The process can be shortly known as: D~PP~AC~E : Detail at slide 26.2 Other similar approaches:RACE: Research ~ Action Planning ~ Communication ~ EvaluationROBE: Research ~ Objectives ~ Programming ~ Evaluation
Public relations strategy chapter 1 intro to pr
Chapter IIntroduction of Public Relations Woo Hyun Won
Definition of Public Relation1. PR= Public Relation = Relationship with PublicDeliver Message DesirableEscape Message Undesirable<피>할 것은 피하고 <알>릴 것은 알린다.To maintain good relationship with public is importantTo build desirable relationship with public is PR objective
Definition of Public Relation2. Get to know each other intimately, frequently<피>차 <알>고 지냅시다- Good relationship needs special management.- Knowing your self first.- 知彼知己: If you know your enemy and yourself, you can winevery battle.
Definition of Public Relation3. Human is a social animalPeople’s identity can clarify through relationship with others.RelationshipPublic Relations as Relationship Management-John, Ledingham / S, Bruning, S, A relational approach to practice of Public relations <p178>•A relationship defined as a self expectations•Successful relationships are mutuality of awareness,influence, benefit, and behavior.•Thus relationship management implies the development,maintenance, growth, and nurturing of mutually beneficialrelationships between organizations and (their significant)publics
Definition of Public RelationFor Interpersonal Relationship: Use 4 essential dimensions ① Investments • refers to time/energy/feelings/effort/and other resource (The perception of equality of investments is important) ② Commitment • The personal choice to continue a relationship problem as opportunities to mutually solve and strengthen the relationship. ③ Trust a feeling to rely on a high degree of predict ability ③ Comfort with relational dialectics • Most people feel a natural desire to be connected to others but to require autonomy. • Autonomy / connection, openers / close mess / novelty / predictability • Dialectical tension can generate frustration, distrust, disloyalty in both personal and organizational settings
GrunigPRs concerned with all the publics of the organizationto save money for the organization by buildingrelationship with publics that constrain or enhancethe ability of the organization to meet its missionPublic can arise within stakeholders categories- employees, communities stockholders, governments,members, suppler consumers
Definition of Public Relation Management of communication between an organization and publics The planned effort to influence opinion through good character and responsible performance, based on mutually satisfactory two-way communications To reconcile or adjust in the public interest those aspects of our personal and corporate behavior which have a social significance
Communication and Public opinion-by Effective public relations / Glen M. Broom, Scott M. Cutlip, Allen H. Center. Edition Statement 10th ed. pp.203-209Individual Orientations (by 2 values) Model of Individual Orientation 1) Salience: Feelings about an object derived from an individual’s experiences and reinforcements from previous situations 2) Pertinence: The relative value of an object found by making object-by-object comparisons on the basis of some attribute or attributes - Attitude: The cross-situational predisposition or preference with respect to an object or issue - Opinion: The judgment expressed about an object in a particular situation or given a specific set of circumstances
Communication and Public opinionIndividual Orientations Example1) Salience•Judge someone by his appearance or character•Mary is a girl of short height→ „Mary must be an academic student. She will get a good mark at school.‟•Jane is a girl of great height→ „Jane must be good on sports. However, she doesn‟t seem good at schoolwork.‟2) Pertinence•Judge someone by experience or background knowledge• Mary got 60 marks in PR final exam in KDI School→ „I was wrong. Mary is not an academic student.‟•Jane got 90 marks in PR final exam in KDI School→ „I was wrong. Jane is an academic student.‟
Communication and Public opinionCoorientation Consensus Model of Coorientation Source: Adapted from Jack M. McLeon and Steven H.Chaffee, "Interpersonal Approaches to Communication Research," in Interpersonal Perception and Communication, ed. Steven H. Chaffee and Jack M. Mcleod, special edition of American Behavioral Scientist, 16, no.4(March-April 1973), pp.483-88. •Congruency: The extent to which your own views match your estimate of another’s views on the same issue •Accuracy: The extent to which your estimate matches the other person’s actual views•Agreement: The extent to which two or more persons share similar evaluations of anissue of mutual interest•Understanding: Measures similarities in the definition held by two or more persons
Communication and Public opinionCo-orientation+ Social or Interpersonal concept of public opinion requires two or more individualsoriented to and communicating about an object of mutual interest.+ Intrapersonal communication: Communication within oneself (Inner talk)+ Interpersonal communication: Communication within oneself and others.Co-orientation Consensus+ Including many individuals simultaneously oriented to issues of mutual concernand interest.+ Perception agreement can be independent of actual agreement and more likely toaffect public behavior than does actual agreement.
Communication and Public opinionTypes of Co-orientation ConsensusEx) Amending press law in Korea 2009The concept of Mass:-Large aggregate- Undifferentiated- Mainly negative image-Lack order of organization
Types of Coorientational Consensus• Monolithic Consensus represents high levels of actual agreement accurately recognized by those i nvolved• Dissensus High level of actual disagreement are accurately perceived.• False consensus Exists when there is actual disagreement but majority of those involved thin k they agree.• Pluralistic agreement The state of public opinion in which a majority perceive little agreement, but in fact there is a widespread agreement. (So when they do not accurately re cognize the state of actual agreement, they act on the basis of their inaccur ate perception.
Communication and Public opinionCoorientational Relationships Coorientational Model of Organization- Public Relationships •Perceptions are far more influential than reality defined more objectively. •Communication, not only moves information from one party in a relationship to another but also defines the relationships and social environment within which all people function: as students, citizens, employees, managers and policy makers.•Mass media make possible the thinking together that shapes and represents thestates of consensus in complex organizations in communities, and in the largerglobal society .
Principle Chart for PRs Mutually Beneficial Non Ps (Latent P /Aware P/Organization Active Ps) Relations with Publics (Company) (Reverse term PR) ∥ Stakeholders customers Identifying each with a stake investors Establishing in something the volunteers Maintaining Company does. employees neighbors
Publics and Issues Publics and issues, are most important. Because publics define issues, publics play the central role in PRs. (text2 p236) 1) Publics A public is a group of people who see they have a common interest Publics, they thought , are bets understood as an ongoing process rather than just an entity Two publics arenot static but can As a processshift and change But publics are engaged in a continuing process of agreeing so deciding on an interpretation which publicsone behaviors to The stockholders of a company are one of the important continual. publics of that company Members of a pro-managed publics of an organization Members of an antimanagement publics (e.g. militant stock holders the same action as bad or inefficient) A public is what I have called an interpretive community (Botan, 1992)
2) Issues Crable and Vibbert (1985), who said, “an issue is created when one or more human agents attaches significant to a situation or perceived „problem‟”. Because publics define issues, publics play the central role in public relations. In the 1990s, however, manufacturing and selling cigarettes became a big public issues, particularly when the targeted customers were teenagers. a. Preissues • Relation as environmental scanning • If issues are what publics decide are important, then preissues are occurrences in the environment to which publics have not yet attached significance • Most preissues will not develop into issues that are important to significant publics. b. Potential issues • Preissues become potential issues when some group or important individuals attach significant to them • Potential Stage may contain several substages
3) Life Cycle an Issue Not an all-or-nothing proposition The existence of a life cycle for issues is to the idea of strategic campaigns Sometimes an issues is resolved or fades before becoming fully developed Moving along a continuum / a time stream (p 240)(Saini kweinan) a. Public Issues • Once a developing issue is endorsed by major publics, such as consumer, environmental, or regulatory groups, the issues may acquire legitimacy in the eyes of others, often mass publics. • The usual route for an issue to attain public status, according to Crable and Vibbert (1985), is through media exposure. • Public exposure create a situation in which all parties have a lot invested. • Issues can become public by conversations in a community, door-to-door campaigns, petition drives, direct mail campaigns, demonstrations, pickets, protests, and a host of other methods • Movement from potential to public issues status can result from conscious efforts by activist or regulatory bodies as well as by other means such as investigative reporting or blogging.
b. Critical Issues • Issues reach a critical stage when, as Crable and Vibbert(1985)said, they “are at a moment of decision” • Share two additional characteristics • A resolution is demanded in a time frame that is too short in its normal decision-making process. The situation is underdetermined by the available data. • It is unlikely to return fully to its precrisis state, whether for better or for worsec. Dormant Issues • Issues do not go away, but can come back to the preissues or developing stage where they should continue to be monitored and responses developed.
4) Up the Time Stream Public policy issues go through five stages: potential, imminent, current, critical, and dormant. This is a fundamentally humanistic approach because it acknowledges human will and decision making on the part of publics. Publics play the central role in determining issues.
Purposes for Relationship• Achieving the organization’s mission• Enhancing its reputation• Protecting its long term survival2 PR Process Models(4 major aspects of the PR process)RACE① Research ② Action planning ③ Communication ④ EvaluationROPE① Research ② Objectives ③ Programming ④ Evaluation
PR Process D ~ PP ~ AC ~ ESituation Strategies Implementation Assessment
Tool: 4 Step Public Relations Process (A circle you can start anywhere) 1. Defining 4. Evaluation Public Relations the Program Situation Problems Assessment - Analysis - “How did we “What’s do?” happening now?” Implementation Strategy - “How and - “What should when do we do we do and say?” and say it?” 3. Taking 2. Planning and Action and Programming Communicating
PR Marketing- For what: Rs/Good will - To sell product and service- How to: hospitable - To maintain markets for an environment for org organization’s product and service- GoalImplicit: Positive perceptions - Profit Positive predisposition- GoalImmediate: Mutual understanding - Sales Positioning of the org with its public- To whom: Publics Audiences - Consumers Stakeholders Customers
Advertising and PR Advertising PR- Mainly use Mass Media - Use communication tool Ex: Campaign, Special events, p etition drive- To whom: Customers, - To whom: Internal public (em external audiences ployees)
Persuasion Rhetoric: art of using language persuasively Aristotle the first to set down the ideas of ethos, logos and pathos which translate as “source credibility”, “logical argument” and “emotional appeal”. Richard Perloff “Persuasion is an activity or process inwhich communication attempts to induce achange in the belief, attitude or behavior ofanother person or group of persons”
A sampler on persuasion Positive appeals are more effective persuasive than negative ones Radio and TV more effective than print Strong emotional appeals and fear arousal are most effective when the audience has minimal concern about the topic Logical appeals using facts and figures are better for highly educated A celebrity or attractive model is most effective when the audience has low involvement, the theme is simple.
PR Case Study Case Study KT&GKT&G: Image Building
About KT&G• After successfully completing its privatization in 2002, KT&G has capitalized upon lessons of its experiences to take stronger initiatives to reform and innovate its businesses, thereby effectively executing its business model diversification strategies and achieving solid management performance results. As a consequence, KT&G has grown into a globally competitive business, facilitating enhanced communication among stakeholders and practicing a sustainable growth management.• KT&G business include: o Cigarette business o Health Functional Food business o Pharmaceutical business o Real estate management o Investment assets management• KT&G Vision and Objective: o Executing KT&G‟s Value base business by regaining domestic market share and creating stable profits from overseas business
PR Issues• After corporation privatized in 2002, KT&G continuously implemented PR activities in diverse ways, i.e. campaign of 상상마당, KT&G welfare foundation, campaign of 예절문화 and professional sports group but not appealed to public effectively. They also have ingrained negative image as cigarette company. As concern and interest for health increased in the “Well-being decades” KT&G should mitigate that they are harmful to the people for their sustainable growth.
SWOT analysisStrength Weakness • Dominant position in • Limitation for sales activity domestic market • Well-known Brand for • Settle down of high competitors price/quality Brand • Price increase • Stable management under • Negative image long term monopoly • Huge cash flow • Probability for litigation • Aggressive activity for under product liability law social responsibility • Mood of quitting smoking • demand for low-tar • Regulation by WHO and cigarette Korean Gov. • Conventional demand • Spreading Well-being trend • Global marketOpportunity Threats
Stage 1: Define Problems & Key Publics Define PR Problems Identify Key Publics• Negative image as cigarette Governm company ent• Limitation of method of Involunta advertisement ry Media• Lack of recognition what smoker KT&G doing as business• Strong regulations for warning Potential Existing sign on the product package Custome Custome r r
Stage 2: Planning and ProgrammingNote:Proposition of PR- Deliver message desirable, Escape message undesirable- 알릴 것은 알리고, 피할 것은 피한다.Desirable message of KT&GKT&G is not just cigarette company but it has diverse business area.KT&G is most active company in CSR in Korea Planning and Programming: After the seeing the problems, KT&G has been initiating the following plan and prog ram: •KT&G plans to build better image for the company; that is to deliver desirable mess age of KT&G •KT&G would like to let the public aware that it is not just cigarette company but it has diverse business area. •KT&G would like to be one of the most active companies in CSR in Korea
Stage 3: Implementation (Cont)1) Corporate Social Responsibility• Social responsibility business: Consider the non-smoker and health smoking culture• Social value creation: Sponsored the film, photo, literature and Art• Social welfare: all employee is participating the social welfare• Protection of environment: support the research for the environmentFor example: So far KT&G has done some of the following PR activities:• Welfare foundation distribute ‘Kimchee’ (Korean traditional dish) to the underprivileged. (Janu ary 15, 2009)• Welfare foundation donated computers and appliances to 124 facilities (December 17, 2008)• KT&G participated in ‘World Tax Free exhibition’ (October 27, 2008)• Welfare foundation donated ‘newly harvested rice’ to low income households (September 04, 2 008)• Welfare foundation donated 5,500 walking aids to the aged and the disabled (August 26, 2008)• Welfare foundation offered oversea English program to students from lower bracket of income ( July 22, 2008)
Stage 3: Implementation (Cont)Concept of 상상마당 Activities of 상상마당
Stage 3: Implementation (Cont)4) TV Commercials
Stage 3: Implementation (Cont) KT&G Social Responsibility Area Welfare Education/Culture Protection Teenager• 사랑의 집짓기 운동지원 • 우수학생 선발 장학 지원 • 실직가정 자녀 돕기• 골수의 집 ‘나누는 사람들’ • 키드넷 운동참여 • 청소년 금연운동 지원 개설 • 경제포럼지원 • 피학대아동 보호 운동• 정신대 할머니 돕기 • 통일경제정책 워크샵지원 • 자녀안심운동 시범학교지원• 국민건강 연구 지원 • 동아리 최강전
Stage 4: AssessmentDo you know there is advertising event How much relation between KT&G andtargeting young people by KT&G ? culture you enjoy? Don’t Know - 21% Entirely Not related - 6% Know- 79% Related- 53% No related - 27% Strongly related -14%