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This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with1
Introduction to
ASME Sec. IX
5-Oct. 2006
Manufacturing Technology- I
S.C.Ghosh
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with2
ASME Sec. IX
General guide lines for procedure and performance
qualification
Referenced by all ASME code of construction
 Covers welding as well as Brazing operations
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with3
Welding procedure specification (WPS)
Procedure Qualification Records (PQR)
WPS:
It is a written procedure prepared to provide welding parameters for
making welds as per code requirement.
Can be used on production only after successful qualification of
supporting PQR(s).
A WPS can be supported by one or multiple PQR(s).
PQR:
Record of the actual welding data used to weld a test coupon.
Also contains test results (Mechanical, Chemical & Non Destructive Test)
of the test coupon.
One PQR can support one or multiple WPS(es).
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with4
Different types of variables in WPS
Essential variable:
 A change in welding condition which will affect the mechanical
properties other than toughness of weldment
 Any change in this variable calls for re-qualification of PQR
Supplementary – essential variable:
• A Change in welding condition which will affect impact toughness of
weldment
• Change in this variable calls for re-qualification of PQR in case there is
requirement of impact toughness for the vessel
Non - essential variable:
• No change in mechanical properties is expected
A WPS shall record all essential, supplementary essential &
non essential variables
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with5
Different types of variables in WPS
Grouping of Base Material:
To reduce number of qualification, materials are grouped
into ‘P’ Numbers or Parent metal numbers and Group
numbers
List of most commonly used P Nos is given in next slide
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with6
P Numbers of Commonly Used Materials
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P Numbers of Commonly Used Materials
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with8
Different types of variables in WPS
F numbers:F numbers:
• Grouping of electrode on their usability characteristicsGrouping of electrode on their usability characteristics
• Determine the ability of welder to deposit sound weld.Determine the ability of welder to deposit sound weld.
• List of most commonly used F Numbers is given in nextList of most commonly used F Numbers is given in next
slideslide
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F Numbers of Commonly Used Consumables
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• Identification of weld metal chemical composition.
• To reduce the no of qualification
• List of most commonly used A-No is given in next
slide
Different types of variables in WPS
A-No:
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A Number
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Different types of variables in WPS
QW 402: Joints
• Non essential variables -
• Groove design,
• Backing,
• Root gap,
• Retainers
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with13
Different types of variables in WPS
QW 403: Base metals
• Essential variables -
• P No,
• Thickness of base material qualified,
• Thickness of each pass beyond 13 mm for multipass welding
• Supplementary essential variables -
• Group no for base material
• Minimum thickness of base material qualified
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with14
Different types of variables in WPS
QW 404: Filler Metals
• Essential variables -
• F no,
• A no,
• Thickness of deposited weld metal
• Flux / wire class,
• Alloy addition through flux (SAW),
• Re-crushed slag (SAW)
• Supplementary essential variables -
• Electrode Diameter > 6 mm for SMAW
• Non essential Variables –
• Change of Electrode Diameter for SAW
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with15
Different types of variables in WPS
QW 405: Positions
• Supplementary essential variables -
• Change from any position to vertical uphill progression for SMAW.
• Non essential variables –
• Change in position.
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with16
Different types of variables in WPS
QW 406: Preheat
• Essential variables -
• Decrease of more than 55ºC in the preheat temperature qualified.
• Supplementary essential variables -
• Increase of more than 55ºC in the interpass temperature qualified.
• Non essential variables –
• Change of preheat maintenance i.e. Dehydrogenation Treatment
(DHT) etc.
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with17
QW 407: PWHT (Post Weld Heat
Treatment)
• Essential variables -
• Any change in the following conditions:
• No PWHT,
• PWHT below lower transformation temperature,
• PWHT above upper transformation temperature,
• PWHT between upper & lower transformation temperature.
• Supplementary essential variables –
• Increase in job PWHT soaking time beyond 20% of the
soaking time qualified in PQR.
Different types of variables in WPS
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with18
Different types of variables in WPS
QW 408 : Gas
• Essential variables -
• Single shielding gas to mixture of gasses,
• Different types of mixed gasses,
• Percentage composition of gasses for GMAW, FCAW, GTAW process
• Non essential variables –
• Flow rate,
• Backing gas flow rate
• Backing gas composition
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with19
Different types of variables in WPS
QW 409: Electrical Characteristics
• Supplementary essential variables -
• Increase in heat input ,
• Change in current type ( AC / DC),
• Change in Polarity (DCEN / DCEP)
• Non essential variables –
• Change in current range,
• Change in range of voltage (except SMAW & GTAW)
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with20
Different types of variables in WPS
QW 410: Technique
• Supplementary essential variables-
• Change in multiple to single pass per side .
• Change of Single to multi electrode for SAW
• Non essential variables –
• Change of Stringer bead to Weave bead technique or vice versa,
• Method of cleaning,
• Method of back gouging,
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with21
Standard WPS Format (sheet 1 of 2)
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Standard WPS Format (sheet 2 of 2)
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with23
Standard PQR Format (sheet 1 of 3)
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Standard PQR Format (sheet 2 of 3)
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Standard PQR Format (sheet 3 of 3)
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Welder Performance Qualification
Purpose
• To validate the capability of an welder to deposit sound weld
metal following a qualified welding Procedure
• Establish the range of qualification to minimize the number of
qualification
• Guide line for renewal of qualification
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with27
Welder Performance Qualification
Welder
• Person performing welding by manipulating arc by hand
Welding Operator
• Person performing welding by controlling the manipulation of arc
by machine
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with28
Welder Performance Qualification
Requirement for Welder Qualification:
 A welder qualified by a company cannot be used by another
company
 When a welder changes a company fresh qualification is
mandatory
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with29
Welder Performance Qualification
Essential variable:
 A change in welding condition which will affect the ability
of welder to deposit sound weld metal
 Any change in this variable calls for re-qualification
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with30
Welder Performance Qualification
Essential variable for SMAW, GTAW as per Sec.
IX
QW 353, 356
 A change in welding condition which will affect the ability
of welder to deposit sound weld metal
 Any change in this variable calls for re-qualification
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with31
Welder Performance Qualification
Essential variable for SMAW, GTAW as per Sec. IX
QW 353, 356
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with32
Welder Performance Qualification
Essential variable for Machine welding ( SAW), QW 361.2
 A change in welding condition which will affect the ability of
welder to deposit sound weld metal
 Any change in this variable calls for re-qualification
 Essential Variables
 Change in welding Process
 Change from direct to remote visual control
 Deletion of Auto joint tracking
 Addition of welding position not qualified
 Deletion of consumable inserts
 Deletion of backing
 Single pass per side to multi pass per side
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with33
Welder Performance Qualification
Welding Position for joints : QW 405.1, .3
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with34
Welder Performance Qualification
Welding Position for joints : QW 461
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with35
Welder Performance Qualification
Qualification Range
 Thickness of weld metal
 Position
 Pipe diameter
 Filler metal
 Base metal (for manual or semiautomatic processes)
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with36
Welder Performance Qualification
Qualification Range- Thickness of weld metal
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with37
Welder Performance Qualification
Qualification Range- Position
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with38
Welder Performance Qualification
Qualification Range- Pipe diameter
OD of Test coupon,mm Minimum OD Qualified, mm
Less than 25 mm Size welded
25 to 73,mm 25 mm
73 mmOver 73 mm
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with39
Welder Performance Qualification
Qualification Range- Filler metal
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with40
Welder Performance Qualification
Qualification Range- Base metal , QW 425
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with41
Welder Performance Qualification
Test for qualification Butt Joints
Mechanical test: Visual Examination and bend
test (QW302.1 &.4)
NDT: RT , 150mm length (QW304)
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with42
Welder Performance Qualification
Test for qualification: Weld overlay
Mechanical test: Side bend
NDT: PT
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with43
Welder Performance Qualification
QW322
Renewal of qualification: After every six month based on
production work, or welding a separate test coupon
Suspension of Qualification:
- If process is not used in last six month
- If there is specific reason for doubting the skill
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with44
Welder Performance Qualification
Record of Qualification
This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with45
Welder Performance Qualification
List of reference:
ASME Section IX,Edition 2004

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Asme sec. ix bkr - 051010

  • 1. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with1 Introduction to ASME Sec. IX 5-Oct. 2006 Manufacturing Technology- I S.C.Ghosh
  • 2. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with2 ASME Sec. IX General guide lines for procedure and performance qualification Referenced by all ASME code of construction  Covers welding as well as Brazing operations
  • 3. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with3 Welding procedure specification (WPS) Procedure Qualification Records (PQR) WPS: It is a written procedure prepared to provide welding parameters for making welds as per code requirement. Can be used on production only after successful qualification of supporting PQR(s). A WPS can be supported by one or multiple PQR(s). PQR: Record of the actual welding data used to weld a test coupon. Also contains test results (Mechanical, Chemical & Non Destructive Test) of the test coupon. One PQR can support one or multiple WPS(es).
  • 4. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with4 Different types of variables in WPS Essential variable:  A change in welding condition which will affect the mechanical properties other than toughness of weldment  Any change in this variable calls for re-qualification of PQR Supplementary – essential variable: • A Change in welding condition which will affect impact toughness of weldment • Change in this variable calls for re-qualification of PQR in case there is requirement of impact toughness for the vessel Non - essential variable: • No change in mechanical properties is expected A WPS shall record all essential, supplementary essential & non essential variables
  • 5. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with5 Different types of variables in WPS Grouping of Base Material: To reduce number of qualification, materials are grouped into ‘P’ Numbers or Parent metal numbers and Group numbers List of most commonly used P Nos is given in next slide
  • 6. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with6 P Numbers of Commonly Used Materials
  • 7. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with7 P Numbers of Commonly Used Materials
  • 8. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with8 Different types of variables in WPS F numbers:F numbers: • Grouping of electrode on their usability characteristicsGrouping of electrode on their usability characteristics • Determine the ability of welder to deposit sound weld.Determine the ability of welder to deposit sound weld. • List of most commonly used F Numbers is given in nextList of most commonly used F Numbers is given in next slideslide
  • 9. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with9 F Numbers of Commonly Used Consumables
  • 10. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with10 • Identification of weld metal chemical composition. • To reduce the no of qualification • List of most commonly used A-No is given in next slide Different types of variables in WPS A-No:
  • 11. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with11 A Number
  • 12. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with12 Different types of variables in WPS QW 402: Joints • Non essential variables - • Groove design, • Backing, • Root gap, • Retainers
  • 13. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with13 Different types of variables in WPS QW 403: Base metals • Essential variables - • P No, • Thickness of base material qualified, • Thickness of each pass beyond 13 mm for multipass welding • Supplementary essential variables - • Group no for base material • Minimum thickness of base material qualified
  • 14. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with14 Different types of variables in WPS QW 404: Filler Metals • Essential variables - • F no, • A no, • Thickness of deposited weld metal • Flux / wire class, • Alloy addition through flux (SAW), • Re-crushed slag (SAW) • Supplementary essential variables - • Electrode Diameter > 6 mm for SMAW • Non essential Variables – • Change of Electrode Diameter for SAW
  • 15. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with15 Different types of variables in WPS QW 405: Positions • Supplementary essential variables - • Change from any position to vertical uphill progression for SMAW. • Non essential variables – • Change in position.
  • 16. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with16 Different types of variables in WPS QW 406: Preheat • Essential variables - • Decrease of more than 55ºC in the preheat temperature qualified. • Supplementary essential variables - • Increase of more than 55ºC in the interpass temperature qualified. • Non essential variables – • Change of preheat maintenance i.e. Dehydrogenation Treatment (DHT) etc.
  • 17. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with17 QW 407: PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) • Essential variables - • Any change in the following conditions: • No PWHT, • PWHT below lower transformation temperature, • PWHT above upper transformation temperature, • PWHT between upper & lower transformation temperature. • Supplementary essential variables – • Increase in job PWHT soaking time beyond 20% of the soaking time qualified in PQR. Different types of variables in WPS
  • 18. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with18 Different types of variables in WPS QW 408 : Gas • Essential variables - • Single shielding gas to mixture of gasses, • Different types of mixed gasses, • Percentage composition of gasses for GMAW, FCAW, GTAW process • Non essential variables – • Flow rate, • Backing gas flow rate • Backing gas composition
  • 19. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with19 Different types of variables in WPS QW 409: Electrical Characteristics • Supplementary essential variables - • Increase in heat input , • Change in current type ( AC / DC), • Change in Polarity (DCEN / DCEP) • Non essential variables – • Change in current range, • Change in range of voltage (except SMAW & GTAW)
  • 20. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with20 Different types of variables in WPS QW 410: Technique • Supplementary essential variables- • Change in multiple to single pass per side . • Change of Single to multi electrode for SAW • Non essential variables – • Change of Stringer bead to Weave bead technique or vice versa, • Method of cleaning, • Method of back gouging,
  • 21. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with21 Standard WPS Format (sheet 1 of 2)
  • 22. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with22 Standard WPS Format (sheet 2 of 2)
  • 23. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with23 Standard PQR Format (sheet 1 of 3)
  • 24. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with24 Standard PQR Format (sheet 2 of 3)
  • 25. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with25 Standard PQR Format (sheet 3 of 3)
  • 26. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with26 Welder Performance Qualification Purpose • To validate the capability of an welder to deposit sound weld metal following a qualified welding Procedure • Establish the range of qualification to minimize the number of qualification • Guide line for renewal of qualification
  • 27. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with27 Welder Performance Qualification Welder • Person performing welding by manipulating arc by hand Welding Operator • Person performing welding by controlling the manipulation of arc by machine
  • 28. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with28 Welder Performance Qualification Requirement for Welder Qualification:  A welder qualified by a company cannot be used by another company  When a welder changes a company fresh qualification is mandatory
  • 29. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with29 Welder Performance Qualification Essential variable:  A change in welding condition which will affect the ability of welder to deposit sound weld metal  Any change in this variable calls for re-qualification
  • 30. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with30 Welder Performance Qualification Essential variable for SMAW, GTAW as per Sec. IX QW 353, 356  A change in welding condition which will affect the ability of welder to deposit sound weld metal  Any change in this variable calls for re-qualification
  • 31. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with31 Welder Performance Qualification Essential variable for SMAW, GTAW as per Sec. IX QW 353, 356
  • 32. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with32 Welder Performance Qualification Essential variable for Machine welding ( SAW), QW 361.2  A change in welding condition which will affect the ability of welder to deposit sound weld metal  Any change in this variable calls for re-qualification  Essential Variables  Change in welding Process  Change from direct to remote visual control  Deletion of Auto joint tracking  Addition of welding position not qualified  Deletion of consumable inserts  Deletion of backing  Single pass per side to multi pass per side
  • 33. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with33 Welder Performance Qualification Welding Position for joints : QW 405.1, .3
  • 34. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with34 Welder Performance Qualification Welding Position for joints : QW 461
  • 35. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with35 Welder Performance Qualification Qualification Range  Thickness of weld metal  Position  Pipe diameter  Filler metal  Base metal (for manual or semiautomatic processes)
  • 36. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with36 Welder Performance Qualification Qualification Range- Thickness of weld metal
  • 37. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with37 Welder Performance Qualification Qualification Range- Position
  • 38. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with38 Welder Performance Qualification Qualification Range- Pipe diameter OD of Test coupon,mm Minimum OD Qualified, mm Less than 25 mm Size welded 25 to 73,mm 25 mm 73 mmOver 73 mm
  • 39. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with39 Welder Performance Qualification Qualification Range- Filler metal
  • 40. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with40 Welder Performance Qualification Qualification Range- Base metal , QW 425
  • 41. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with41 Welder Performance Qualification Test for qualification Butt Joints Mechanical test: Visual Examination and bend test (QW302.1 &.4) NDT: RT , 150mm length (QW304)
  • 42. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with42 Welder Performance Qualification Test for qualification: Weld overlay Mechanical test: Side bend NDT: PT
  • 43. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with43 Welder Performance Qualification QW322 Renewal of qualification: After every six month based on production work, or welding a separate test coupon Suspension of Qualification: - If process is not used in last six month - If there is specific reason for doubting the skill
  • 44. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with44 Welder Performance Qualification Record of Qualification
  • 45. This document is a property of L&T and must not be copied or lent with45 Welder Performance Qualification List of reference: ASME Section IX,Edition 2004