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Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011


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Exploring an inclusive development strategy for Tin Shui Wai in Hong Kong

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Jing Feng P2 report / Complex Cities Studio 2011

  1. 1. OPENING THE BESIEGED CITYExploring an Inclusive Development Strategy for Tin Shui Wai in Hong Kong Photograph of Tin Shui Wai in Hong Kong (by HKAVMODE) Graduation Thesis Plan / Jing Feng / 4122623 / Complex Cities Studio / Department of Urbanism / TU Delft / 01/2012
  2. 2. COLOPHONOPENING THE BESIEGED CITYExploring an Inclusive Development Strategy for Tin Shui Wai in Hong KongGRADUATION THESIS PLANJing Feng4122623E-mail: fengjing1618@gmail.comFirst Mentor: QU Lei (Complex Cities)Second Mentor: Gregory Bracken (DSD)Complex Cities StudioDepartment of UrbanismFaculty of Architecture TU DelftCover: Photograph of Tin Shui Wai in Hong Kong (by HKAVMODE)Date: 01/2012
  3. 3. Content1. Introduction 12. Problem Statement 2 2.1 Hong Kong - Location 2 2.2 Hong Kong - Economy and Social Inequality 4 2.3 Hong Kong - Housing Problem 6 2.4 Public Housing in Hong Kong 10 2.5 Conclusion 233. Project Area - Tin Shui Wai 24 3.1 Besieged city 24 3.2 From ‘Besieged city’ to the ‘City of Misery’ 304. Project Objective 325. Research question 346. Methodology 357. Final Product 388. Relevance 389. Literature Review 4010. Vision 48 10.1 Regional scale 48 10.2 WNT scale 58 10.3 TSW scale 7411. Reference 92
  4. 4. 1. Introduction A single mother lived with his son in Tin Shui Wai, a place called ‘Besieged City’ in Hong Kong. She worked in a local supermarket now. But, inthe 1970s, she worked in a textile factory and supported her little brothers finishing their studies. With the dramatic socio-economic changes,now she had a hard life compared to her brothers. One day, she met a single living granny and helped her repairing television and changingthe lamp. Then, it comes to the mid-autumn day, a special festival for Chinese family gathering together. So, the single mother, the son and thegranny sitting together around the table, tasting the mooncake, watching the beautiful moon outside, and thinking about the past and future.This is the simple but powerful and touching story in a movie called ‘The Way We Are’ by Ann Hui (fig.1). Tin Shui Wai, the so called ‘BesiegedCity’ in Hong Kong would be the study area of my graduation project. Tin Shui Wai is a place where public housing gathered, with many socio-spatial problems happening in recent years, the ‘Besieged City’ has became the ‘City of Misery’. So, my graduation project would explore aninclusive development strategy to open the ‘Besieged City’.Fig. 1: Film shots from the movie ‘The way we are’. source: Google Image 1
  5. 5. NEW TERRITORIES Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (HKSAR) IMPRESSION: Trade Port & International Financial Metropolis KOWLOON AREA: 1,104 km2 ( less than 25% of land developed) POPULATION: 7.1 million population (2010) LANTAU ISLAND HONG KONG ISLAND POLITICAL SYSTEM: ‘one country, two systems’ policy since 1997 Fig. 3: The territory map of Hong Kong (left) shows Hong Kong consists of four parts: Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Territory and Lantau Island 10Km General information of Hong Kong (right), source: Gov HK, 2011 Shaogua n 梅州 Meizho u 河源 潮州 Qingyuan Heyuan Chaozhou Jieyan g Shen Zhen ¶¬¿Y Shantou Guangzhou Zhaoqing • • • 惠州 Huizhou 佛山 Foshan • • Dongguan 汕尾 Shanwei Yunfu 中山 Zhongshan • • 深圳 Shenzhen Jiangmen • 珠海 Zhuhai • • 香港 Hong Kong Hong Kong • Macao 茂名 Yangjiang Maomin g 湛江 Zhanjian g Pearl River Delt a region 10km Hong Kong 0 10 50 100km Fig. 5: The location of Hong Kong on different scales, from China (Left) to Greater Pearl River Delta region and PRD region (middle), then to Hong Kong -Shen Zhen (right).2
  6. 6. 2. Problem Statement Fig. 2: Hong Kong Skyline, source: google image,20112.1 Hong Kong - Location Hong Kong is an important trade port and one of the leadinginternational financial metropolis (fig.2), as well as a Special Ad-ministrative Region (HKSAR) (fig.3) in the south of China with ‘onecountry, two systems’ policy after the British-colony period. If com- Hong Kong Randstadpared the size of Hong Kong and Randstad (fig.4), it is obvious tofound out that the population density of Hong Kong is extremely AREA: 1,104 km2 8,287 km2high, with almost the same amount of population living on 1/7 of POPULATION: 7.1 million 7.5 millionthe size of land.After returning to China from Britain in 1997, the mainland Chinahas become the most significant trading partner of Hong Kong. As aresult, Hong Kong emphasized more and more economic develop-ment inside the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in the past decades.Hong Kong would have more intense links inside the Greater PRDRegion (fig.5) in the coming decades in the context of the evolu-tion of the PRD Region as a multi-centred city-region, especiallyfocusing on the cooperation between Hong Kong and Shen Zhen(HK 2030, 2009). Fig. 4: Hong Kong and Randstad comparison 3
  7. 7. GDP 25,000 2,000,000 1,800,000 20,000 20,027 1,600,000 18,622 18,586 17,909 1,400,000 1,200,000 15,000 14,630 1,000,000 Cleaner GDP 10,950 10,482 800,000 10,000 9,699 9,509 General worker 9,000 8,384 600,000 7,770 7,918 7,276 7,495 6,175 5,394 5,633 400,000 5,000 4,831 4,502 4,453 3,643 3,909 200,000 3,585 0 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 Fig. 7: Hong Kong GDP and Average salaries improvement 1990-2010,they showd that the GDP of HK doubled but the income of low class people hasn’t changed too much. Source: Censtatd HK, Made by T. Wen from DSD AT studio, 2011 Poverty Population Poverty Rate in Hong Ko 2001-2010 1st half and ng, 1300 18.1% 18.2% Average Monthly Household Expenditure (HK$) 18.0% 17.8% lation (1000) 1,260.0 1260 17.8% Sec on 9 : Miscellaneous services pove rate% 17.6% Sec on 8 : Transport Sec on 7 : Miscellaneous goodspove popu 1220 17.4% rty 17.2% Sec on 6 : Durable goods 1,186.6 17.2% rty Sec on 5 : Clothing and footwear 1180 17.0% 1,160.7 Sec on 4 : Alcoholic drinks and tobacco 16.8% Sec on 3 : Electricity, gas and water 1140 16.6% Sec on 2 : Housing Sec on 1 : Food 02 04 05 06 08 01 03 07 09 alf 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 th 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 1s 10 poverty population poverty rat e 20 Fig. 8: Poverty population and poverty rate in Hong Kong 2001-2010 1st half, source: HKCSS, 2010 Fig. 9: Average monthly household expenditure shows Housing cost the most for HK residents Source: Censtatd HK, Made by T. Wen from DSD AT studio, 2011 4
  8. 8. 2. Problem Statement Fig. 6: Comparison of Economy and Social Inequality in Hong Kong (top)2.2 Hong Kong - Economy and Social Inequality Hong Kong tops world rich-poor gap (bottom), source: Cagape, 2009 Hong Kong is well known for the freest economy and low-tax Economyshopping heaven with dense skyscrapers, however, the glass cur- GDP per capita: HK$246,677 (2010) (13th in the world) (CIA, 2011)tain walls not only reflect the dazzling modern life, but also conceal Free trade, Low taxation & Minimum government interventionthe hard life of many common people. The sharp comparison is The world’s freest, most competitive & service-oriented economy(Gov HK,2011)shown in the diagram of Economy and Social Inequality (fig.6). Social Inequality Hong Kong tops World rich-poor gap (Cagape, 2009)The GDP of Hong Kong doubled in the last two decades, however,the income of low class people hasn’t changed too much (fig.7). 1,260,000 people live in poverty (18% of population)For example, the average salary of a administrative supervisor in- 210,000 people live in inadequate housingcreased by 11,000 HK$, and the average salary increased by 4,000 100,000 households live in cagehome, cocklofts & cubicles (SoCO, 2010)HK$ for a general worker, but for a cleaner, it only increased by2,000 HK$. In 2009, Hong Kong tops world rich-poor gap (fig.6). Thenumber of population live in poverty increased from 1,186,600 in2001 to 1,260,000 in 2010 which covers 18.1% of total population(fig.8).Hong Kong, as one of the so-called global cities of finance and com-mand functions has become a spectacular island of wealth andprivilege, especially speculative urban property market has be-come prime engines of capital accumulation (Harvey, 2005,p.157).The ever-growing housing price pushes the city to the top of theranking list in property assets and rental fee in the world (Savills,2011). As a result, housing cost covers the largest part of householdexpenditure (fig.9) and gradually becomes the heaviest burden onthe shoulders of common people in Hong Kong. 5
  9. 9. ab c6 Fig. 10: Inadequate housing in Hong Kong, cubicle housing (a) and cage home (b) in Sham Shui Po (c) in the city center of HK. source: (a) and (b) from SOCo,2011
  10. 10. 2. Problem Statement Fig.11.Protest in Hong Kong 2011, the signs said ‘we need more public housing’, ‘the real estate corporations are controlling HK and HK will die’, etc. source: Oriental Daily,2011 2.3 Hong Kong - Housing Problem For Hong Kong, Housing has always been one of the most crucial problems along the urbanization process. Because of lacking af- fordable housing in the property market for majority of inhabitants in Hong Kong, many people turned to public housing. However, public housing stock is far from the demand. That is the result of changes of public housing policy which will be illustrated in detail in next chapter. Moreover, there are about 210,000 people live in inadequate housing, and 100,000 households live in cage home, cocklofts and cubicles (fig.10)(SoCO, 2010). So, people demonstrat- ed on the street (fig.11), complaining that the government helps the real estate developer killing people. On 14 Oct 2011, the chief executive (fig.12) said housing solutions would be the first priority in the coming government policies. The current housing problems is the outcome of complicated rela- tionships among the government (both colonial government and HKSAR government), property market, developers and urbanists. Fig. 12: Regonal Consultation Forum in Hong Kong, the Chief Executive noted that the Their positions and relations changed in different periods of socio- housing solution would be the first priority in the coming government policies source: Gov HK,2011 economic development. It is not possible to illustrate the compli- cated relationships through the whole history in detail, however a general understanding of land use and the relation between land sale and property market would help to understand the current housing problem. 71
  11. 11. Bodies Land ure cial Agricult Barren Water mer l tria n/ Com io ce us ut Spa Ind it st n In pe O tion sp orta Tran an or Other Urb nd Built-up La Residential W Sh ood Gra rubl land/ We ssla and/ tla nd nd / 2. 31 Land Use Class Area ( Currently, only less than 25% of the land has been developed and Residential 72 Commercial Industrial 4 26 40% of the land is preserved as country parks and nature reserves (Gov Institution/Open Space Transportation 49 66 HK, 2011). The land for residential use is only 72 km2 (fig.13). Because Other Urban or Built-up Land 52 Agriculture Woodland/Shrubland/Grassland/Wetland 68 740 of the hilly terrain (fig.14), the solution to get more land is by terracing Barren Land Water Bodies 7 30 of hillslopes, reclamation of land from the sea and conversion of flat TOTAL 1108 agricultural land (Pun, 1987:41), so land is precious and extremely ex- Fig. 13: Hong Kong Land usage distribution in 2010, Based on source: Pland HK,2010 pensive in Hong Kong. As a result, most buildings in Hong Kong follows closely to the height limitation in order to make full use of the value of the land. Since 1970s, development of nine new towns (fig.15) changed a large number of rural land into urban land. The aim of new town was to release the population pressure in city center with the concept of self- sufficient development. However, the principal impetus behind new town construction was public housing programme (Pun, 1987:42). 2.32 Land sale and Property market ‘ Virtually all land in Hong Kong is leased or otherwise held from the Government of the HKSAR’ (Landsd HK, 2005). The Land Tenure System followed the British rule before returning to China. Now, the new lease of land is granted for a term of 50 years (Landsd HK, 2005). Since 1855 when the colonial government was asked to earn money by them- selves, land sale has been an important revenue for the government. Later, land sale was closely connected with the boom of property mar- Fig. 14: Hong Kong territory condition ket which was called ‘land (re)development regime’ (Tang,2008).8
  12. 12. 2. Problem Statement New Town Design Urbanist Fanling/ Public Housing Sheung Shui Tin Shui Tai Po Housing Intervention Wai Yuen Long demand Government Economy Tuen growth Market Mun Sha Tin Tsuen Wan Revenue complicated system with business cycle Tseung Kwan O Land sale Agreement Tung Stock Property Chung 1973 New Town Plan market market Land control 1979 New Town Plan 1980s New Town Plan Investment Real Estate 0 10km Developer Fig. 17: Housing problem relation schemeFig. 15: New Town development in HK, Based on source: HK Pland 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010Since 1968, property market was bound with stock market, the re-lationship between property market and land sale became more 200complicated and difficult to handle (Deng, 2008). Many Chinese- 180 160funded enterprises emerged and defeated foreign-funded enter- 140prises in this period mainly because of the development of proper- 120 100ty market. Some big Chinese-funded enterprises later monopolized 80 60the property market and became the dominant power of Hong 40Kong economy. Housing price in property market changed dramati- Property market 20 0cally based on the land sale change by the government (fig.16).As shown in the diagram (fig.17), on the one hand, the colonialgovernment, due to subtle political reasons, didn’t want to disturb 1,000,000 925,039the prospering property market to gloom the future of Hong Kong, 750,000so the government and developer reached some agreement for 500,000profit; on the other hand, the property bubble was expanding day 250,000 174,427by day, so, public housing became a tool of government interven- 0 (m2)tion to the property market. Land Auction AreaReviewing the public housing policy changes in the context of spe-cific socio-economic condition would help to clarify the complicat-ed urbanization process and understand the causality of housing 60,000 51,244.48problems. 45,000 32,349.67 30,000 15,000 0 (million HK$) Land Auction Premium Fig. 16: Top: Housing price change in property market 1980-2011, source: Zarathustra,2011 Middle: Land Auction Area 1985-2011, Bottom: Land Auction Premium1985-2011, source: Landsd HK,2011 9
  13. 13. Fig. 21: Abercrombie Report 1948, Source: Sit, 2001 Hong Kong Urban settlement Main port CBD Road Rail line 0 10km Fig. 22: Urban development till 1954 Based on Source: Shelton, Karakiewicz & Kvan 2011; Leung 197110
  14. 14. 2. Problem StatementFig. 20: Victoria City of Hong Kong, Source: Google Image Fig. 23: Squatters of Tiu Keng Kowloon in 1952, Source: Google Image2.4 Public Housing in Hong Kong2.41 History Public housing was constructed after the Shek Kip Mei squatterfire (fig.18) on Christmas Eve 1953. Since then, a series public hous-ing policy and construction came out through the urban develop-ment history. A detail illustration of socio-economic condition, ur-ban plan and public housing development would be shown basedon five stages of housing policy development (Yung, 2007,p.125)as follows: Fig. 18: Shek Kei Mei squatter settlement Fire (left), Fire victims after the fire (right), Source: Google Image 1) Pre-1954 (fig.19): Socio-economic conditionDuring this period, Hong Kong was mainly a transit port. The main urbandevelopment was Victoria city as the CBD of Hong Kong (fig.20). At the WW II, China civil warsame period, many migrants from China mainland poured to Hong Kongbecause of WW II and China Civil War. So, urban squatting became a vexing Transit portissue (Dwyer 1970,p.609) Urban PlanIn 1948, Abercrombie made an urban plan (fig.21) for Hong Kong govern- No government intervention in housingment. It suggested a large area of new residential zones in New Territory.But the plan was not fulfilled at last. The urban development area till 1954 Squatter Low-income social/political event economy conditionis shown in Fig.22. & migrant housing policy Public Housing housing type target groupThere was no government intervention in housing, many people including Housing Society Housing middle institutionmigrants lived in squatters on the peripheral of the city (fig.23). ‘However, civil organization supported by government assistance income market purposethe government gave limited and indirect housing assistance to the low-er-middle- and middle-income households through the Housing Society’(Yung, 2007,p.117) Fig. 19: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy & Housing relations Scheme till 1954 11
  15. 15. Hong Kong Urban settlement Production industry Main port CBD Road Rail line Development area in Tsuen Wan 0 10km Reclamation area in Kwun Tong Fig. 26: Urban development and new industry area till 1972, Fig. 27: Reclamation 1946-1967 in Kwun Tong, Source: Ling,2011; Based on Source: Shelton, Karakiewicz & Kvan, 2011; Dawyer, 1971 Tsuen Wan district outline development plan in 1963, Source: Bristow,1989 PRH/TPS Estates HOS/PSPS Courts Shopping Centers Main port CBD Industrial area Road 0 10km Rail line Fig. 29: Public housing distribution in HK 1954-1972, Based on Source: HA, 201112
  16. 16. 2. Problem Statement Fig. 25: Factory Estate in Kwun Tung, Source: Hong Kong Place; Fig. 28: Lok Fu Resettlement housing in 1966 in Wong Tai Sin District of Kowloon, Source: Google Image 2) 1954-1972 (fig.24): Socio-economic condition Culture Revolution in ChinaIn this period, Hong Kong became an export-oriented light industrial city Social roitswith new industrial areas (fig.25). The small business, from textile andclothing industry later to electronic industry greatly prospered the econ- Export-oriented light industrial cityomy condition in Hong Kong. On the social aspect, the Culture Revolution Small business:happened in China mainland influenced the atmosphere in Hong Kong. Textile & Closing industrySome social riots against colonial government happened. Electronic industry Urban PlanSince 1954, Kwun Tong developed as a satellite town with new industrial resettlement programmeareas (fig.26). In 1963, an outline plan was made to develop Tsuen Wan low-cost housing programmedistrict (fig.27). In 1969, ‘Colony Outline Plan’ was made with five recom-mended plans of new town development, still giving priority to Tsuen Wan Firedistrict. resettlement Public Housing ColonialBecause of the Shek Kip Mei fire, fire resettlements were built up for fire welfare state Squatter residents ofvictims. However, the primary reason for fire resettlement was not home- resettlement planned arealess but economic. The relief cost for fire victims was the same amount Clear land forwith the cost to build a six-storey resettlement block (Drakakis-Smith 1979 developmentin Yung 2007). So, public housing could be considered as an accidental out-come of an accidental fire. Later, ‘because the community can no longerafford to carry the fire risk, health risk and threat to public order and public Single/ Twin tower Slabprestige which squatter areas present’(Lai 1994,p.190-191), squatter re- social/political eventsettlements with low-cost housing program (fig.28) were built up. Moreo- economy condition housing policyver, the government wanted to clear land for urban development, so only housing typesquatters occupying land urgently needed for planned development were target groupresettled (Yung, 2007,p.118). So, in this period, the resettlement was institution marketmainly for urban development especially new industrial areas (fig.29) in purposeorder to keep social stability and economic growth. Fig. 24: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy, Housing relations & Public housing typology Scheme 1954-1972, Housing typology Source: Studio RE,2009 13
  17. 17. Hong Kong Retail & Catering Production industry Main port CBD Highway Rail line MTR line Base Growth Areas (existing & committed development) Strategic Growth Areas 0 10km Other Potential Growth Areas New Highway New Railway Fig. 33: New town development with new industry area till 1987, Based on Source: HK Place,2011 Fig. 32: Territorial Development Strategy (1984), Based on Source: Ling,2011 PRH/TPS Estates HOS/PSPS Courts Shopping Centers existing new town Highway 0 10km Rail line MTR line Fig. 35: Public housing distribution in HK 1972-1987, Based on Source: HA, 201114
  18. 18. 2. Problem StatementFig. 31: Chai Wan Kok industrial area in Tsuen Wan, Source: Google Image Fig. 34: Low-cost rent home plan Kowloon, Source: Google Image 3) 1973-1986 (fig.30) : New colonial governor Socio-economic condition Social RiotsDuring this period, diverse industry appeared in Hong Kong. Because ofthe Open Door Policy in China in 1978, labour intensive industry moved 1978: Open Door Policy in Chinatowards north and finally to PRD region in mainland China. The dominant Diverse industry in HK:force was technology intensive industry in new town areas (fig.31) and the Labour intensive industryemerging financial industry in the existing CBD area. Technology intensive industry Financial industry Urban PlanThe New Town Programme, which complemented the Ten-year Housing Ten-year Housing ProgrammeProgramme, was embarked on in 1973 (Pun, 1987,p.46). In 1984, ‘Territo- HOS Home Ownership Schemerial Development Strategy’ (fig.32) was made which mainly focused on the Private Sector Participation Schemedevelopment of new town area with both residential and industrial usewithin the territory of Hong Kong (fig.33). However, due to the economic Colonial Public Rental Working classchange, many industrial land use were changed to office and other use welfare state Housinglater. Public HousingWith the aim to stabilize social riots and promote economic growth, the Economic Growth Industrializationcolonial welfare state (Castells,2010,p.278) with a new governor started Social stability developmentTen-year Housing Program (fig.34) for the working class. In 1978, Home Slab CruciformOwnership Scheme started the privatization process of public housing. Tillthis period, the public housing were mainly built up next to industrial areas Single/ Twin tower Linear(fig.35) to support industry growth, so working class benefited from thesehousing policies. Government’s intervention to housing was releasing the social/political eventpressure of industry owners. economy condition housing policy H Y housing type target group institution market purpose Fig. 30: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy, Housing relations & Public housing typology Scheme 1973-1986, Housing typology Source: Studio RE,2009 15
  19. 19. Yantian Shen Zhen Shen Zhen Shekou Tin Shui Wai Au Tau - Kam Tin Tuen Mun West Hung Shui Kiu Tsuen Wan/Kwai Tsing l ne an Ch ter Wa gu ng To Chek Lap Kok Airport North Lantau Port Kowloon Central Metro East Lantau Hong Kong Shen Zhen Retail & Catering Rezoned industry for other use Production industry Main port CBD Key activity node Highway Possible new activity node Rail line Mayor port facilities MTR line 0 10km Port back up uses Strategic growth area Exising/planned transport corridor Possible new transport corridor Possible new marine channel Fig. 37: Rezoned industry area till 2002, Based on Source: Pland HK, 2006 Fig. 39: Territorial Development Strategy Review (1996), Based on Source: Ling,2011 Shen Zhen PRH/TPS Estates HOS/PSPS Courts Shopping Centers existing new town Highway Rail line MTR line 0 10km Fig. 41: Public housing distribution in HK 1987-2002, Based on Source: HA, 201116
  20. 20. 2. Problem StatementFig. 38: Office Building of Millennium City in Kwun Tung, Source: Millennium City Fig. 40: Home Ownership Scheme Housing, Source: Google Image 4) 1987-2002 (fig.36): Socio-economic condition China British agreementIn 1984, the agreement between China and British government cleared Hong Kong return Chinathe rumors of the future of Hong Kong. This gave confidence to the econ- Asian Economic Crisisomy development. Hong Kong as one of the Four Asian Tigers, becameone of the leading international financial centers in the 1980s. Most of International Financial Centerthe production industry has moved to PRD region. This resulted in a large Decrease of production industrynumber of rezoned industrial area (fig.37). Many industrial areas turned to Property and Tourism industryoffice and other business areas (fig.38). But, the property market boomed The Long Term Housing Strategytill 1997, when the Asian Financial Crisis happened after Hong Kong re-turned to China. SCHS/ FFSS/ BRO/ TPS/ MSS Urban Plan Public Rental Low SpeculationIn 1996, ‘Territorial Development Strategy Review’ (fig.39) was published. Housing Housing incomeThe most important part of this plan was putting Shen Zhen into the mas- Authority Propertyterplan. Though connections between Shen Zhen and Hong Kong increased Subdisized Middle bubblesince 1978, the government realized the importance of those connections Government housing sale income negative equitytill the 1990s. Public Housing Controlled Private HighOn the one hand, government controlled land sale for high revenue, which land sale Real estate housing incomeindirectly raised the private housing price. On the other hand, Housing Au- High revenuethority provided Public Rental Housing to low-income People and subsi- incomedized housing sale to middle income people with Home Ownership Scheme Harmony Slab(fig.40). This government intervention into property market couldn’t coolthe over heated proper market. Speculation of housing happened not only social/political eventin private housing but also in public housing. Property bubble began to Y Linear economy condition housing policyexpand till the Asian Economic Crisis in 1997, making hundreds of people housing typebecame negative equity. During this period, the process of privatization of target grouppublic housing sped up with a huge number of construction all over the institution marketterritory (fig.41). purpose Fig. 36: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy, Housing relations & Public housing typology Scheme 1987-2002, Housing typology Source: Studio RE,2009 17
  21. 21. Bao’An Shen Zhen Luo Hu Shen Zhen Nan Shan Fu Tian She Kou Tai Po Industrial Estate Yuen Long Industrial Estate Hong Kong Science Park Innovation Centre Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate Schematic Spatial Concepts Hong Kong Metro core Shen Zhen Northern development axis Retail & Catering Southern development axis Production industry Central development axis Main port Regional transport corridor CBD Recommended development pattern Highway New development area (mixed use) MTR line Reinforcement area (residential) Cross boundary way Reinforcement area (non-residential) 24 hour Cross boundary buses 0 10km Possible strategic highway by 2030 Border crossing point Possible railway line by 2030 Fig. 43: New industry area distribution till 2011, Based on Source: HKSTRC,2011 Fig. 45: HK 2030 recommended development pattern (2007), Based on Source: HK 2030,2009 Shen Zhen PRH/TPS Estates HOS/PSPS Courts Shopping Centers existing new town Highway MTR line Cross boundary way 0 10km 24 hour Cross boundary buses Border crossing point Fig. 46: Public housing distribution in HK 2002-2011, Based on Source: HA, 201118
  22. 22. 2. Problem StatementFig. 44: Hong Kong Science Park, Source: Google Image Fig. 47: Low-cost rent home plan Kowloon, Source: Google Image 5) 2002-2011 (fig.42): Socio-economic conditionNow, the main economic sector of Hong Kong is financial service, Trading and logis- Cooperation with PRD regiontics, tourism and producer and professional service (Gov HK, 2011). In this period, International Financial Centeron the PRD regional scale, Hong Kong - Shen Zhen city region is expected to be one Financial servicesof the three main cores. In Hong Kong, the main industrial estates (fig.43) focus on Trading and logisticsnew technology and innovation industry (fig.44). The CBD area expands through Tourismthe renewal of city center and provides a large number of service employments, Producer & professional servicesfrom the highest level like administrative executive to the lowest level like cleaners. Urban Plan Big market small governmentInfrastructure is well constructed till this moment, especially the efficiency MTRsystem has reached most part of urban settlement. In 2007, ‘Hong Kong 2030’ Housing Public Rental Lowwas published. ‘Hong Kong 2030’ suggested more links within the Greater PRD Authority Housing income Governmentregion, especially cooperation with Shen Zhen. The recommended developmentpattern (fig.45) focusing on three axes development: 1). Metro Development Core: Supply Real estate Private High land housing incomeIntensive commercial/business zones and housinfor urban-style living; 2).CentralDevelopment Axis: Community-type housing and education/knowledge-building High revenue Boost Highfacilities; 3).Southern Development Axis: Logistics and major tourism facilities; property price income housing price4).Northern Development Axis: Non-intensive technology and business zones andother uses that capitalise on the strategic advantage of the boundary location. (HK2030, 2009) social/political event economy condition Public Housing housing policyAfter the financial crisis in 1997, housing price continued decreasing till 2003. Gov- Concord housing typeernment decided to free the property market in order to boost property price. target group institutionHousing policy changed to Big Market Small Government (HK 2030, 2009), which market purposemeans that the government only focused on supplying land for developers andproviding public rental housing only for low-income people. From this period on,public housing is still in construction (fig.46) in large amount in new towns (fig.47).However, it has detached from economic growth, but becomes a social burden. So, Fig. 36: Socio-economic condition,Public housing policy, Housing relations &a new ideology of public housing forms in Hong Kong, together with new problems. Public housing typology Scheme 2002-2011, Housing typology Source: Studio RE,2009 19
  23. 23. Housing type in Hong Kong (Domestic Households, total 2,343,000 in 2011)Public Temporary Housing (0%) Rental Flats (30.8%) (All cleared in 2001) PRH & IH by HA PRH & SEN by HSPublic Permanent Housing (46.9%) Subsidized Sale Flats (16.2%) TPS,HOS,PSPS,MIHS,BRO,MSS by HA FFSS, SCHS by HSPrivate Temporary Housing (0.7%) HA Hong Kong Housing AuthorityPrivate Permanent Housing (52.4%) HS Hong Kong Housing Society Fig. 48: Housing type in HK, Based on source: HA,2011 PRH Public Rental Housing IH Interim Housing This diagram shows the basic housing type in HK, basically, there are two types: Public housing and Private SEN Senior Citizen Residences Scheme housing, then each type consists of temporary housing and permanent housing. HA (Hong Kong Housing TPS Tenants Purchase Scheme HOS Home Ownership Scheme Authority) is a government department in charge of public housing, HS (Hong Kong Housing Society) is a Flats of Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited PSPS Private Sector Participation Scheme non-government organisation helping with some housing programs. At the beginning, there were only MIHS Middle Income Housing Scheme Public Rental Housing (PRH), later, a series of programs like HOS, TPS,help middle-income people purchas- BRO Buy or Rent Option Scheme MSS Mortgage Subsidy Scheme ing their own house with a discount, it is called Subsidized Sales Flats. Then all the programs stopped FFSS Flat-For-Sale Scheme because the dramatic change in economic and housing market. Right now, the government is only respon- SCHS Sandwich Class Housing Scheme sible to provide PRH for low-income people. However, some people propose to restart programs like HOS so that more people can buy their own houses. 55 (%) 160 152 No. of Live Applicants (Thousands) Private housing 120 52.3% 108 97 80 50 Public housing 40 47.7% 0 45 2001/02 2005/06 2010/11 1998 2003 2011 Fig. 49: Number of live applicants for public housing 2001-2011, Fig. 50: Distribution of Population by type of housing 1998-2011,the number of applicants increased dramatically because the extreme high housing price in market. it shows that more and more people live in private housing, partly because of the privatilization of public housing. Based on source: HA, 2011 Based on source: HA, 201120