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Data Citation Update

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Research data network, September 2016, David Kernohan, Jisc

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Data Citation Update

  1. 1. Data Citation Update David Kernohan Image: dkernohan (cc-by)
  2. 2. Contents » Data download metrics »Collaboration »Understanding citation 14/09/2016 Jisc Journal Research Data Policy Registry
  3. 3. IRUS for Research Data » Added compatibility with Figshare – brought in four new institutions (Salford, Sheffield, Loughborough, Cranfield). » Compatibility with Elsevier PURE – still teething troubles. » Pursuing discussions withThompson Reuters (Converis) » Ongoing work on API (based on SUSHIlite) 14/09/2016 Jisc Journal Research Data Policy Registry
  4. 4. Collaboration (1) »Linked to ongoing NIH-supported BioCaddie project, hosted by the Force11 Collaboration »Aimed at developing an implementation pathway for the JDDCP principles… The Data Citation Implementation Pilot (DCIP) 14/09/2016 Jisc Journal Research Data Policy Registry
  5. 5. Collaboration (2) »International group managed by Counter – aims to codify practice for research data downloads »“Making Data Count” is a collaborative project led by California Digital Library, PLOS and DataOne. http://mdc.lagotto.io COUNTER/MDC/Jisc Research Data sub-group 14/09/2016 Jisc Journal Research Data Policy Registry
  6. 6. Complexities of Citation This section draws on unpublished work commissioned by Jisc from Cameron Neylon. For preference, please cite from Cameron’s final report rather than this presentation.
  7. 7. Citation and referencing are central » Citation is one of the few universal practices across all of research » Important (some would say too important) in research evaluation » An important component of how researchers see their own work ➤ Not surprising that citation is seen as a tool for developing, implementing, and promoting policy. » Examples include citation advantage forOA, making sure preprints are “citeable”, data and software citation
  8. 8. We don’t understand citation and referencing 1. Why do we account appearance in a reference list, not the number of times an article is referenced? 2.Why do we award a full count to all authors of an article rather than dividing up the credit?What is the best way to divide it up? 3. Are all citations equally valuable? Is a citation from a highly cited paper worth more or worth less?
  9. 9. Why is this important for data citation? » Citation practices have developed over centuries – there are strengths but also flaws.. »These lead to serious issues around the way citations are used for recognition. » Similar questions are frequently posed in mainstream scientometrics. » RD metrics gives us a “blank slate”: a chance to develop a more useful system. 14/09/2016 Jisc Journal Research Data Policy Registry
  10. 10. What is citation? What is it for? 14/09/2016 Jisc Journal Research Data Policy Registry Normative motivations • Recognising contributions • Assigning credit • Providing supporting evidence Social Constructivist Motivations • Pleasing referees and editors • Creating community identity • Persuasion, reputation building Related to generally understood community expectations of behaviour and culture in the creation of knowledge Related to unstated or unrecognised social and contextual behaviour that is not connected to knowledge creation
  11. 11. Defining Contexts for Motivations Consensus in referencing community Literalness (consistency of meaning between referred work and referencing work) Low Low High High Misattribution, Reinterpretation, Idiosyncratic negative, Revolutionary Substantive, organic Creative connection, Unusual quotation Perfunctory, ceremonial, Common direct quote Conventional interpretation, Paradigmatic Ritual negative, Common misattribution Conventional transformation Obliteration by incorporation Adapted from Small (2004), Scientometrics, 60(1): 71-79
  12. 12. Citation and referencing are complex These are challenging problems because: »There are many different activities » By many different agents (people, organisations…) »With many different motivations There is no one thing which is “citation” done by a single group for a single purpose, but many different activities, by different people, with multiple and differing motivations.
  13. 13. Who •Authors •Journals •Indexes •Evaluators What •Referencing •Formatting •Collecting Citations •Generating metrics Why •Rules •Norms •Persuasion •Identity Citation and referencing are complex A general framework for understanding will have to integrate how different actors (the who) do a range of different things (the what) and what incentives and motivations affect (and effect) those practices (the why)
  14. 14. Defining Contexts for Motivations Consensus in referencing community Literalness (consistency of meaning between referred work and referencing work) Low Low High High Misattribution, Reinterpretation, Idiosyncratic negative, Revolutionary Substantive, organic Creative connection, Unusual quotation Perfunctory, ceremonial, Common direct quote Conventional interpretation, Paradigmatic Ritual negative, Common misattribution Conventional transformation Obliteration by incorporation Adapted from Small (2004), Scientometrics, 60(1): 71-79
  15. 15. Defining Contexts for Motivations Consensus in referencing community Literalness (consistency of meaning between referred work and referencing work) Low Low High High Misattribution, Reinterpretation, Idiosyncratic negative, Revolutionary Substantive, organic Creative connection, Unusual quotation Perfunctory, ceremonial, Common direct quote Conventional interpretation, Paradigmatic Ritual negative, Common misattribution Conventional transformation Obliteration by incorporationSocial Constructivist Motivations Normative Motivations Adapted from Small (2004), Scientometrics, 60(1): 71-79
  16. 16. That gives us who and why but not what »This has been a problem in the past › Are we talking about the author adding the reference (in the text, in the bibliography?) the journal having restrictions on what’s citeable (or how many citations are permitted), or the work of the indexor in creating the citation? »We need a way of being precise about what is being done at each stage of a complex process.
  17. 17. Meaningfulness over the course of processInformation/Meaning Citation Citation count H-indexReference
  18. 18. Meaningfulness over the process » Is this the same for data citation? »How do the two edges connect? 14/09/2016 Jisc Journal Research Data Policy Registry
  19. 19. Signs and References: Pierce’s SignTriad Sign-vehicle ReferantInterpretant Adapted from the work of CS Pierce
  20. 20. Signs and References: Pierce’s SignTriad Sign-vehicle ReferantInterpretant In text reference Work referred toMeaning in context Reference
  21. 21. Signs and References: Pierce’s SignTriad Bibiliography entry Work referred toMeaning in context Reference Citation Citation (in index) Connection (Absent) referring text
  22. 22. A references transformed to a citation Bibliography entry Work referred toMeaning in context Reference Citation Citation (in index) Connection (Absent) referring text Indicator Drawing on work by P Wouters and others
  23. 23. 9/14/2016
  24. 24. Further work » Expand and develop the semiotic approach to carefully define the processes occurring in the citation life cycle. Place these processes in their social, cultural and technological context to identify how community norms and individual choices affect them. » Support the development of large scale open datasets that support large scale analysis of the context and manipulation of references and citations eg conduct a literature wide analysis of citation contexts » Expand both of these to include new forms of target referent (data, software, online materials) » Develop the semiotic approaches to provide a sound basis for a theoretical framing of data and analysis quality issues. 14/09/2016 Jisc Journal Research Data Policy Registry
  25. 25. Follow the project » blog: https://rdmetrics.jiscinvolve.org/ » webpage: https://www.jisc.ac.uk/rd/projects/research-data-metrics-for-usage » IRUS portal available to users (images above) 14/09/2016 Title of presentation (Insert > Header & Footer > Slide > Footer > Apply to all) 25

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