to produce high yields of good
Global consumption of fertilizer
• The global fertilizer market
• 2010 – US$ 130 billion ; Volume : 163 mt
• 2015 – US$ 172 billion ; Volume: 183.5 mt
• Indian fertilizer market
• 2010 – US$ 24 billion ;Volume 28 mt
India: fertilizer use and crop production
– Use of fertilizer started in India with initiation of the planning
process in early fifties
– Food grain production increased from 74mt in 1966-67 to
241.56mt in 2010-11
– India is the 2nd largest producer of Nitrogenous fertilizer and
3rd in production of phosphate fertilizer
– Potash is totally imported
– India is 2nd to China in Nitrogen and Phosphorous consumption
– Fertilizer consumption in India is 16% of global consumption
– Consumption chemical fertilizers during 2010-11 is 28.2 mt
(16.6 mt N ,8.1 mt P & 3.5 mt K)
– Average consumption increase from 95 kg/ha in 2004-05 to
144.6kg/ha in 2010-11
– Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended
for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.
– Pesticides are of major attention in India because
• Increasing demand for food grains.
• Decreasing per capita land available for agriculture.
• Estimated crop loss in India due to non usage of agro chemicals
amount to Rs 90,000 cr p.a. (28% of yield).
• Per hectare consumption of pesticide in India is 381gm which is low
as compared to the world average of 500 gm
Market distribution of Agrochemicals in India by product
category (% of total)
• With increasing penetration of BT cotton ,usage
of insecticides has witnessed a decline in the
recent past. Its share in the total crop protection
chemicals has reduced from 69% in 2004 to 55%
Why farm mechanization
– Labour is available at a higher cost per hectare and this
would increase the demand for mechanization.
– India is a growing economy and to support a growing
population we would require not only efficient but
machinery that would increase the yield of food grains
and commercial crops.
– Mechanical power has replaced bullock power on
– Increase in crop intensity and yield thus ensuring better
returns to the farmer
– Reduction of weather risk and risk of non-availability of
labor thus minimizing post harvest wastages
– Improved working conditions and enhanced safety for the
– Conversion of uncultivable land to agricultural land through
advanced tilling technologies
– Shifting land used for feed and fodder cultivation for draught
animals towards food grain production
– Increased rural employment.
Issues and challenges
– Highly diverse farm size & soil types: resulting in the need
for customized farm machinery and equipment.
– Skewed and seasonal usage resulting in low economic
– Cattle population: Increased mechanization results in
surplus draught cattle and their upkeep is a concern for the
– Extension service: Education and training for efficient
usage of farm equipment is required to be imparted along
with knowledge about selection of appropriate machinery.
Economic Advantage of Mechanization(%)
Increase in Productivity 12-34
Saving in seeds 20
Saving in Fertilizers 15-20
Enhancement in cropping intensity 5-22
Increase in gross income of farmer 29-4
Source: report on Agricultural Implements and Machinery, GOI
Market – Tractors
– Market size: Approximately 370 000 units annually
– Market growth: 4-5% per annum
– Price sensitive market; sales dependant on Government
subsidy; no subsidy on tractors above 30 HP
– Domestic sector growing due to an increase in the irrigated
area, Government policy related to export which decides crop
switching by farmers
– Smaller tractors are very popular (35-40 HP); this is the fastest
– one third are for non agricultural uses i.e. for transport and
– Low Penetration Level: 17 for every 1000Hectares
– Irrigation potential is about 140 mha.
– 58.4mha from major and medium irrigation sources, and
81.5 mha from minor irrigation sources.
– Ground water provides 70% of irrigation water.
– Persistent gap between the assessed ultimate irrigation
potential and actual potential that has been put to use.
– Inefficient water use in irrigation is leading to environmental
degradation via water logging.
Efficiency in systems needs to be upgraded from present
Methods of Micro-irrigation should be taken in use for
better utilisation of water.
It include Drip and Sprinkler irrigation system.
Market Share of major
Irrigation Companies in India
– The size of the market for micro
irrigation systems, is around Rs 3,000
cr. in India.
• Jain Irrigation: ₹ 1650 cr.
• Netafim: ₹ 750 cr.
Source: FICCI(Federation of Indian
Chambers and Commerce and Industry)
– Rural Marketing- Focus on Agricultural Inputs, Sukhpal
– Report on Agricultural Implements and Machinery, GOI
– Agriculture Today